IJCRR - 14(19), October, 2022
Date of Publication: 05-Oct-2022
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Evaluation of In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Ethanolic Extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum Leaves
Author: C. Senthil Kumari, A. Kamatchi, K. Meghana, K. V. Mridhula, T. Kanimozhi, S. Monisha
Abstract:Introduction: The infection caused by helminths is called as Helminthiasis. It is otherwise known as helminthosis, helminthiases, helminth, infection and worm infection. They often live in the gastrointestinal tract of their host, but they may also burrow into other organ, where they induce physiological damage. The different categories of worms consist of Roundworms, Pinworms, Threadworms, Whipworm Hookworm, Flatworms and Tapeworm. Objective: The present study was carried out to find the anthelmintic activity of Cardiospermum halicabum. Methods: The anthelmintic activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum was analyzed by in vitro method by using the Indian earthworms. The activity was performed and the paralysis time and death time were noted down. The anthelmintic activity of the extract was compared with that of the standard drug Albendazole. Results: The ethanolic extract at the concentrations of 100 mg/ml, 200 mg/ml, 300mg/ml showed paralysis and death time in 7, 6 and 36, 28 mins respectively. The effect increased with concentration. The extract caused paralysis followed by death of earthworms at all tested dose levels. Conclusion: The extract showed paralysis followed by death of worms at all tested dose levels. Based on the study the Ethanolic leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum has potent anthelmintic activity.
Keywords: Albendazole, Paralysis time, Death time, Helminthiasis, Indian Earth worm, Physiological Damage
The macro parasitic disease of individuals and other creatures in which the portion of the body is infected with parasitic worms is called Helminths1. It is otherwise known as intestinal worm infestation, helminthic infestation or soil-transmitted infestation. Parasitic worms are invertebrates that characterize extended, smooth, or rounded forms. These worms get burrowed into the organs or gastrointestinal tract of the host and induce physiological damage. The different kind of worms consists of strongyloidiasis, trichinella, blood flukes, lymphatic filariasis, Hookworm, Flatworm, and Tapeworm.
Female produces eggs (almost 200000 each day) that remain defecated with feces. Unfertilized eggs remain in offense, but fertilized ones are infectious after 18 days to several weeks.
Infectious eggs are consumed and arrive in the gut. Mature into larvae in the intestine, and penetrate the blood vessels to enter the lungs, where they develop further. At day14, they penetrate into the alveolar walls. As they reach the small intestine and develop into adult worms.
For minor infections, no evident symptoms are seen. For long and heavy infections, a variety of health complications are anemia, malnutrition, growth retardation, developmental retardation, intestinal obstruction, decreasing protein loss and blood loss, less cognitive and physical growth, and inability to control motion. People with light infections usually have no symptoms.
Soil-transmitted Helminths are spread by eggs that are passed in the feces of infected persons. Eggs that are attached to vegetables are ingested when the vegetables are not carefully cooked, washed or peeled. Hookworm egg hatch in the soil releasing larvae that mature into a form that can actively penetrate the skin. There is no direct person-to-person transmission or infection from fresh feces because eggs passed in feces need about 3 weeks to mature in the soil before they become infective.
Some of the diagnostic methods are Microscopy-based techniques, Egg counting Kato- Katz method, Serological assays, Endoscopy/Colonoscopy, X-ray, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan, Computerized Axial Tomography scan(CAT)4
Avoid interaction with soil contaminated with human waste, especially feces. Wash hands thoroughly with soap before taking food. The infection will be prevented by disrupting the cycle of the worm. And other preventive measures are by sanitation and hygiene, provision of safe drinking water, and wearing protective footwear. Not evacuating outside use toilets linked to current sewage discarding systems.
Various allopathic drugs are used in the treatment of Helminthiasis. Benzimidazoles (albendazole, mebendazole, thiabendazole), piperazine citrate, pyrantel pamoate, levamisole, Tetraisole, Diethylcarbamazine citrate (dec) , Ivermectin, Praziquantel, Niclosamide 4
Though Allopathic drugs produce the onset of action quickly, it produces many adverse effects. So, nowadays herbal drugs are preferred mostly when compared to that of allopathic drugs because It does not produce side effects. Some of the most widely used herbal drugs are as follows,
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Collection of plant:
Cardiospermum halicacabum leaves were collected from Chennai. The leaves were identified, confirmed and authenticated from Siddha Central Research Institute, Arumbakkam, Chennai with reference No:117.05021903 by comparing with an authentic specimen by a botanist.
Preparation of extract:
Percolation is an extraction process that involves the slow descent of a solvent through a powdered substance until it absorbs certain constituents and drips out through the filtered bottom of the container. Percolation can be done by using the Soxhlet apparatus. 6
For our present study, preliminary phytochemical studies were carried out to characterize the therapeutic active constituent from the leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicaca
Screening of anthelmintic activity by IN-VITRO method
Indian earthworms (Pheretima Posthuma) were collected from a water-logged area of soil. The average size of each worm collected is about 14-16 cm length. They were washed thoroughly with tap water to remove the adhering dirt. Five Sterile Petri dishes were taken. In each Petri dish 6 earthworms were placed and kept in a room temperature. Distilled water was used as a control. Distilled water was poured into Petri dish containing 6earthworms (Group-1).
Albendazole, the standard drug was diluted with distilled water to obtain 10mg/ml concentration and then it was poured into Petri dish containing 6 earthworms. (Group-2) Ethanolic extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum was diluted with distilled water to obtain 100mg/ml, 200mg/ml, and 300 mg/ml concentrations and it was poured into Petri dish containing 6 earthworms(Group-3,4,5 respectively The time taken for paralysis(when there was no movement of worms) were observed and the time taken for death(when there is no movement on vigorous shaking also) was noted. It was noted in terms of minutes.8,9,10
Values are expressed as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test to assess the statistical significance.
Preliminary Phytochemical studies
The result of preliminary phytochemical analysis of the Ethanolic leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum shows the presence of Flavonoids, Glycosides, Tannins, Amino acids, Steroids, Phenols, Saponins, Carbohydrates.11
The anthelmintic activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum was analyzed by in vitro method by using the Indian earthworms. The activity was performed and the paralysis time and death time was noted down. The anthelmintic activity of the extract was compared with that of the standard drug Albendazole.15
Figure 4:Graphical representation for the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (100mg/kg) showed higher concentrations compared to the standard drug (Paralysis time)
Figure 5 Graphical representation for the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of Cardio spermum halicacabum (100mg/kg) shows higher concentrations compared to the standard drug (Death time).
The anthelmintic activity of leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum was carried out on earthworms. Different concentrations of ethanolic extracts were used for the studies. The time taken for paralysis and death of earthworms was recorded in table 1. The perusal of the data reveals that the ethanolic extract at the concentrations of 100 mg/ml, 200 mg/ml, 300mg/ml showed paralysis and death time in 7,6, and 36, 28 mins respectively. The effect increased with concentration. The extract caused paralysis followed by the death of earthworms at all tested dose levels. It was observed that the ethanolic extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum is a more potent drug. The extract exhibited paralysis followed by the death of worms at all established dose levels. The extract potency was found to be inversely proportional to the time taken for the paralysis or the death of worms.
From the present study we concluded that the preliminary phytochemical analysis of the Ethanolic leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum shows the presence of Flavonoids, Glycosides, Tannins, Aminoacids, Steroids, Phenols, Saponins, and Carbohydrates. The Ethanolic leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum has anthelmintic activity.
We wish to express sincere gratitude to Dr. Meena Principal, Dr. Shanthi Vice-Principal, K.K. College of Pharmacy for their support and encouragement towards our research work.
Conflict of interest: None
Source of Funding: None
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