International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - 7(18), September, 2015

Pages: 31-37

Date of Publication: 20-Sep-2015

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Author: Arti Vasudev, Satwinder K. Sohal

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:The present study investigated the growth inhibitory potential of partially purified protease inhibitors from Subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) on Common cutworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) which has attained major pest status in India. Second instar larvae given treated diet (25, 50 100, 200, 400 and 800 \?g/ml) showed a decrease in larval period with increase in concentration when compared with control whereas total developmental period increased at lower concentrations but decreased at 400 and 800\?g/ml in comparison to control. The percentage pupation and emergence of females was inhibited and longevity of adults was reduced with increase in concentration. Percentage of male emergence increased significantly at highest concentration in comparison to control. No egg laying was observed at 400 and 800\?g/ml concentrations. A significant decline in percent hatching upto 200\?g/ml was noticed. The relative growth rate, consumption rate and efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested
food was significantly reduced. The present findings clearly confirmed the potential of the inhibitor for pest control.

Keywords: Leucaena leucocephala, Spodoptera litura, Growth and development, Bioinsecticide, Protease inhibitors

Full Text:


All organisms when attacked by their enemies use effective counter measures to defend themselves. Plants have also evolved mechanisms to cope with predatory insects and pathogens. Exploiting these mechanisms will undeniably contribute towards enhancing insect pest resistance. Plants produce different types of proteins to protect themselves from their enemies especially phytophagous insects. There are numerous examples of these proteins like serine and thiol protease inhibitors, amylase inhibitors, lectins and enzymes (Hilder and Boulter 1999). These proteins interrupt pest’s essential amino-acid metabolism by inhibition of protein digestion (Hilder et al., 1992). Many insects particularly those belonging to the order Lepidoptera depend on serine proteases like trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase as primary protein digestive enzymes. Much research has focused on exploiting this plant defense mechanism for crop protection. Studies using artificial diets incorporated with plant-derived PIs targeting a particular class of proteinase(s) in the insect gut have established that these proteins retard growth and development in Lepidopteran pests (Boulter, 1993; Pandey et al., 2014). Transforming plant genomes with these proteinaceous PIs provides an ecofriendly and safe approach to pest control (Reckel et al., 1997). However, because of the variability of the insect proteinases and the restricted range of action of the proteinase inhibitors (Ortego et al., 1996), the expression of a particular PI in plants may not yield the desired result and therefore might not be an excellent candidate for biotechnology. Thus there is a continuous search for new inhibitors that are competent to combat pest adaptation via antimetabolic activity. Subabul which belongs to family Leguminoceae, is an ornamental tree used as fodder and firewood. It is reported to exhibit inhibitory activities for plasmin, human plasma kallikrein, trypsin, chymotrypsin and factor XIIa (Oliva et al., 2000). Previous study on STI showed significant reduction in growth and larval development of Helicoverpa armigera by Bhavani et al., 2007. We examined the effects of Subabul protease inhibitors on the growth and development of S. litura larvae. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of this inhibitor on food consumption, absorption and utilization, as well as its effects on the midgut and fecal proteolytic activity of larvae fed on an artificial diet, corroborating novel data on adaptation/resistance of insects to proteinase inhibitors. S. litura is a polyphagous noctuid commonly known as the cluster cater- pillar, tobacco cutworm and tropical armyworm. The larvae have a wide range of host plants of over 40 mostly dicotyledonous plant families, resulting in 69% reduction in yield. It is a polyphagous pest of many forage crops and vegetables in China, Japan and has recently attained the status of a moajor pest on agricultural crops in India (Gokulkrishnan et al., 2012). In India, S. litura is found more in the fields of ground nut, tomato, chilli, bhendi and cotton (Elumalai et al., 2010).


Partial purification of PIs

Mature Subabul seeds were collected from university campus and defatted using acetone (1:10) w/v for 2h then air dried for 15mins. Defatted seed powder (1:20) w/v was stirred for 1h at room temperature with extraction buffer i.e. 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer, pH7.5. This slurry was then centrifuged at 12,000rpm for 30mins at 40 C. Total soluble protein was incubated at 700 C for 10mins followed by centrifugation at 12,000rpm for 30mins at 40 C. Precipitates were dissolved in minimum amount of extraction buffer and were dialyzed against same extraction buffer using a membrane (cutoff Mr 12000-14000 Da) for 24h at 40 C. The dialyzed sample was treated as partially purified PI which was then subjected to further analysis of protein content as well as for trypsin inhibitory activity.

Trypsin inhibition assay

Protienase inhibitory activity was determined according to Paulino da Silva et al., 2001 using BApNA (N-α-benzoylDL-arginine p-nitroanilide) as substrate.

Protein estimation

Protein estimation was done both in defatted and partially purified preparations by the method of Lowry et al., (1951) using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the standard, for preparing various test concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800µg/ml) for bioassay and nutritional assay studies.

Insect culture

Egg masses and larvae of S. litura were collected from the cauliflower fields around Amritsar (Punjab), India and subsequent generations were reared in the laboratory at 25±20 C temperature, 65±5% relative humidity (RH) and 12:12 (D: L) photoperiod. The rearing was carried out in glass jars (15cm×10cm) on castor leaves. Rearing on artificial diet was done as reported by Koul et al., (1997).

Bioassay studies

All experiments were conducted in B.O.D. incubator maintained at conditions mentioned earlier. Bioassay experiments were conducted as described by Vasudev and Sohal (2013). The various concentrations of partially purified PIs used were 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800µg/ml. There were 6 replications with 5 larvae (n=210) in each replication for each concentration.

Nutritional analysis

Nutritional indices of S. litura were determined by following the procedure of Koul et al., (2005). Dry weights of larvae, diet left and fecal matter were taken by incubating the larvae at the end of experiments at 60°C for 72h inside an incubator. Nutritional indices thus obtained were calculated as proposed by Waldbauer (1968) using dry weights.

Statistical analysis

All the bioassays and nutritional assays were performed in six replicates and the values were represented as mean ± SE. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Statistical differences were determined by Tukey’s post hoc test.


Proteinase inhibitors partially purified from Subabul exhibited 14.86 trypsin inhibitory units (TIU) per mg protein with 92.43% inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin (Table1).

Bioassay studies

The effect of STI was noticed on developmental physiology of S. litura larvae when they were weighed in their final larval stage after feeding on diet supplemented with different PI concentrations. Larval weight decreased in a dose dependent manner where they weighed 363.4mg less at 800µg/ml in comparison to control (Table 2). Also, an increase was observed in larval period with increase in concentration of STI supplemented diet fed to the second instar larvae. At low concentrations of 25 and 50µg/ml no drastic increase was noticed, whereas at 800µg/ml larval period prolonged significantly by 2.68days in comparison to control larvae (Table 2). Prepupal mortality was noticed at 400 and 800µg/ ml (Fig. 4a). Rearing of larvae on diet amended with STI adversely affected %pupation as only 36.67% larvae pupated at the highest concentration in comparison to 86.67% pupation observed in the larvae reared on control diet (Table 2). Pupal duration showed no particular trend as it increased at lower concentrations (25-100µg/ml) but with increase in PI amount in diet (200-800µg/ml), it decreased significantly when compared with control (Table 2). Pupal weight decreased effectively at all the concentrations when compared with control (Table 2). The pupa formed at 400 and 800µg/ ml concentrations were small in size (Fig. 4b). The adverse effect of STI in its partially purified form was also observed on male and female emergence along with their performance. While the female emergence decreased to 34.52% of the control, the percentage of males emerged from treated larvae was 1.97 times more than control at highest concentration (Table 3). Longevity of adults declined significantly by 4.11days at 800µg/ml when compared with control group. The number of eggs laid by adult females emerged from treated larvae was 593.30/female at 200µg/ml in comparison to control where 939.20eggs/female were laid. At high concentrations, no egg laying was seen by emerged females. Also the eggs laid by emerged females from treated larvae were not much viable as only 33.33% eggs hatched at 200µg/ml (Table 3). Aberrations in adults were more pronounced at 400 and 800µg/ml concentrations where adult half emerged from pupa or adults with deformity in wings were more often seen (Fig. 4c andd).

Nutritional indices

Nutritional analysis indicates considerable effect of partially purified protease inhibitors from Subabul on food utilization by S. litura. As is apparent from Table 4, there was noteworthy decline in relative growth and consumption rate of S. litura larvae as well as efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food after ingestion of PI treated diet. Amended diet resulted in 47-80% reduction in RGR over the control. With the increasing concentration of STI, the RGR reduced significantly in comparison to control. Similarly, significant reduction in food consumption rate was recorded where it showed negative correlation with concentration. The concentrations of 400 and 800µg/ml caused 67.38 and 82.36% reduction in RCR over control. Adverse effects of partially purified PI were also recorded on ECI and ECD parameters. Both decreased significantly as concentration of PI increased in diet. Approximate digestibility (AD) increased in a dose response manner in all the treatments when compared with control (Fig. 5A). Metabolic cost to metabolize the ingested PI increased as the amount of PI in diet increased and was maximum (91.20%) at 800µg/ml in comparison to control (43.97%) (Fig.5B).


Partially purified Subabul PIs affected negatively growth and development of S. litura. Similar findings have been reported by Pompermayer et al., 2001 where soybean inhibitor in its partially purified form significantly affected the growth as well as development of Diaterea saccharalis larvae when given in artificial diet. Also trypsin inhibitor partially purified from Theobroma cacao seeds at 0.25% increased the larval and pupal period resulting in morphological abnormalities in adults of D. saccharalis and Anticarsia gemmatalis whereas in Heliothis virescens it caused a significant decline in pupal weight (Paulillo et al., 2012). The larval stage in Lepidoptera is an actively feeding stage whereby they accumulate efficiently all the nutrients present in the food. Any disturbance in essential nutrient accumulation efficiency will directly affect the larval weight and size which clearly accounts for the negative impact of PI on later life stages of S. liura as has been observed in the present study. Since achieving a critical weight is essential for pupation, the delayed larval period observed in the present work could be due to less consumption of diet by the larvae of S. litura indicating the antifeedant nature of the extract. The decrease in the weight of the pupae formed from larvae of S. litura fed on STI diet seems to have adversely affected the reproductive capacity of the emerged females. Achieving high pupal mass is significant as there exists a strong association between adult body weight and its reproductive potential (Tammaru et al. 1996a). Negative effect on fecundity and fertility has previously been documented on S. litura with partially purified PIs from B. oleracea (Vasudev and Sohal, 2013). Any interference in the protein assimilation at larval stage subsequently affects the egg laying capacity of female moths and morphological deformities in adults. Less fecundity at higher concentrations, less number of female adults at all treatments, absence of egg hatching at high concentrations in present study could be accounted for by the less bioavailability of protein or amino acids in food or inability on part of the insect to assimilate the digested food. Similar impact of PIs on nutritional indices of lepidopteran larvae has been reported by several researchers (Da Silva et al., 2012; Mittal et al., 2014; Singh et al., 2014). Nutritional indices and its analysis can form the basis to understand the behavioral and physiological aspects of insect-plant interactions (Lazarevic and Peric-Mataruga, 2003). Our data showed that S. litura larvae fed on STI diet had a low relative consumption as well as growth rate which indicated that less food was utilized by the larvae. This index shows that the feeding rate is directly connected to larval weight (Srinivasan and Uthamasamy, 2005). Our findings also demonstrated a dose dependent decrease in mean larval weight which correlates with the decrease in RCR. Consecutively the larvae took a longer time to pupate and were smaller in size, weighing much less than control which was evident from the low RGR, ECI and ECD. As a result the fecundity and longevity of the adult moths was also severely affected. ECI which is generally a measure of an insect’s capacity to utilize the food ingested for growth and development (Koul et al., 2004) was highest for control and lowest for high-est treatment. This indicated a sign of poor availability of proteins in diet supplemented with PI. Change in ECD also points towards the overall increase or decrease of the proportion of digested food metabolized for energy (Koul et al., 2004). In the current study, the larvae fed on the PI amended diet had reduced value of ECD which suggests that these larvae were actually not as competent in turning digested food into biomass. Approximate digestibility indicates ability of an insect to absorb food through the stomach wall. Increase in AD is an indicative of attempts made by insect to make up for inferior nutritive value of the food and to accomplish the desired growth rate.


In conclusion, partially purified Subabul proteinase inhibitors showed strong anti metabolic and growth inhibitory activity against major pest S. litura. Dietary utilization experiments clearly revealed the growth deterrent impact of the PI; thereby signifying its possible importance to control insect pest populations. These results indicate that future finding of PI from non host plant can be of great importance in environment safe pest management programmes.


The authors acknowledge the Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar for identifying the seeds. The authors would also like to thank University Grants Commission for providing University with Potential for Excellence research fellowship under the PhD programme of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar. Also authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited in the manuscript. The authors are grateful to author/ editors/ publishers of all those articles, journal and books from where the literature for this manuscript has been reviewed and discussed.

Source of funding Authors acknowledge the funds received from University Grants Commission, Delhi under University with potential for excellence (UPE).

Conflict of Interest Authors declare that there is conflict of interest.




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A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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