International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 01 Issue 01, September, 2009

Pages: 03-09

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ALTERNATIVE TO USE OF LIVE ANIMAL IN TEACHING PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY IN PHARMACY UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM: AN ASSESSMENT OF 120 STUDENTS VIEWS

Author: S.V. Tembhurne, D.M.Sakarkar

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:This study was conducted to ascertain the attitudes of undergraduate pharmacy students to animal experimentation after they had completed experiments on frog abdominal rectus muscle, goat intestine, studied the effect of various drug like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, diuretics etc on mice and rats and on computer programme in academic year 2008-09. Barely sixty five percent of the students agreed with to use alternative of life animals like mice and rats for purpose in education, an overwhelming majority (seventy four percent) felt that the animal experiments involved needless pain and suffering to the animals. A large majority of students felt the need to reduce the number of animals by demonstrating the practical, to explore alternatives to the animal experiments, and to restrict animal experiments for research on life threatening diseases. More than half of the students were unaware of the government regulations on animal experiments. Students considered, understanding physiological processes as the main objective of animal experiments. The results of this study indicate that there is a need to modify the curriculum taking into account the development and availability of the new technology. The students also need to be made aware of the Government regulations on animal experiments particularly the role of the CPCSEA and the institutional animal ethics committee.

Keywords: Animal experiments, Physiology, medical education, undergraduate, ethics.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Pharmaceutical Undergraduate curriculum in India continues to follow an archaic syllabus set up decades ago, which has not kept pace with the technological progress. The Animal Physiology syllabus does not reflect the constraints imposed by the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals act of 1960 in the transport, care and experimentation. The CPCSEA (Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals) was established under Prevention of Cruelty to Animals act of 1960. The Experiments on Animals (Control and Supervision) Amendment Rules (1998) and the Breeding of and Experiments on Animals (Control and Supervision) Rules (1998) gave powers to the CPCSEA, to make rules in relation to the conduct of experiments on animals, the power to authorize any of its officers to inspect any place (at any time) and the power to prohibit a person or an institution from carrying out experiments on animals1.

In the pharmaceutical undergraduate curriculum especially in experimental pharmacology a lot of stress is laid on pithing. It is usually performed by inserting a sharp probe into the living animals spinal cord or brain, through the nape of the neck, moving the probe vigorously to destroy the brain. It is a common site to see a hapless frog jumping in the lab with a needle passing through its eye or other parts to the shrieks of second and third year students of pharmacy. It is difficult to see the rationale of such rituals in making a good pharmacist.

In the decade since, several states of USA have passed "choice-in-dissection" laws, which affirm a students right to use alternatives to dissection without penalty. In the past, the use of live animals has been routine practice in the pharmacy undergraduate training curriculum. However, recent trends indicate that animal use is declining. According to the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), which for the past decade has been pressuring medical schools to replace animal labs with non-animal alternatives, about half of all 126 U.S. medical schools-including prestigious institutions as Mayo, Harvard, Columbia, and Yale-now have no live animal laboratories. One clear conclusion that can be drawn from this information is that live-animal use is not indispensable for pharmacy training also2 .

Keiser and Hamm argue that when dissection is not part of the school curriculum, students may miss the opportunity to prepare for vocations and become valuable contributors in medicine and other health-related professions. However, many students switch career plans away from the life sciences when they learned that they were required to dissect animals3 . There are small number of studies have been conducted in alternative to use of animal in undergraduate training curriculum for saving the live of animals. The study can be also performing on goat intestine which can be explained by our previous results on goat intestine4-6 . Bennett conducted study on 110 U.S. Medical students. 78 percent of the surveyed medical students supported a students right to choose not to participate in required terminal dog labs, and 32 percent felt that, given a choice, they would not participate in such labs7 . Bowd conducted 191 Canadian Undergraduates In a retrospective survey, 27 percent of the surveyed students reported having exclusively negative reactions to dissection, and 38 percent reported both negative and positive reactions8 .

Many studies in the West have captured the pitiable conditions in which the lab animals are kept. Gibbs et al. conducted an in-depth study to document the conditions of the capture and warehousing of frogs bound primarily for dissection. "As many as 100 frogs were kept in each sack for up to a week or more, the only care being intermittent spraying with water. Eventually, the frogs were put into large tubs of water where they were kept for periods ranging from days to months depending on the season and the demand for shipments. During this period, the frogs were provided no food. Frogs shipped during the summer likely had gone without food for a week or more between capture and arrival at a school; in the early spring, frogs may not have eaten for more than six months. In the summer months, most frogs were "hot," meaning that they were overheated and hyperactive often to the point of convulsion9 ." disciplines, to 39 percent, 10 percent, and 17 percent11 .

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The survey was conducted among the undergraduate second and third year pharmacy students at S.N.Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad during academic year 2008-09. The 120 students had been exposed to various animal experiments e.g. experimentations on frog abdominal rectus muscle, goat intestine for absorption and bioassays studies, effect of various drugs like analgesic, antiinflammatory, diuretics etc and various surgical techniques like adrenoctomy and ovarectomy in mice, rats, while undergoing a practical syllabus of pharmacology subject of Pharmacy second and third year. All the experiments were performed by taking a permission of Institutional Animal Ethical Committee of S.N.Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad. The study was conducted using a questionnaire. The questionnaire was filled anonymously, and voluntarily. Opinion was sought on the following aspects, the need to use animals, alternatives to animal experiments, awareness of government regulations and the objectives of animal experiments.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The CPCSEA (Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals) was established under Prevention of Cruelty to Animals act of 1960. The Experiments on Animals (Control and Supervision) Amendment Rules (1998) and established 4 Rs i.e. reduction, refinement, replacement and rehabilitation in relation to the conduct of experiments on animals1, 12 .

Reduction: to constantly work to reduce the number of animals used in research.

Refinement: to improve the lives and living conditions of animals used in research, to make their lives comfortable.

Replacement: to constantly try to find new and better ways to do research that do not require animals.

Table1: Students views toward the use of animals in their practical curriculum

Values given in parenthesis are present in the form of percentage.

There is a global trend towards reduction in animal experiments medical undergraduate training similarly there is needs to follow such trend in pharmacy undergraduate training. The results of this study indicate that there is a need to modify the curriculum taking into account the development and availability of the new technology to use of alternative to live animals13 . In present study 120 undergraduate pharmacy students responded to the questionnaire. The results are summarized in Table 1. Barely sixty four percent of the students disagreed with to use of frog for studying bioassays and other pharmacology experiments in pharmacy curriculum while seventy eight percent of students felt alternative use of goat intestine for bioassay and for other experiments in pharmacology practicals.

An overwhelming majority sixty five percent students felt alternative to use of live animals like computer programs, video films, demonstration by teacher for teaching pharmacology and physiological experiments. A majority of students (forty nine) felt to reduce the number of animals by demonstrating the practical, to explore alternatives to the animal experiments, and to restrict animal experiments for research on life threatening diseases; seventy four percent of students felt the animal experiments involved needless pain and suffering to the animals and these are might be reasons for the sixty five students views toward alternative to use of live animals in teaching. While twenty nine percent of students felt to use of live animals in teaching and this was might be due to thinking the use of animals for better understanding of physiology, improving dissection skill and for passing the university examination.

More than fifty percent of the students were unaware of the government regulations on animal experiments. Students considered, understanding physiological processes as the main objective of animal experiments. Thus students need to make aware of the Government regulations on animal experiments particularly the role of the CPCSEA and the institutional animal ethics committee. There are many alternatives to teach the pharmacological experiments. Computer simulations allow students to view many levels of complexity unavailable to the dissector.

Programs currently being used The CD-ROMs on the human body produced by ADAM (Animated Dissection of Anatomy for Medicine) software, for example, show not only gross structural anatomy in high detail, but also contain histology images, animations, and video clips of body processes unobservable during gross dissection of a living or dead organism. Digital Frog by Digital Frog International. 3-D Body Adventure, by Knowledge Adventure displays "fly through" of the skeletal and circulatory systems of the human, in which the viewer tours these systems in threedimensional space as if piloting a miniature airplane. Physiology is one of the heaviest users of animals. A survey by the Association of Chairmen of Departments of Physiology reported that most physiology faculty believed that no alternative could fully replace liveanimal use in education14 . The Virtual Physiology Series (five CD-ROMs), produced at the University of Marburg, Germany, covers the entire field of nerve-muscle physiology and simulates all of the classic experiments15 .

The SimBioSys Physiology Labs use animations, simulations, exercises, and quizzes, and cover general, cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal physiology; over 1,000 physiological parameters can be reproduced; by altering parameters, students gain understanding of how the body works16 . Dyna Pulse Systems allows students to monitor their own cardiovascular profiles; also includes a "patient management" system that allows longterm tracking and statistical analyses of students cardiovascular status17 . Intelitools software series allows students to study respiratory physiology (Spriocomp), muscle contraction (Physiogrip, Flexicomp), and cardiac physiology (Cardiocomp); students generate their own original data from their own bodies, making them both the investigators and the experimental subjects18. To sum up there is no dearth of alternatives.

CONCLUSION

The results of this study indicate that there is a need to modify the curriculum taking into account the development and availability of the new technology. The students also need to be made aware of the Government regulations on animal experiments particularly the role of the CPCSEA and the institutional animal ethics committee.

References:

1. The Breeding of and Experiments on Animals (control and supervision) Rules. The Gazette of India no.809, 1998.

2. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM). 1998. Medical school Curricula with no live animal laboratories. Washington, D.C.: PCRM, 1998.

3. Keiser TD and Hamm RW. Forum: Dissection-The case for. The Science Teacher 1991; 58(1): 13-15.

4. Tembhurne SV, Sakarkar DM. Transport of Glucose in isolated goat ileum preparation: an alternative research tool for absorption study. Indian J. Physiol Pharmacol 2008; 52(2): 211-13.

5. Dewhurst DG, Hardcastle J, Hardcastle PT, Stuart E. Comparison of a computer simulation program and a traditional laboratory practical class for teaching the principles of intestinal absorption. American Journal of Physiology 1994; 267: S95-S104.

6. Surendra H. Bodakhe, J.S. Dangi, Alpana Ram, K. P. Namdeo and Kiran S. Bodakhe. Isolated Cock Ileum: A Tool for Pharmacology Experiments. Indian J.Pharm. Educ. Res. 43(2), 2009, 199-202.

7. Bennett J. New survey shows Colorado students want a choice. Good Medicine 1994; 3(3): 6.

8. Bowd AD. Dissection as an instructional technique in secondary science: Choice and alternatives. Society and Animals. 1993; 1(1): 83-88.

9. Gibbs EL, Nace GW, Emmons MB. The live frog is almost dead. BioScience 1971; 21: 1027- 34.

10. Schrock JR. Dissection. The Kansas School Naturalist 1990; 36(3): 3-16.

11. Ammons SW. Use of live animals in the curricula of U.S. medical schools in 1994. Academic Medicine 1995; 70: 740 43.

12. Guidelines for care and use of Animals in Scientific Research, Indian National Science Academy, 2000.

13. Barnard ND, Stolz J, Baron L. Use of and alternatives to animals in laboratory courses at U.S. medical schools. Journal of Medical Education 1988; 63: 720-22.

14. Greenwald GS. ACDP survey on use of animals in teaching physiology. Physiologist 1985; 28: 478- 80.

15. Thieme Interactive. Virtual physiology: The unique truly interactive simulation Software Promotional brochure. (http://www.thieme.com)

16. Critical Concepts, Inc. (CCI). Critical Concepts releases physiology simulation on CDROM: Academia can save thousands using computer simulations. Company press release, 15 April.1999. (http:/ /www.laketech.com)

17. Pankiewicz PR. Software review: The DynaPulse 200M. The American Biology Teacher 1995; 57(2): 121-22.

18. Intelitool Physiogrip and Spriocomp: Capabilities and features, Promotional brochures 1998. (http://www.intelitool.com)

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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