International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - 14(6), March, 2022

Pages: 01-08

Date of Publication: 15-Mar-2022

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Microsponge Mediated Targeted Drug Delivery System for the Treatment of Fungal Infection

Author: Shubhrajit Mantry, Alim Momin, Siddhi Panhale, Sumit Joshi, Ganesh Dama

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:The microsponge delivery system is a profoundly cross-connected permeable, polymeric microsphere, polymeric system comprising of permeable microspheres that can capture and delivery them into the skin throughout a significant stretch of time. This system furnishes broadened discharge with diminish disturbance, better resistance, worked on warm, physical and compound steadiness. The principal objective of any prescription transport structure is to achieve needed gathering of the medicine in blood or tissue, which is therapeutically incredible and non-noxious for a somewhat long period in this review different strategy for planning of microsponge drug delivery system are considered. Different benefits are likewise given which shows the significance of this strategy for the delivery of medication over the other medication delivery system. An ever increasing number of advancements in delivery system are being coordinated to enhance the adequacy and cost viability of the treatment. Microsponge innovation offer entanglement of fixing and is accepted to contribute towards lessen incidental effects, further developed strength, expanded style, and improved plan adaptability. Furthermore various examinations have affirmed that microsponge systems are not bothering, non-mutagenic, non-allergenic and non-harmful Microsponge delivery innovation is being utilized at present in beauty care products, over the counter, healthy skin, and sunscreen and remedy items.

Keywords: Microsponge, Target release, Topical formulation, Solvent diffusion method, Scanning electron microscopy, Drug delivery, Control release

Full Text:


A Microsponges Delivery System (MDS) is Protected, exceptionally cross-connected, permeable, polymeric microspheres, and polymeric framework comprising of permeable microspheres that can capture the wide scope of actives and afterward discharge them into the skin throughout a period and because of trigger".10-25 microns in measurement. Miniature wipe polymers have the flexibility to stack a wide scope of activities giving the advantages of improved item viability, gentleness, bearableness, and stretched outwear to a wide scope of skin treatments. A few unsurprising and solid frameworks were created for foundational drugs under the heading of transdermal conveyance framework (TDS) utilizing the skin as the entryway of the section. It has worked on the adequacy and security of many medications. Yet, TDS isn't commonsense for the conveyance of materials whose last objective is skin itself. Hence the need exists for a framework to boost the measure of time that a functioning fixing is available either on skin surface or inside the epidermis while limiting its transdermal entrance in the body.1

The microsponge innovation was created by Won in 1987, and the first licenses were appointed to Advanced Polymer Systems, Inc. This Company fostered an enormous number of varieties of the systems and those are applied to the restorative just as over-the-counter (OTC)also remedy drug items. At the current time, this intriguing innovation has been authorized to Cardinal Health, Inc., for use in effective items.2

The checking electron microscopy of the microsponge molecule uncovers its interior design as the " pack of marbles". The porosity is because of the interstitial spaces between the marbles. The interstitial pores can entangle many wide scopes of dynamic fixings like emollients, scents, fundamental oils, and sunscreens, hostile to infective and calming specialists. These captured microsponges may then be coordinated or figured into item frames, like creams, moisturizers, powders, cleansers, cases and tablets. At the point when these items are applied the ensnared material gets conveyed to the skin in a controlled time discharge design or a pre-customized way using a few distinctive triggers, scouring or squeezing the Microsponge after it has been applied to the skin, hoisting skin surface temperature presenting solvents for the captured materials like water, liquor or even sweat and controlling the pace of vanishing. Dynamic fixings entangled in the permeable polymeric design show modified conduct, concerning their delivery, which is limited and delayed.2

  1. Potential features or characteristic of microsponge drug delivery systems:

  1. Microsponges show adequate soundness over pH going from 1 to 11 and at high temperatures (up to130°C).

  2. Microsponges show great similarity with different vehicles and ingredients.

  3. Microsponges have high entanglement productivity up to 50 to 60%.

  4. Microsponges are described by free streaming properties.

  5. The normal pore size of microsponges is little (0.25 μm) in a method for forestalling the entrance of microbes, in this way they do not need cleansing or expansion of preservatives.

  6. Microsponges are non-allergenic, non-bothering, non-mutagenic and non-toxic.

  7. Microsponges can ingest oil up to multiple times their weight without drying.3

  1. Advantages of microsponge drug delivery system:

  • Microcapsules can't typically control the delivery pace of the dynamic drug fixings (API). When the divider is burst the API held inside the microcapsules will be delivered. Can the MDS can do it, is the issue.

  • Liposomes experience the ill effects of a lower payload, troublesome plan, restricted synthetic strength, and microbial precariousness. Do the MDS have a wide scope of a compound security and would they say they are not difficult to detail?

  • MDS have solidness over a pH scope of 1-11.

  • Stable up to temperature 130C.

  • Payload is up to 50-60 %.

  • Free streaming and financially savvy.

  • Microsponges are tiny circles equipped for retaining skin discharges, thusly, decreasing slickness and sparkle from the skin

  • Enhanced product performance.

  •  Extended-release.

  •  Diminish irritation and hence enhanced patient Compliance.

  •  Improved product elegancy.

  •  Improved oil control as it can absorb oil up to 6 times its weight without drying.

  •  Allows for novel product forms. 

  •  Improves efficacy in treatment. 

  •  Cure or control confirm more promptly. 

  • Further develop control of condition.

  • Further develop bioavailability of same medications

  • Adaptability to foster novel item shapes.

  •  Non-aggravating, non-mutagenic, non-allergenic and non-harmful

  • Further develops steadiness, warm, physical and synthetic security

  •  Permits joining of immiscible items.

  •  Improves material processing e.g. liquid can be converted to powders.4

  1. Application of microsponge:

Microsponge conveyance frameworks are utilized to upgrade the security, viability and tasteful nature of effective solution, over-the-counter and individual consideration items. Items being worked on or in the commercial center use the Topical Microsponge frameworks in three essential ways:

  1. As repositories delivering dynamic fixings throughout a lengthy timeframe,

  2. As repositories for retaining unfortunate substances, for example, overabundance skin oils, or

  3. As shut compartments holding fixings from the skin for shallow activity.

Delivering of dynamic fixings from ordinary effective definitions throughout a lengthy timeframe is very troublesome. Beauty care products and skin health management arrangements are planned to work just on the external layers of the skin. The average dynamic fixing in traditional items is available in a moderately high focus and, when applied to the skin, might be quickly retained. The normal outcome is overmedication, trailed by a time of under medicine until the following application. Rashes and more genuine incidental effects can happen when the dynamic fixings quickly infiltrate underneath the skin's surface. Microsponge innovation is intended to permit a drawn out pace of arrival of the dynamic fixings, accordingly offering expected decrease in the secondary effects while keeping up with the restorative viability. Microsponges are permeable, polymeric microspheres that are utilized for the most part for effective and as of late for oral organization. Microsponges are intended to convey a drug dynamic fixing productively at the base portion and furthermore to improve steadiness, lessen incidental effects and change drug discharge. (Displayed in Table no.1)

  1. Composition of microsponge:

Different polymers utilized in the manufacture of microsponges for effective application bring about the arrangement of a microsponge 'confine'. According to distributed writing, polymers investigated up to this point incorporate polymethacrylates or Eudragit© polymers (EudragitRS100, Eudragit RSPO, Eudragit S100), polylactide-co-glycolic corrosive, polylactic corrosive, polyvinyl benzene, polyhydroxy butyrate and ethyl cellulose. Eudragit RS100 is the most generally concentrated on polymer, inferable from its adaptable nature. The wide scope of Eudragit polymers, contrasting in control, dissolvability furthermore water penetrability, considers exceptionally custom-made delivery qualities in this framework, working with a wide scope of choices to accomplish the ideal presentation. Polymers having a place with polymethacrylate classification are Food and Drug Organization (FDA) supported, protected, non-harmful and monetary excipients, generally utilized in the drug business. The adaptability to join diverse polymethacrylate polymers offers superior control on drug discharge conduct, particularly because of medication methacrylate– polymer cooperation. Being an establishment material for microsponges, ethylcellulose is too utilized for designing of microsponges because of its nonirritating, nontoxic and no allergenic nature. Another polymer, polyvinyl benzene, has been accounted for in the creating of permeable microspheres by the fluid suspension polymerization method. Albeit, a few polymers have been investigated of late, yet just a couple of studies has been accounted for with biodegradable polymers. They can be potential excipients for the advancement of microsponge transporters for drug focusing on. Henceforth, there is a solid need to investigate biodegradable polymers for this conveyance framework. Adjacent to this, the decision of polymer should consider skin aggravation and dermal poisonousness potential. This being a main pressing issue in dermatological definitions, has been considered by a few gathering of analysts working in the area of microsponge based conveyance frameworks.5

  1. Properties of the actives for the entrapment into microsponges:

  1. It ought to be either completely miscible in a monomer or equipped for being made miscible by the expansion of a modest quantity of a water-immiscible dissolvable.

  2. It ought to be water-immiscible or at most just marginally solvent.

  3. It ought to be latent to monomers and ought not to build the consistency of the combination during the plan.

  4. It ought to be steady when in touch with the polymerization impetus and under states of polymerization.

  5. The circular construction of the microsponges ought not to fall.6

  1. Release mechanism of microsponge Microsponge can be designed to release given amount of active ingredients over tie in response to one or more following external triggers

  1. Pressure: Rubbing or strain applied can set dynamic fixing free from microsponge onto skin.

  2. Solubility: Microsponge stacked with water-solvent fixings like enemies of precipitants within the sight of water. The delivery can likewise be actuated by dissemination thinking about the segment coefficient of the fixing between the microsponge and the external framework.

  3. Temperature change: Some entangled dynamic fixing can be excessively gooey at room temperature to stream precipitously from microsponge onto the skin. Expanded in skin temperature can bring about an expanded stream rate and thus discharge. Drug discharge from the skin semisolid plan can be examined by utilizing Franz-type static dissemination cells.

  4. PH set off: Triggering the pH-based arrival of the dynamic can be accomplished by adjusting the covering on the microsponge. This has numerous applications in medication conveyance.7

  5. Fungal infection:

More often than not, the human species live in serene concurrence with the microorganisms that encompass them and just when the guard framework is harmed or the grouping of microbes comes to an especially high thickness, a disease might arise. Most contaminations pass by unnoticed yet now and then the tainting specialists do get a reaction of the body, which prompts clinically show signs and indications, a condition known as irresistible illness. Microbes, infections, parasites, growths, prions, worms, helminths have all been implicated in irresistible sicknesses, of which those brought about by normal infections are the most successive, and, until years and years prior, those by microorganisms the most dreaded. As procedures to control bacterial contaminations in patients improved, organisms turned into the most unsafe microorganisms. Yeasts and forms currently rank among the 10 most habitually disengaged microbes among patients in Intensive Care Units. Roughly 7% of all febrile scenes that happen during neutropenia can be credited certainly to intrusive contagious contaminations. Candida has turned into the fourth driving circulatory system detach in medical clinics in the USA, outperforming numerous generally infamous bacterial microbes. Since the eighties, an expanded rate of intrusive contagious contaminations in patients who are not in an end phase of their fundamental sickness was observed. \\trademark, which makes that numerous obtrusive parasitic diseases are not recognized while the patient is alive.8


Parasites are momentous organic entities and they establish a different realm for reasons for characterization. Parasites are eukaryotes; they have a film encompassing their core, their cells are a lot bigger than microorganisms and their sub-atomic cycles intently look like those of plants and creatures. In any case, in contrast to mammalian cells, growths quite often have an unbending cell divider made out of chitin items that encompass their plasma layer (see figure no.4). A growth is a vegetative organic entity and is most certainly not a plant either on the grounds that parasites don't blend chlorophyll. It is a non-motile living thing and its fundamental primary unit comprises of either a chain of round and hollow cells (hyphae) or a unicellular structure or both. The most widely recognized species like Aspergillus and Candida are tracked down wherever on the planet. Gardens, jungle gyms, houses, lodgings, emergency clinics and surprisingly the skin and mucous layers have been recognized as wellsprings of organisms that caused hazardous diseases.9

  1. Pathophysiology of fungal infections:

A couple of the organisms pathogenic for people are adequately harmful to contaminate a sound host. Most are relatively innocuous except if they experience an immune-compromised patient, in whom a debilitated guard framework grants them to attack the body. Under typical conditions, the unblemished epithelial surfaces of the gastrointestinal lot will forbid attack by miniature living beings and the mucociliary hindrance of the respiratory parcel forestalls goal of parasitic cells and spores, while, interestingly, dead or harmed tissue might transform into a favorable place for contamination. Therefore intrusive contagious diseases must be positioned among the commonly crafty contaminations.10

Method of preparation of microsponges:

The microsponge is formulated by two ways the one step process or by two step processes discussed in liquid-liquid suspension polymerization and Quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method which are based on the physiochemical properties of the drug.

  1. Liquid-liquid suspension polymerization:

As a general rule, an answer is made involving monomers and dynamic fixing which are immiscible with water. This stage is then suspended with fomentation in a watery stage, ordinarily, it contains added substances, like surfactants and dispersants, to shape a suspension. When the suspension is set up with discrete beads of the ideal size, polymerization is affected by enacting the monomers either by catalysis, increment temperature or illumination.

In the polymerization process in which it delivered 1000 of microsponge confines which are round in structure and interconnected with one another its appear as though a grapes bundle. On consummation of polymerization delivered strong particles were recuperated from the suspension. Particles are washed and dried for additional utilization.11

  1. Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion:

This technique is by and large has two stages, the initial step is the arrangement of the inward stage and the second step is the development of the outer stage. This strategy is by and large utilized for the planning of oral and effective microsponges. In the internal natural stage first and the foremost polymer is disintegrated in ethyl liquor and medication is broken up in this arrangement by ultra-sonication at room temperature. The external stage comprises PVA arrangement in water. The arrangement is blended and separated for additional utilization. The inward stage is blended in the external stage drop astute with the assistance of mechanical stirrer. After the blending the semi emulsion drop was shaped which might facilitate dissipation of natural dissolvable produces the strong microsponges confine. The pre-arranged microsponge are sifted and dried in stove for 12 hr.12

Mechanism of action:

For the active material to emerge from the matrix of the Microsponge particle at a pre-determined rate, a number of parameters can be modified taking into consideration the physical-chemical characteristics of the active agent and the environment. The vehicle in which the polymer resides plays an important role in the release rate of the active agents from the system. Initially, there is an equilibrium between the concentration of the active agent in the polymer and in the vehicle as the skin depletes the concentration of the active agent from the vehicle, the MDS releases more active agent in response to the demand caused by the shift in the equilibrium. A continuous and steady release of active agents onto the skin is accomplished with such a system. In addition, as opposed to conventional topical formulations, the MDS can act as a reservoir and continue to release active agents to the skin even after the vehicle has been absorbed by the skin or has dried out.13

Evaluation of microsponge:

The microsponge are evaluated by the following parameters

  • Particle size and size distribution analysis

  • Drug content

  • Entrapment efficiency

  • Angle of repose

  • Compressibility index

  • Hausner&rsquo's ratio

  • Determination of density:

  1. Bulk density

  2. Tapped density

  1. Production yield:

Microsponge production yield was determined by formula mentioned below.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy:

The surface topography and morphology of the prepared microsponge were examined with a scanning electron microscope. For this method using double adhesive tape, samples were mounted on a metal stub and coating with platinum/ palladium alloy under a vacuum was done.

  1. Particle size analysis:

Microsponge particle size analysis was studied by using a particle size analyzer. Prepared microsponge are dispersed in double distilled water before running the sample in the instrument to ensure the light scattering signal was within the sensitivity range of the instrument. The analysis of the microsponge was carried out at room temperature, keeping the angle of detection at 900.

  1. Infrared spectroscopy:

Infrared spectroscopy was determined by Fourier to transform Infrared Spectrophotometer with the KBr pellet method.

  1. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC):

To find the interaction between the drug and excipients thermal analysis is an important evaluation technique.

The interaction can be identified by any changes in the thermogram. The thermogram of the drug was obtained using the DSC instrument. The powder sample of microsponge was kept in the aluminum pan and heated at a constant rate of 100 C/ min over a temperature range of 300 C to 3000 C under a nitrogen atmosphere of a flow rate of 20 ml/min.14

  1. Evaluation of microsponge-loaded gel formation:

The microsponge-prepared gel was evaluated by different parameters such as pH, appearance, viscosity, spreadability, drug content and drug release, in vitro antifungal activity and stability studies.

  • Appearance: The microsponge-prepared gel bases were inspected visually for clarity, color and the presence of any particles. Microsponge-loaded carbopol gel shows transparent gel.

  • PH: Microsponge-loaded gel formulation was dissolved in water and the pH was determined with the help of a digital PH meter. All the gels are tested for pH three times and an average of three determinations was calculated.

  • Spreadability: The microsponge gels are kept between two horizontal glass slides of standard dimension. 100g weight was placed on the top of the two slides so that the formulation gets uniformly spread. The weight was removed and the excess formulation was scraped out.


m = weight kept on the upper slide

l = length of glass slide

t = time taken in the second

  • Viscosity: The viscosity of the microsponge-loaded gel formulation was determined using a Brookfield viscometer with spindle no 6 at 10 rpm at 37 0 C temperature.

  • Drug content: 1 gram of gel formulation containing drug equivalent to 10 mg of drug was extracted and the volume was made up to 50 ml with ethanol. The resulting solution was filtered. Suitable dilutions of the filtrate were prepared with filtrated phosphate buffer pH 5.5 and absorbance was measured at specific wavelength using UV spectrophotometer.15-16

  • In vitro release of microsponges gel:

  • The in vitro release microsponges gel was performed using a modi?ed Franz di?usion cell with Spectra Pore dialysis membrane molecular weight cut o? with an e?ective di?usion area of 3 cm. The release medium was 100 ml acetate bu?er pH 4 containing 1% SLS. One gram gel or powder was placed on the dialysis membrane which was previously soaked overnight in the release medium. The receptor medium was stirred at 50 rpm and maintained at 34°C. Aliquots of 3 ml were withdrawn at predetermined intervals over 6 h and replaced by an equal volume of the fresh medium to maintain sink conditions. The samples were analyzed spectrophotometrically at 270 nm for content and drug ?ux through the membrane was calculated. In order to investigate the mechanism of drug release form microsponge, zero order, first order, Higuchi, and Korsmeyer-Peppas models were applied on the release pro?le of microsponges gel.17

  1. In vitro antifungal activity: Antifungal activity was evaluated against Candida albicans utilizing disc di?usion method using 100 μL of suspension containing of yeast spread on Sabourand dextrose agar (SDA). Later the media had cooled and solidi?ed, the circles which have been impregnated with 100 mg of microsponge gel, the market item, without drug gel and gel containing unencapsulated drug were set on the agar surface. Circles impregnated in arrangements (50 mg/mL) were utilized as controls. The gave plates were then struggled for24 h at 37 °C, later which the zone of not actually settled Antifungal movement was introduced as the measurement of the hindrance zone in millimeters.18

  2. In vivo evaluation of therapeutic efficacy:

  3. Animal:

  4. Grown-up Wistar rodents (280 ± 10 g) of either sexual orientation are getting. The creatures were housed in huge, open polyacrylic confines at a surrounding room temperature with 12-h light/12-h dull cycle. Rodents had free admittance to a water and rat pellets diet.

    Acute toxicity testing:

    The female rodents were utilized for the intense poisonousness testing. Hair present in the dorsal surface of the creature (2 X 2 cm) was eliminated by applying hair remover and cleaned with liquor. The screening is was stamped (1 X 1 cm) and 0.5 g of a microsponge improved gel was applied to the outer layer of a creature's skin during the perception time frame (14 days), signs, for example, erythematic and edema were surveyed.19

  5. Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy:

  6. The male rodents were utilized for the test. The rodents were separated into four gatherings viz., typical benchmark (group I), Candida glabrata control (bunch II), standard treatment (bunch III) and microsponges enhanced gel treatment (bunch IV). Bunch II to IV creatures was changed with intravenous methylprednisolone (5mg/kg) for 3 days for enlistment and support of cell-interceded immune suppression (Organisms from stock disengages were put away in supplement agar at 27°C, streaked onto supplement stock, and brooded at 37°C for 24 h and included culture was utilized for additional trial). Candida glabrata culture was weakened with PBS and cleaned in the smooth muscle of rodent pennies and permitted to develop for 3 days until the development of Candida was seen on ischiocavernosus smooth muscle. The settlement development was affirmed by counting the province framing unit. The creatures which as cfu worth of more than 3 cfu/ml products are remembered for the review. The creatures were treated for the week time frame and outwardly noticed its actual changes. The swab culture was gathered on starting day, fourth and seventh day of the analysis for microscopical assessment. End of the trial the creatures were forfeited and ischiocavernosus smooth muscle was gathered from every one of the trial creatures and protected in 10% formalin.20


    Microsponges have a discrete advantage over the current ordinary effective dose structures for the treatment of dermatological sicknesses. A Microsponge Delivery System can capture the wide scope of actives and afterward discharge them onto the skin throughout a period and in light of trigger. It is exceptional innovation for the controlled arrival of effective specialists and comprises of microporous dabs stacked with dynamic specialists for effective and furthermore use for oral just as biopharmaceutical drug conveyance. It gives a wide scope of figuring benefits; Fluids can be changed into free streaming powders.MDS is initially produced for the effective conveyance of drugs like an enemy of skin break out, calming, against contagious, enemies of dandruff, against pruritic, rubefacients and so forth Plans can be created with contrary fixings with delayed security without the utilization of additives. Security of the bothering and sharpening medications can be expanded and modified delivery can control how much medication is delivered to the designated site. Henceforth, the microsponge drug conveyance framework center as a significant device for future developments in controlled drug conveyance framework. In this manner, microsponge has a great deal of imminent and is an exceptionally best-in-class field which is should have been investigated.


    The microsponge conveyance framework is an extraordinary innovation for the controlled arrival of macroporous dots, stacked with a functioning specialist, offering a likely decrease in aftereffects while keeping up with their helpful viability. The microsponge drug conveyance framework offers ensnarement of its fixings and is accepted to contribute toward decreased aftereffects, further developed security, expanded tastefulness and upgraded detailing adaptability. Furthermore, various investigations have affirmed that microsponge frameworks are non-disturbing, non-mutagenic, non-allergenic, and non-poisonous. This innovation is being utilized at present in beauty care products, over-the-counter skin care, sunscreens, and remedy items. This sort of medication conveyance innovation might prompt a superior comprehension of the recuperating of a few infections. Consequently, Microsponge-based medication conveyance innovation is probably going to turn into a significant medication conveyance lattice substance for different helpful applications later on.


    The authors express their heartfelt gratitude to Sharadchandra Pawar College of Pharmacy, Dubmarwadi, Our, the college library, and all other sources for their cooperation and guidance in writing this review article.

    Source of funding: No

    Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest exists.

    We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced is the outcome.

    Authors’ Contribution:

    The concept and Design of the study were done by Alim Momin and Shubhrajit Mantry. Data acquisition and analysis were done by Alim Momin. Manuscript preparation and editing is done by Alim Momin.


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A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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