International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
logo
slider
slider
slider
slider
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 10 Issue 10, May, 2018

Pages: 46-52

Date of Publication: 30-May-2018


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

Effect of Terminalia chebula and Gallic Acid on Increased Adiposity of High-Fat Diet Induced Hyperlipidemic Mice

Author: Sarada S., Padmini E.

Category: Life Sciences

Abstract: Objective: To elucidate the role of Terminalia chebula and Gallic Acid on increased adiposity and as a regulator of Lipogenesis and its associated factors in high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemic mice.
Methods: The study was performed on C57BL/6J Male mice aged 6-8 weeks. Control was fed with normal diet and the other 3 groups were fed with commercial hyperlipidemic diet. Adipose tissue markers Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins-beta, 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal, Thioredoxin, Tumour necrosis factor-?, adiponectin and
leptin were estimated using adipose tissue by ELISA.
Results: The diet-induced hyperlipidemic C57BL/6J Male mice showed a marked reduction in the levels of transcription factors, oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory markers when treated with Terminalia chebula (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (P< 0.001), CCAAT/enhancer-bindingproteins-beta (P< 0.001), 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenol (P< 0.001), Thioredoxin (P< 0.01) and Tumour necrosis factor-? (P< 0.001) which was more effective than Gallic Acid (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (0.05), CCAAT// enhancer-binding proteins-beta (P< 0.01), 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (P< 0.01), Thioredoxin (P< 0.05) and Tumour necrosis factor-? (P< 0.01) and an elevation in adipokines- adiponectin and leptin in Terminalia chebula treated group- adiponectin (P< 0.001) and leptin (P< 0.001) was seen which was more significant than Gallic Acid- adiponectin (P< 0.01) and leptin (0.05) when compared to group II HFD.
Conclusion: The study indicates the efficacy of Terminalia chebula as a potent antihyperlipidemic herbal drug which helps in controlling the increased adiposity by regulating the key markers in adipose tissue.

Keywords: Terminalia chebula, Hyperlipidemia, Adiposity, Gallic Acid

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Hyperlipidemia is a metabolic syndrome which includes lipid abnormalities (1,2). Regular intake of high-fat diet can result in hyperlipidemia (3). Hyperlipidemia is associated with an increase in the number of adipocytes due to enhanced adipogenesis. Adipose tissue is an important organ involved in dynamic regulation of metabolism in living body (4), our present study monitored the biochemical changes in adipose tissue by examining the expression of 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal, Thioredoxin, adipogenic transcriptional factors, and adipokines. The important transcriptional factors Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins-beta required for adipogenesis and lipid metabolism are up-regulated in individuals whose diet composed of fatty foods (5,6) demanding the need for their screening during Hyperlipidemia. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) an, α β-unsaturated aldehyde generated due to the lipid peroxidation (7) may alter the expression of antioxidants. One of the antioxidant playing a vital role in regulating redox status is Thioredoxin (8)Adipokines are peptides produced by adipose tissue involved in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism (9). Since adipokines were bound to fluctuate in the hyperlipidemic condition associated with adiposity (10,11), the expression of pro-inflammatory adipokine such as  leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and anti-inflammatory adipokine- adiponectin was observed in adipose tissue

In the present study, Gallic acid and Terminalia chebula were used for assessing their effect during hyperlipidemia. Gallic acid is 3, 4, 5, - trihydroxybenzoic acid, used for the treatment of a vast number of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, ulcers, arthritis, gout etc. It is found to be antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, and cardioprotective (12). Terminalia chebula is a common herbaceous plant used in ayurvedic preparations as it possesses diverse medicinal properties which include antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, antihyperlipidemic, etc. Ellagic acid, gallic acid, chebulinic acid, chebugalic acid and corilagin present in this fruit have a beneficial effect in the treatment of hyperlipidemia (13,14).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Preparation of T. chebula aqueous powder :

Terminalia chebula [Haritaki] dried fruits were collected from the Deciduous forest area in Kombankaddu area [Kodaikanal to Palani route]. It was authenticated at CAPTAIN SRINIVASA MURTI RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AYURVEDA AND SIDDHA DRUG DEVELOPMENT, Arignar Anna Government Hospital Campus, Arunbakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Seeds from the individual fruit were removed, washed thoroughly and then air-dried on a drier table at room temperature. Then the dried pulp crushed in an electrical mixer-grinder into a coarse powder. The powder was stored in a closed vessel for future use.

Animals:

Mice -C57BL/6J Male aged 6-8 weeks obtained from CPCSEA approved Breeder were taken for this experiment and kept at Centre for Toxicology and Developmental Research (CEFT) Sri Ramachandra University (SRU). All animal experiments were conducted as per the instructions of Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (IAEC/XLVIII/SRU/495/2016).

Experimental Design:

Grouping:

Animals were randomised and grouped based on the stratified body weight.

Induction of hyperlipidemia

Hyperlipidemia was induced to all the animals (GII – GIV) by giving commercially procured High fat diet (HFD) for a period of 15 weeks except Group I. Group I animals received standard rodent pellet diet for 15 weeks.

Solubility / Suspendability, Stability, and Homogeneity of Formulation

Solubility / Suspendability of the test and reference item (Gallic acid and Terminalia chebula) were ensured one day before dosing. 0.5% CMC Vehicle was selected based on the nature of test and reference drug. 0.5% CMC as a vehicle used for the preparation of test and reference drug. The homogeneity of test item in 0.5 % CMC was ensured using glass rod while dosing.

Histopathology

Liver, adipose were collected from all animals of the all dose groups and preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin. The fixed tissues were processed, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned approximately at 3-5 microns thick and stained with Haematoxylin and eosin for histopathological examination.

ELISA Studies

200 mg of adipose tissue was homogenized in standard homogenization buffer with anti-proteases (20 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, 255 mM sucrose, pH 7.4, anti-protease). The homogenates were centrifuged at 1,000 g for 10 min and the subnatant (whole tissue extract) below the lipid cake was aspirated and denatured by adding SDS to a final concentration of 0.06% and boiling for 10 min at 100ºC. Total protein concentrations of the tissue extracts were measured using the method of Bradford (1976). Based on the requirement, the sample was diluted to acquire 100 µg of protein by using PBS buffer and used for the ELISA.

  • PPAR-γ was quantified using  ELISA kit (MBS005886, MyBioSource, USA)  

  • C/EBP-β was quantified using ELISA kit (MBS006925, MyBioSource, USA)

  • Leptin  was quantified using Leptin ELISA kit (11-LEPHU-E01, ALPCO, India)

  • Adiponectin was quantified using Total Adiponectin ELISA kit (47-ADPHUT-E01, ALPCO, India)

  • Tumour necrosis factor-α  was quantified using ELISA kit (K0331131, Koma Biotech, Korea)

  • 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal was quantified using 4 hydroxy nonenol ELISA kit (MBS161454 96T, My Biosource, USA)

  • Thioredoxin was quantified using Trx ELISA kit (MBS009625, MyBioSource, USA).

Statistical Analysis

The results were expressed as mean value standard deviation. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using SPSS software. Statistical significance was arrived by comparing results of One Way ANOVA of Group I and II with III and IV.

Results

Histopathological Findings

            Histopathology of adipose tissue of Group I (Control) showed the normal size of adipose cells. However, the adipose of Group II (HFD) showed marked hypertrophy of adipose cells with a minimal degree of severity of inflammatory cell infiltration in crown shaped structure between adipose cells. In Group III (HFD + Gallic acid treatment group) Histopathology of adipose tissue revealed decrease in the size of adipose cells and no infiltration in crown shaped structure when compared to high-fat diet (G2) group animals and Group IV (HFD + Terminalia chebula treatment group) revealed normalization of adipose cells when compared with normal control group animals.

The remarkable decrease in severity and incidence of lesions in adipose tissues of animals was observed in Group 4 animals as compared to the high-fat diet (G2) and gallic acid (G3) treated animals.

Transcription Factors in Adipose

From the ELISA studies conducted on the adipocytes of all the 4 groups the levels of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins-beta were found to be significantly increased in Group compared to Group I. The levels of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins-beta were found to decrease significantly compared to HFD in Group IV (HFD +Terminalia chebula ) than the Group III (HFD + Gallic Acid ) ( Table I).

Adipokine Levels

From the Elisa studies conducted on the adipocytes of all groups, the levels of Adiponectin and Leptin were found to be normal in Group I which was remarkably reduced in Group II (HFD). On receiving treatment the levels of Adiponectin and Leptin were found to increase considerably compared to HFD in Group IV (HFD +Terminalia chebula) than the Group III (HFD + Gallic Acid). However the levels of Tumour necrosis Factor -α which was found to be less in Group I (Normal) and increased in Group II (HFD) decreased remarkably in Group IV (HFD +Terminalia chebula ) than the Group III (HFD + Gallic Acid ) as compared to HFD. (Table II)

Oxidative stress in Adipose Tissue

The ELISA studies conducted on the adipocytes of 4 groups revealed normal levels of 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal and Thioredoxin in Group I (Normal) which was notably increased in Group II (HFD). On treatment, the levels of 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal and Thioredoxin were found to decrease appreciably in Group IV (HFD +Terminalia chebula ) than the Group III (HFD + Gallic Acid )( Table III).

Discussion

Adipose tissue is an important organ where excess fat in our body is stored. It is a dynamic organ that plays an important role in energy balance and homeostasis of our body. It acts as a sensor for lipid levels in our body and controls hunger, satiety and sleep patterns. Adipocytes are considered a major endocrine organ as they secrete lipid and protein factors which produce an impact on the metabolism of other tissues, regulation of appetite, immunological responses and vascular disease etc (15). The development of hyperlipidemia as a result of High fat diets (HFD) lead to an expansion of adipose tissue along with increase in size and number. The Adipose tissue inflammation is an important marker for hyperlipidemia. Our study observed changes in the structure of adipocyte in group II (HFD) mice which shows marked hypertrophy of adipose cells with minimal degree of inflammatory cell infiltration in crown shaped structure in the histopathological report of the adipose tissue. Herbal treatment by Terminalia chebula has resulted in decrease in hypertrophy of adipose tissue as assimilation of fat is decreased in the body. The results are more predominant than Group III –Treatment with pure compound Gallic as Terminalia chebula is rich in fibre which reduces lipid absorption in the small intestine. Adipose tissue is composed of more of fatty acids and phospholipids and less of triglyceride in the form of neural fat. The presence of redox systems in microsomes in the adipose tissue results in high activity of lipid peroxidation (16). Oxidative stress and inflammation go hand-in-hand in the many tissues that are affected because oxidative stress induces the production of inflammatory cytokines, and the cytokines in turn induce free radical production. Lipid peroxidation (LP), an autocatalytic process is initiated by free radical attack on the unsaturated bonds of membrane fatty acids which leads to 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal . In our study the levels of 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal were found to increase significantly in Group II (HFD) as compared to Group I (Normal diet) as a result of high incidence of lipid peroxidation due to hyperlipidemia. The increase in HNE levels indicates damage to adipose tissue which is confirmed by the histopathological report (17). The levels of 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal were found to be reduced in group IV (HFD+ Terminalia chebula) as inflammation and oxidative stress is found reduced by the herbal drug. ( Table III) The results are far more appreciable than treatment with Gallic acid as Terminalia chebula is a better drug in controlling fat assimilation in the adipose ( evident from histopathological reports and Fig 6). Thioredoxin (TRX) is a redox protein that is involved in many biological functions which controls a number of transcription factors (18). Increased lipid peroxidation associated with increase in the levels of LDL results in the formation of oxLDL. This oxLDL further aggravates the problem by increasing its uptake by macrophages in adipocytes. This increases Thioredoxin expression and so the levels of Thioredoxin were found to be increased by the consumption of high fat diet as compared to mice that was given normal diet (Table III). The treatment by the herbal drug reduced the levels of LDL and lipid peroxidation causing decrease in the levels of Thioredoxin and this effect was more pronounced than treatment with Gallic Acid, pure compound suggesting that Terminalia chebula is a better drug in treating oxidative stress and its associated complications caused by hyperlipidemia (19) (Table III and Fig 7). Further increase in the levels of lipids leads to increased Adipogenesis. Fat cell formation or adipogenesis is a process characterised by changes in factors that determine the structure of adipocyte (20). It is a process in which preadipocytes develop into mature adipocytes. This is a multistep process controlled by various transcriptional factors (15). The two factors that have a pronounced effect on this synthesis are Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins-beta (21). CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins-beta genes are rapidly induced to express which then activate Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (22)Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma can initiate adipogenesis program, giving rise to fat cells by activating the adipogenic genes responsible for adipogenesis (23). In our study increased levels of both Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins-beta were observed in group II( HFD) compared to group I (Normal diet) which has lead to increased adipogenesis evident from the histopathological studies which indicate increase in fat depots of adipose tissue (Table I and Fig 1 and 2) . The adipokines which keep the adipogenesis at check by reducing lipogenesis and favouring lipolysis are leptin and adiponectin which are drastically reduced in hyperlipidemia (24) (Table II). The deficiency of leptin or leptin receptor is seen in animals fed with high fat diet which leads to extreme obesity (25) (Fig 3). Adiponectin is a peptic hormone which decreases serum FFA, glucose, and triacylglycerol concentrations in the adipose tissue (26). However adiponectin concentrations fall with increasing obesity which was observed in group II (HFD) mice (Table II, Fig 4) which indicated both decreased adiponectin and leptin levels. The herbal drug Terminalia chebula is more efficient than Gallic Acid in increasing the levels of both adiponectin and leptin which is evident from their levels in group III (HFD+GA) and group IV (HFD+TC) and thereby decreasing adipogenesity. ( Fig 3 and 4) However, the Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) a multifunctional cytokine which exerts a series of biological actions on adipose and regulates or interfere with adipocyte metabolism by regulating fatty acid metabolism (27) is downregulated more effectively by Terminalia chebula than pure compound Gallic Acid. (Table II and Fig 5). Our study indicates that herbal treatment with Terminalia chebula brings about a reduction in fat content of adipose as it reduces adipogenesis by down-regulating the transcription factors, Tumour necrosis factor α, and oxidative stress markers and brings about lipid breakdown or lipolysis by increased production of adiponectin and leptin more effective than pure compound Gallic Acid.

Conclusion

These results suggest that Terminalia chebula could decrease adipose tissue mass by down-regulation of transcriptional factors- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins-beta, Pro-inflammatory cytokine-TNF α, Oxidative stress markers - 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal, Thioredoxin and upregulation of adipokines that favor lipolysis - adiponectin and leptin. This effect has been far more pronounced than group III mice treated with Pure compound Gallic Acid (50 mg-Kg body wt)). Further, to confirm the anti-adipogenic activity of Terminalia chebula more effective than Gallic Acid by histopathological examination of adipose tissue. The following results prove Terminalia chebula a more potent antihyperlipidemic factor than pure compound Gallic Acid.

      Acknowledgement 

        The authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose article cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors/editors/publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed. Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

Conflict of interest : nil

Financial Support : nil

Ethical Clearance : (IAEC/XLVIII/SRU/495/2016)

References:

  1. Asmare Amuamuta Bahir Dar, 2014, A Review on Risk Factors/Indicators and Effects of Hyperlipidemia. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 22 (6): 886-893.

  2. Bragg DA, Walling A , 2015, Metabolic Syndrome: Hyperlipidemia. FP Essent.;435:17-23.

  3. Jong Weon Choi, 2003, Association Between Elevated Serum Hepatic Enzyme Activity and Total Body Fat in Obese Humans. Ann Clin Lab Sci Summer vol. 33 no. 3 257-264.

  4. Liang Guo, Xi Li, and Qi-Qun Tang, 2015, Transcriptional Regulation of Adipocyte Differentiation: A Central Role for CCAAT/Enhancer-binding Protein (C/EBP) β. J Biol Chem. 2015 Jan 9; 290(2): 755–761

  5. Gretchen J. Darlington et al, 1998, The ROLE of C/EBP Genes in Adipocyte Differentiation .. J Biol Chem. 13; 273(46):30057-60.

  6. Martina I. Lefterova et al, 2008, PPARγ and C/EBP factors orchestrate adipocyte biology via adjacent binding on a genome-wide scale. Genes Dev. 22(21): 2941–2952.

  7. Kalavathi Dasuri et al, 2013, Role of Physiological Levels of 4-Hydroxynonenal on Adipocyte Biology: Implications for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome. Free Radic Res. 47(1):8–19.

  8. Betul Catalgol and Nesrin Kartal Ozer, 2010, Lipid Rafts and Redox Regulation of Cellular Signaling in Cholesterol Induced Atherosclerosis. Curr Cardiol Rev, 6(4): 309-324.

  9. Benson T. Akingbemi , 2013, G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Energy Homeostasis and Obesity Pathogenesis. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science Volume 114, Pages 317-342

  10. William P. Cawthorn and Jaswinder K. Sethi, 2008, TNF-α and adipocyte biology. FEBS Lett.  582(1): 117-131.

  11. Sanet van Zyla et al, 2017, The relationship between obesity, leptin, adiponectin and the components of metabolic syndrome in urban African women, Free State, South Africa. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 30(3):68–73.

  12. Snehal S. Patel and Ramesh K. Goyal , 2011, Cardioprotective effects of gallic acid in diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction in rats. Pharmacognosy Res 3(4): 239–245.

  13. Rubaiat Nazneen Akhand et al , 2013 , Sub-chronic oral administration of the ethanolic extracts of dried Terminalia chebula  mature fruits in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model of  Long-Evans (L-E) rats improve glycemic, lipidemic and anti-oxidative status. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 3 (05), pp. 027-032.

  14. Priya F, Velpandian V, Ayyasamy S, Pitchiahkumar M , 2013 , Hypolipidemic activity of Kadukkai Chooranam (Terminalia chebula) in Triton WR - 1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS) Volume 5, Issue 5 PP 77-84.

  15. Aus TariqAli , 2013 ,Adipocyte and adipogenesis, Volume 92, Issues 6–7,  Pages 229-236.

  16. Hai-LuZhao et al, 2008, Fat redistribution and adipocyte transformation in uninephrectomized rats. Kidney International Volume 74, Issue 4, 2 August 2008, Pages 467-477.

  17. Mark P. Mattson, 2009, Roles of the Lipid Peroxidation Product 4-Hydroxynonenal in Obesity, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Associated Vascular and Neurodegenerative Disorders. Exp Gerontol. 44(10):625–633.

  18. Song JS, 2011, Role of thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 on proliferation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2011 Sep;20(9):1529-37.

  19. Betul Catalgol and Nesrin Kartal Ozer, 2010, Lipid Rafts and Redox Regulation of Cellular Signaling in Cholesterol Induced Atherosclerosis. Curr Cardiol Rev, 6(4): 309–324.

  20. S. Niemela, S. Miettinen, J.R. Sarkanen and N. Ashammakh, 2008, Adipose Tissue and Adipocyte Differentiation: Molecular and Cellular Aspects and Tissue Engineering and applications. Topics in Tissue Engineering, Vol. 4. Eds. N.

  21. Farmer SR , 2005, regulation of ppargamma activity during adipogenesis. Int J Obes (Lond).; 29 Suppl 1:S13-6.

  22. Hishida T et al , 2009, The role of C/EBPdelta in the early stages of adipogenesis.. Biochimie.;91(5):654-7.

  23. Stephen R. Farmer, 2006, Transcriptional control of adipocyte formation. Cell Metab. 2006 Oct; 4(4): 263–273.

  24. MatthiasBluhe, 2014, Adipokines – removing road blocks to obesity and diabetes therapy. Molecular Metabolism Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 230-240.

  25. Wasim M, 2015, Role of Leptin in Obesity. J Obes Weight Loss Ther 5:258. doi:10.4172/2165-7904.1000258

  26. Andrew S  and Greenberg Martin S Obin, 2006, Obesity and the role of adipose tissue in inflammation and metabolism. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 83, Issue 2, 1 February 2006, Pages 461S-465S. 

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



ABOUT US

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2023 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions