IJCRR - Vol 13 Issue 07, April, 2021
Date of Publication: 12-Apr-2021
Download XML Download PDF
A Review on the Clinical Aspect of Guda (jaggery) in Brihatrayi and laghutrayi
Author: Prashant Umate, Pramod Khobragade, Harsha Thanvi, Sarju Zilate
Abstract:Bruhatrayi (Charaka, Sushruta, VagbhataSamhita) and laghutrayi (Sharngadhara, Bhavprakasha, Madhavnidan) are the pillars of Ayurveda which also serve as a reference book or guide for clinicians and scholars. The matter for every subject is scattered in whole Samhita and have to take great efforts if anyone wants to search for details about a single topic. Jaggery is one of the most useful and beneficial product in traditional Indian kitchen since ancient time and there are many types of research on jaggery has been published but most of them were specific concern about marketing and focused on the nutritional value and colour product (jaggery). Very few study concern about the medicinal uses of jaggery but Ayurvedasamhita have given details about its various medicinal properties and uses in various diseases and formulations. This article might fulfil the demand of scholar for medicinal uses and properties of guda (Jaggery)arranged in brief and tabular form. The information might at a glance view for reference in Brihatrayi and Laghutrayi.
Keywords: Guda, Jaggery, Brihatrayi, Laghutrayi, Medicinal properties and uses
Ayurveda is called Veda for ayu (Life, longevity, health and wealth). For thousands of year, it was played a vital role in health problems i.e. Prevention (Swastha rakshana) and the cure of diseases (Vyadhiparimoksha)[i] of not only human being but also another living thing in the world. It has mentioned very details and specific about ahara (diet) and aushadi(medicine). All Samhita has given importance to Sahara before medicine and also stated the first stage towards the disease cure process. Some of the product mentioned in Ayurveda Samhita plays an important role as diet and medicine also. Jaggery is one of them and the most useful and beneficial product in traditional Indian kitchen since ancient time. There are many types of research on jaggery that has been published but most of them were specifically concerned about marketing and focused on the nutritional value and colour product (jaggery). Very few study concern about the medicinal uses of jaggery butAyurvedasamhita has given details about its various types, medicinal properties and uses. There are three types viz. Naveen, Purana and PrapuranaGuda mentioned in Samhita but the clear demarcation is not mentioned. It has been specified in Nighantu. Properties of all types of Guda are different hence the medicinal uses also changed accordingly. General properties are described in various Samhita are Na-atishleshmakar, Mala-Mutra shuddhikar, Krimi-Majja-shyonit-Meda-Mamsavardhaka, Agnimandya Hridya and Pathya.[ii]-4
To date, the medicinal properties and uses of guda in bruhatrayi (Charaka, Sushruta, Vagbhata) and laghutrayi (Sharngadhara, Bhavprakasha, Madhavnidan) are not compiled in one rooftop. Hence the topic is selected for study and organised clinical aspect of guda in brief with the tabular form which has given in Brihatrayi and Laghutrayi?. Which will be more helpful for clinician and scholar to find the appropriate reference in one place. Madhavnidan is a specific concern about diagnosis hence it has not mentioned any information about jaggery and its medicinal uses.
Charaka has given guna of Guda, i.e. The Krimi-Majja-shyonit-Meda-Mamsavardhak, Annapanavidhiadhyaya in Sutrasthana. Alpa doshkar is the final prepared shudhha Guda. In Chikitsa sthana for chikitsa, where Guda is one of the ingredients, binding agent, as anupana with a particular Kalpa according to disease, hetu of disease. chikitsa Charak Samhita listed various Kalpa. All data summarized in Table 1 for quick reference.[iii]
Sushruta has mentioned Guda and its properties in sutrasthana adhyaya 45, Dravdravya vidhyaninya shlok no.160. Guna karma of Naveen and Puran Guda was separately mentioned by shushurta. As the Sushruta was mainly concern with shalyatantra, Kalpa of Guda found less in numbers than in Charak Samhita but pathya-apthya specifically given in sutrasthana which are summarized in Table 2.[iv]
Vagbhat mentioned properties of guda in Sutrasthana, dravdravyavdhyniya, shlok 48, 49 (AH.Su 5/48, 49). NavvenGuda is kaphakarak and create agnimandya while Puran Guda is Hridya, Pathya. There are very scattered references in Samhita about use of guda in chikitsa of urdhvajatrugata roga, grahani roga, arsha, skin diseases etc are summarised in Table 3.[v]
Asthangsangrahkara mentioned Guda in Sutrasthana, dravdravyavdhyniya, shlok 87 (As.Su 6/87). He explained more or same uses as Astangahriday like in jwara, swasa, Kasa, hikka, swarabheda, aruchi, arsha, Grahani, pandu, udara, pleeha and rasayana in combination with other drug or solitary which was concluded in Table 4.[vi]
Sharangdhar has given more detailed information about matra (proportion) of Guda in Panchavidh Kasay kalpana. Guda is used in various diseased condition as kalpa form or as anupana. There are several Kalpa like Hemagarbha pottali rasa, Shital Jwaradi Rasa, Pathyadi kwatha, Shadanga Kwatha and used in many formulations especially in asava- aristha kalpana and many more these are summarised in Table 5.[vii]
Bhavaprakasha Samhita written by Acharya Bhava Mishra. Guda is described at Nighantu part of samhita in Ikshuvarga. NaveeenGuda properties are mentioned as Vrushya, Guru, Snigdha, Vatanashak, Mutrashodhan, Na-ati-pittakara, Medakara, Kaphakara, Krimikara, Balakara, Swasakara and Puran Guda is Laghu, Pathya, Anbhishandi, Agnijanaka, Pusthikruta, Pittaghna, Madhur, Vrushya, Vataghna, Raktaprasadaka. Bhavprakasha has mentioned specific guna with particular anupan like Guda with Ardraka- quickly reduces the enhanced kapha, with Haritaki it acts on Pitta and when used with Sunthi it acts as Vatahara. The scattered reference of guda used in chikitsa is summarised in Table 6.[viii]
According to modern parameter, jaggery is far complex than sugar hence get digested slowly than sugar and releases energy accordingly slow and not spontaneously thus provides energy for a longer time and is become beneficial to the body. As it is prepared in iron vessels Jaggery hence rich in ferrous salts (iron) and popularly used in anaemia for a long time. It also contains traces of mineral salts which are very helpful for the body. Jaggery act as a very good cleansing agent. It acts as a purifying agent for lungs, respiratory tracts, stomach, intestines and oesophagus. It is highly recommended to take jaggery daily who workplaces are full of dust as it can keep them safe from asthma, cough & cold, congestion in chest etc. It is rich in significant minerals required for the human body (viz., Potassium-1056 mg, Calcium-40-100 mg, Magnesium-70-90 mg, Phosphorus-20-90 mg, Sodium-19-30 mg, Iron-10-13 mg, Manganese-0.2-0.5 mg, Zinc-0.2- 0.4 mg, Copper-0.1-0.9 mg, and Chloride-5.3 mg per 100 g of jaggery), vitamins (viz., Vitamin A-3.8 mg, Vitamin B1-0.01 mg, Vitamin B2- 0.06 mg, Vitamin B5-0.01 mg, Vitamin B6-0.01 mg, Vitamin C-7.00 mg, Vitamin D2-6.50 mg, Vitamin E-111.30 mg, Vitamin PP-7.00 mg), and protein-280 mg per 100 g of jaggery, which can be made available to the masses of malnutrition and undernutrition to lessen the health issues. It has been reported micronutrients present in the jaggery plays a better role in antitoxic and anti-carcinogenic properties. All features of Guda shown in Table 1 to Table 6 according to various Ayurved books.[ix]
Properties of Guda described by various Acharya area approximately similar. Uses in various diseases through many formulations are different and peculiar. There are few references where Guda used solely in treatment like virechana, ajirna, shola etc and abundant reference found in combination with other medications. There are some refrances where guda is considered as hetu of some diseases like krimi or in some karma (Procedure). It is specifically called apathya in apya, anupa mamsa, Vrana[i] and virudhha (incompatible) when taken with kakamachi (Solanum nigrum), Varaha Mamsa and Guda is Ssanyog viruddha.11,12 It is a very useful product of sugar cane which is almost useful in all systems of the body. According to modern research, it will help in anaemia, jaundice etc diseases which are already mentioned in samhita. It is one of the examples and proof that whatever matter mentioned in samhita will be used in today’s era also.
The compiled references of medicinal properties and uses of Guda (Jaggery) which is a very common ahar (Dietary) as well as aushadhi (Medicinal) dravya in Ayurveda will simplify the search in Brihatrayi and Laghutari.
Conflict of interest: Nil
Source of funding: Nil
[i]. Thakaral K, Dalhana & Nyaychandrika comentri of Shushruta, Sutrasthana 1/14, vol-1 Reprint 2016;9.
[ii]. Agnivesha krit, charak pratisansrit, Edited by Pandit Kashinath-Charak Samhita-Purvardha, Reprint yr 2008.
[iii]. Agnivesha krit, charak pratisansrit, Edited by Pandit Kashinath-Charak Samhita-Purvardha, Reprint yr 2008
4. Ambikadatta Shastri ed, Sushruta samhita of Sushruta, Chikitsasthan 2/10, Chaukhamba Sanskut Sansthan, Varanasi. 2005;1: 2/10
[v]. Vagbhatkrit Ashtangahridaya, Sartha Vgbhata, edited by Dr. Ganesh Krishna Garde Anmol Prakshan. Reprint 2008;5/48-49:21.
[vi].Vagbhatkrit Astangasangraha, edited by Kaviraj Atridev Gupta, Chaukhamba Krisnadas Academic, Varanasi, Reprint 2016;6/87:55.
[vii]. Pandit Parsurama sashtri,Vidyasagar, Sharangdhar samhita with commentary Adhmalla’s dipika Madhyam and uttar khand,Choukhmba orientalia , Varanasi,7th edition 2008
[viii]. Bhavmishra, Bhavprakash, edited by Pandit Shri Brahma Sankara Mishra with vidyotani hindi commentary, Choukhamba Sanskrita Bhavan, Varanasi, Vol 1 & 2. Reprint 2016.
[ix]. Nath DD. Review on Recent Advances in Value Addition of Jaggery based Products. J Food Process 2015;6(4);1-4.