International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR)

Full Html


IJCRR - Vol 06 Issue 21, November

Pages: 51-63

Date of Publication: 11-Nov-2014


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

THE GENUS OSCILLATORIA VAUCHER (OSCILLATORIALES: CYANOPROKARYOTA) IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

Author: Jayanta Sikdar, Jai Prakash Keshri

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:In spite of its ubiquitous occurrence our knowledge about Cyanoprokaryotes of tropical countries is not proper (Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005). Oscillatoria Vaucher is the most ubiquitous genus of Oscillatoriales of Cyanoprokaryota growing in almost all accessible habitats starting from hot springs to snow-fed rocky areas. Its adaptability to different climatic conditions is marvelous. In India Oscillatoria Vaucher is represented by over 76 species (Desikachary 1959, Anand, 1989, 1998). During systematic investigations on the algal flora of West Bengal the authors recorded following species of Oscillatoria viz O. obscura Br\?hl et Biswas, O. sancta (K\?tzing) Gomont, O. simplicissima Gomont, O. anguina (Bory) Gomont, O. subbrevis Schmidle, O. nitida Škorbatov, O. proboscidea Gomont, O. tenuis Agardh ex Gomont, O. salina Biswas, O. princeps Vaucher ex Gomont, O. raoi DeToni, J., O. limosa Agardh ex Gomont, O. amoena (K\?tzing) Gomont, O. vizagapatnesis Rao, C.B., O. okeni Agardh ex Gomont and O. laete-virens (Crouan) Gomont. The distributions of different species have been discussed. O. simplicissima, O. princeps, O. subbrevis, O. sancta and O. tenuis are most common species in unpolluted habitats where as O. limosa is common in polluted habitats. O. nitida appears to be the first Cyanoprokaryote recorded in India.

Keywords: Oscillatoriales, Cyanoprokaryotes, West Bengal, India

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
In spite of good quantum of work done on Indian Cyanoprokaryotes our knowledge about this group is not proper. According to the world authorities (Komárek and Anagnostidis 1999, 2005) this knowledge is to be updated at least in the tropical countries. Investigations in India have been done in scattered manner. This venture has been taken to fill the lacuna concentrating genus and area wise. In this investigation the genus Oscillatoria Vaucher has been taken into consideration. It is represented by over 76 species (Desikachary 1959, Anand, 1989, 1998) in India. The distributional records however need to be checked all over the country because of its various roles in wide climatic conditions and due to its wide ecological adaptability. Keeping this fact in mind the present investigation has been done. In this account following 16 species of the genus Oscillatoria have been recorded from Singur block, Hooghly district of West Bengal. Cyanoprokaryotes of West Bengal has been studied by several workers. Biswas (1925) worked on road slimes of Calcutta. Banerji (1938) reported some cyanoprokaryotes of adjoining area from Calcutta. Jana and Sarkar (1971) reported few cyanoprokaryotes from the thermal springs in Bakreshwar. Mukhopadhyay and Chatterjee (1981) prepared a checklist of cyanoprokaryota in the rice field of 24-Pargana district. Pal and Santra (1982) worked on Murshidabad district. Sen et al. (1987, 1998) worked on Gangetic planes of West Bengal. Santra et al (1988) provided information on cyanoprokaryotes of saline habitats. Sen and Naskar (2003) worked on the flora unusual habitats of Sundarban. Sinha and Mukerjee (1975a, 1975b and 1984) investigated the cyanoprokaryota of Bankura district. Some other works have been done by Gupta (1965, 1975), Gupta and Sen (1987a, 1987b), Brühl and Biswas (1922a, 1922b), Prain (1905), Naskar et al., 2008, Chakraborty et al. 2010 and Keshri and Chatterjee (2010).

MATERIAL AND METHODS
The Singur block is part of the Hooghly district of West Bengal from which the samples have been collected throughout the year. Freshly collected materials were stored in 5% formalin in polythene bags (size 4” X 3”), tagged and ecological notes recorded in field data book. Lugol’s Iodine in the ratio of 1:100 of water samples were sometimes used for phytoplanktonic samples. pH and temperature of the water bodies were measured using pH paper (Merck indicator range 1-10). 10% glycerin or G.F.W. solution (Bando1988) was used as mountant for microscopical observation. Algal specimens were worked out with Olympus GB compound microscope. Camera Lucida drawings were made for identification up to species level and digital photographs were also taken from the Carl Zeiss Axiostar microscope with Axio vision 4.8 software. Algal materials were identified with the help of standard literature (Desikachary 1959, Prescott 1962, Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005).

RESULTS
Following sixteen taxa of Oscillatoria have been recorded in this investigation

1. Oscillatoria limosa Agardh ex Gomont 1892
Geitler 1932, page 944, figure 598d; Desikachary 1959, page 206, plate 42, figure 11; Prescott 1962, page 489, plate 109, figure 17; Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005, page 593, figure 886. Thallus dark blue green, trichome straight, not constricted at the cross-walls, 10 µm broad and 4 µm long, granules uniformly distributed, end cell rounded and thickened, apex not attenuated, cross walls frequently granulated. Collection No. JS-49; Date: - 18/11/2011 pH:- 6.5; Temperature- 30°C; Place:- Near Singur Health Center, West Bengal. Habitat: - Aquatic, lodged on the surface of a stagnant polluted water body. Distribution in India:- Andhra Pradesh (Ghousuddin, 1937; Munawar, 1974; Rao, 1977); Assam (Deka and Sarma, 2011); Bihar (Vasishta, 1968); Gujarat (Kamat, 1962-63; Gupta, 1964); Himachal Pradesh (Vasishta, 1968; Kumar et al., 2013); Uttarakhand (Gupta, 2005); Jammu and Kashmir (Anand, 1979); Karnataka (Bharati and Bongale, 1975a, 1975b; Bongale and Bharati, 1980a); Kerala (Shaji and Panikkar, 1994); Maharashtra (Vasishta, 1968; Kamat, 1968b; Tiwari, 1972, 1975; Ashtekar and Kamat, 1980; Kumawat and Jawale, 2006); Odisha (Rao, 1939; Mohanty, 1982; Dash et al., 2011), Panjab (Vasishta, 1961, Prasad and Srivastava, 1965a; Sarma and Kanta, 1978); Tamil Nadu (Ganapati, 1940, Ramkrishnan and Kannan, 1992; Subramaniyan et al., 2012; Ramanathan et al., 2013); Uttar Pradesh (Ahmad, 1967, 1972; Kumar, 1970; Singh et al., 1970; Khan and Kumari, 1972; Khan and Rawat, 1972; Pal and Yadav, 1974; Bendre and Kumar, 1975; Darbal et al., 1978; Rai and Kumar, 1979; Prasad and Mehrotra, 1980; Pandey, 1982; Pandey and Pandey, 1982; Misra and Srivastava, 2005; Tiwari and Chauhan, 2006; Misra et al., 2008), West Bengal (Martens, 1870, 1871, Prain, 1905; Biswas, 1927, 1942; Kachroo, 1959; Chatterjee et al., 1980; Sen and Gupta, 1998; Naskar et al., 2008; Chakraborty et al. 2010, Sen Sarkar et al., 2013)

2. Oscillatoria simplicissima Gomont 1892
Synonym: Phormidium simplicissimum (Gomont) Anagnostidis and Komárek 1988 Geitler 1932, page 961; Desikachary 1959, page 224; Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005, page 586, figure 876. Thallus light green, not constricted at the cross-walls, trichome more or less straight, 6-8 µm broad and 4 µm long, granule uniformly distributed, end cell rounded, not capitate. Collection No. JS-26, 142, 145, 157; Date: - 25/10/2011, 28/01/2012 pH:- 6, Temperature- 28°C; Place:- Near Singur Abani Maidan, West Bengal. Habitat: - Attached on the aquatic weeds in a small water body. Distribution in India:- Punjab (Sarma and Kanta, 1978); Karnataka (Kamat, 1972); Mahrashtra (Bhosale et al.. 2012); Madhya Pradesh (Sharma and Naik, 1996); Odisha (Dash et al., 2011); Uttar Pradesh (Kumar, 1970; Pal and Yadav, 1974; Bendre and Kumar, 1975; Pal, 1975); West Bengal (Sen and Gupta, 1998; Chakraborty et al. 2010).

3. Oscillatoria sancta (Kützing) Gomont 1892
Desikachary 1959, page 203, plate 42, figure 10; Geitler 1932, page 943, figure 598c; Prescott 1962, page 490, plate 110, figure 4; Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005, page 594, figure 890. Thallus dark blue green, mucilaginous sheath present, trichome more or less straight, constricted at the crosswalls, 12 µm broad and 6 µm long, end cell hemispherical and attenuated, slightly capitate with a thickened membrane. Collection No. JS-228; Date: - 17/03/2012 pH: -7; Temperature- 30°C; Place:- Beside Singur Mahamaya High School, West Bengal. Habitat: - Lodged on the surface of aquatic weeds. Distribution in India:-Assam (Deka and Sarma, 2011); Bihar (Rao, 1939; Vasishta, 1968; Sinha and Srivastava, 1980); Delhi (Rao, 1940); Himachal Pradesh (Vasishta, 1968); Jammu and Kashmir (Kant and Kachroo, 1975); Kar-nataka (Gonzalves and Joshi, 1946; Vasishta, 1968); Odisha (Rao, 1939; Rao and Pattnaik, 1975; Mohanty, 1982); Punjab (Vasishta, 1961; Grover and Pandhol, 1975; Pandhol and Grover, 1976; Sarma and Kanta, 1978); Maharashtra (Karande et al., 2012; Patil and Neelima, 2013); Uttar Pradesh (Rao, 1937; Gupta, 1956; Singh, 1959a; Bendre and Kumar, 1975, Pal, 1975; Prasad and Mehrotra, 1980; Prasad and Saxena, 1980; Pandey and Pandey, 1982); West Bengal (Banerji, 1938; Kachroo, 1959; Sen and Gupta, 1998)

4. Oscillatoria obscura Brühl et Biswas 1922
Brühl et Biswas 1922, page 6, plate 2, figure 9; Geitler 1932, page 945; Desikachary 1959, page 207; Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005, page 599. Trichome 4 µm broad and 2 µm long, end cell rounded, nearly straight, thallus blue green colour, constriction not present at the cross-walls, cross wall granulated, trichome attenuated at the apex. Collection No. JS-141; Date: - 28/01/2012 pH:- 6.5; Temperature- 32°C; Place:- Near Singur Abani Maidan, West Bengal. Habitat: - Aquatic, attached on an aquatic weed in a rice field. Distribution in India:- Uttar Pradesh (Rao, 1937; Pandey, 1965a; Kumar 1970; Bendre and Kumar, 1975; Prasad and Mehrotra, 1980; Pal, 1975; Chadha and Pandey, 1983; Tiwari and Chauhan, 2006); Bihar (Laloraya and Mitra, 1973; Jha et al., 1986); Odisha (Rao, 1938a; Laloraya and Mitra, 1973; Mohanty, 1982); Andra Pradesh (Laloraya and Mitra,1973); Karnataka (Bongale and Bharati, 1980; Somashekar and Ramaswamy, 1984); Punjab (Grover and Pandhol, 1975; Pandhol and Grover, 1976); Jammu and Kashmir (Goyal et al., 1984); Madhya Pradesh (Sharma and Naik, 1996); West Bengal (Laloraya and Mitra, 1973, Sinha and Mukherjee, 1975b; Pal and Santra, 1982; Sen and Gupta, 1998; Chakraborty et al. 2010).

5. Oscillatoria subbrevis Schmidle 1901
Geitler 1932, page 946, figure 601b; Desikachary 1959, page 207, plate 37, figure 2 and plate 40, figure 1; Prescott 1962, page 491, plate 107, figure 23; Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005, page 587, figure 878; Thallus yellow green, trichome almost straight, constriation absent at the cross-walls, 8 µm broad and 4 µm long, end cell capitate. Collection No. JS-32, 49; Date:- 05/11/2011 pH: - 6.5; Temperature- 32°C; Place:- Near Singur Co-operative Bank, West Bengal. Habitat:-Floating on the water body and attached with weeds. Distribution in India:- Assam (Baruah et al. 2009; Deka and Sarma, 2011); Maharashtra (Dixit 1936; Gonzalves and Joshi, 1943; Vasishta, 1968; Marathe and Sontakke, 1977; Tarar and Kelkar, 1979; Bharate and Tarar, 1982; Thomas and Gonzalves 1965; Ansari et al. 2012; Nandan and Ahuja 2010; Thakur and Behere 2008; Patil and Nandan 2011; Tarar and Mazumdar 1981; Charian 2010a; Charian 2010b; Kumawat and Jawale 2006, Patil and  Neelima. 2013; Karande et al., 2012); Jammu and Kasmir (Prasad and Srivastava 1965); Uttar Pradesh (Bendre and Kumar, 1975; Misra et al. 2008; Tiwari and Chauhan 2006; Misra et al., 2008; Singh 1959a; Singh 1959b; Dubey et al. 2010; Goyal et al. 2008; Gupta and Agrawal 2008; Dwivedi 2010; Singh and Saxena 1969; Rao, 1936; Prasad and Srivastava, 1965, 1968; Pandey, 1969; Khan, 1970; Kumar, 1970; Singh and Chaturvedi, 1970; Pal and Yadav, 1974; Pal, 1975; Rai and Kumar, 1976, 1979; Prasad and Saxena, 1980; Pandey, 1982a); Arunachal Pradesh (Sudhakar and Venkateswarlu 1989; Mikter et al. 2006); Tamil Nadu (Anand and Subramanian, 1994; Muthukumar et al. 2007; Kasthuri et al. 2011; Sugumar et al. 2011; Balasingh 2010; Nagasathya and Thajuddin 2008; Senthilkumar and Sivakumar 2008; Kannan and Vasantha 1992; Sankaran 1998; Vetriselvi et al. 2011; Singh and Balasingh 2011; Vijayakumar et al. 2007; Anand and Subramanian 1994; Subramaniyan et al., 2012; Madhumathi and Vijayakumar, 2013); Punjab (Singh 1941; Vasishta, 1960b; Prasad and Srivastava, 1965; Grover and Pandhol, 1975; Pandhol and Grover, 1976; Sarma and Kant, 1978); Karnataka (Bharati and Bongle, 1975a; Bongale and Bharati, 1980a; Basavarajappa et al. 2010; Kumar and Hosmani 2010; Somashekar and Ramaswami 1984); Madhya Pradesh (Garg and Garg 2002; Singh and Samdariya 2006), Jharkhand (Kumar and Sahu 2012); Bihar (Saha and Wujek 1989; Kumar and Choudhary 2009; Bharadwaja 1963); Kerala (Shaji and Panikkar 1994; Senthil et al. 2012); Odisha (Dash et al., 2011); Rajasthan (Vishnoi and Srivastava 2006); Andhra Pradesh (Reddy and Venkateswarlu 1992; Reddy and Venkateswarlu 1985); Arunachal Pradesh (Singh et al. 1997); Sikkim (Suseela and Toppo, 2004); Odisha (Dey et al. 2010; Dash et al. 2011); West Bengal (Sen and Gupta, 1998; Sen and Gupta 1998; Naskar et al. 2008; Chakraborty et al. 2010); Gujarat (Gupta, 1964); Himachal Pradesh (Vasishta, 1968); Kerala (Shaji and Panikkar, 1994); Uttarakhand (Gupta, 2005).

6. Oscillatoria anguina (Bory) Gomont 1892
Desikachary 1959, page 210, plate 38, figure 11; Geitler 1932, page 948, figure 599b; Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005, page 592, figure 885; Prescott 1962, page 485, plate 108, figure 24. Thallus yellowish green, trichome almost straight, constriction absent at the cross-walls, 8 µm broad and 4 µm long, end cell capitate and slightly thickened membrane present, cross walls more or less granulated. Collection No. JS-8; Date: 09/08/2011 pH:- 7; Temperature- 31°C; Place:- Beside Singur station, West Bengal. Habitat:- Aquatic, lodged on weeds in a small stagnant water body. Distribution in India: - Assam (Deka and Sarma, 2011); Uttar Pradesh (Pandey, 1965); Odisha (Mohanty, 1982); Bihar (Rao, 1939); Delhi (Rao, 1940); West Bengal (Mukhopadhyay and  Chatterjee, 1981)

7. Oscillatoria salina Biswas 1926
Synonym: Oscillatoria indica P.C.Silva 1996 Geitler 1932, page 979, figure 624; Desikachary 1959, page 239; Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005, page 601, figure 906. Thallus blue green, trichome more or less straight, end of the trichome arcuated and pointed constriction not present at the cross-walls, cells 4 µm broad and 2 µm long, end cell not capitate, calyptra absent. Collection No. JS-51; Date: - 05/11/2011 pH:- 7; Temperature- 30°C; Place:- Near Singur Co-operative Bank, West Bengal.. Habitat: - Aquatic, lodged on the surface of the submerged aquatic plants. Distribution in India:- Goa (Modassir and Ansari, 2011); Kerala (Shaji and Panikkar, 1994); Maharashtra (Ashtekar and Kamat, 1980); Tamil Nadu (Anand and Subramanian, 1994; Nedumaran and Manokaran, 2009; Sugumar et al., 2011; Subramaniyan et al., 2012; Silambarasan et al., 2012, Madhumathi and Vijayakumar, 2013; Ramanathan et al., 2013); Uttar Pradesh (Prasad and Mehrota, 1980); West Bengal (Banerji, 1938; Sen and Gupta, 1998; Chakraborty et al., 2010)

8. Oscillatoria tenuis Agardh ex Gomont 1892
Geitler 1932, page 959, figure 611f, g; Desikachary 1959, page 222, plate 42, figure 15; Prescott 1962, page 491, plate 110, figure 8, 9, 14; Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005, page 587, figure 878. Thallus blue green, trichome straight, constriction not present at the cross-walls, cell 6 µm broad and 4 µm long, granule present uniformly. Collection No. JS-58, 158, Date: - 18/11/2011, 28/01/2012 pH:- 6.5; Temperature- 28°C; Place:- Beside Mahamaya High School, West Bengal. Habitat: - Aquatic, lodged on the aquatic weeds in a rice field. Distribution in India:- Andhra Pradesh (Ghusuddin, 1937; Zafar, 1968); Assam (Deka and Sarma, 2011); Bihar (Rao, 1939, Vasishta, 1968); Delhi (Rao, 1940); Gujarat (Kamat, 1962-63; Vasishta, 1968; Marathe and Choudhari, 1976); Kerala (Shaji and Panikkar, 1994); Himachal Pradesh (Kamat, 1968a; Vasishta, 1968); Karnataka (Kamat, 1972); Maharashtra (Gonzalves and Joshi, 1946; Kamat, 1963b; Vasishta, 1968; Ashtekar and  Kamat, 1980; Kumawat and Jawale, 2006); Manipur (Brühl and Biswas, 1926); Madhya Pradesh (Sharma and Naik, 1996); Odisha (Rao, 1939; Mohanty, 1982; Dash et al., 2011); Tamil Nadu (Fremy, 1942; Ramkrishnan and Kannan, 1992; Anand and Subramanian, 1994; Silambarasan et al., 2012, Subramaniyan et al., 2012; Madhumathi and Vijayakumar, 2013; Ramanathan et al., 2013); Uttar Pradesh (Rao, 1937; Saxena, 1960; Prasad, 1964-65; Kumar, 1970; Singh et al., 1970, Ahmad, 1972; Bendre and Kumar, 1975; Pal, 1975; Darbel et al., 1978; Prasad and Saxena, 1980; Misra and Srivastava, 2005; Tiwari and Chauhan, 2006; Misra et al., 2008); West Bengal (Martens, 1870; Prain, 1905; Brühl and Biswas, 1922; Biswas, 1925, 1927, 1942; Banerji, 1938; Vasishta, 1968; Chakraborty et al. 2010).

9. Oscillatoria proboscidea Gomont 1892
Geitler 1932, page 948, figure 598b; Desikachary 1959, page 211, plate 38, figure 9; Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005, page 596, figure 891; Thallus pale green colour, trichome straight, constriation absent at the cross-walls, cell 8 µm broad and 4 µm long, tip portion capitate. Collection No. JS-71; Date: - 30/11/2011 pH:- 7.5; Temperature- 32°C; Place:- Near Singur Health center, West Bengal. Habitat: Aquatic, lodged on the submerged bamboo leaves. Distribution in India:- Assam (Deka and Sarma, 2011); Andhra Pradesh (Sarojini, 1996); Bihar (Vasishta,1968; Sinha and Srivastava, 1980); Delhi (Rao, 1940); Gujrat (Vasishta, 1968); Himachal Pradesh (Vasishta, 1968; Kumar et al., 2013); Karnataka (Bongale and Bharati, 1980a); Madhya Pradesh (Tiwari, 1972, 1975); Maharashtra (Gonzalves, 1947; Vasishta, 1968; Tiwari, 1972; 1975; Kamat, 1975; Kumawat and Jawale, 2006); Tamil Nadu (Tiwari, 1972; 1975; Anand and Subramanian, 1994; Subramaniyan et al., 2012); Uttar Pradesh (Singh, 1939a, 1939b, Venkataraman, 1958; Pandey, 1965a, 1965b; Ahmad, 1967; Khan, 1970; Kumar, 1970; Bendre and Kumar, 1975; Pal, 1975; Chaturvedi and Pandey, 1976; Darbal et al., 1978; Tiwari and Chauhan, 2006); West Bengal (Vasishta, 1968; Sinha and Mukherjee, 1975; Naskar et al., 2008) 10. Oscillatoria nitida Škorbatov 1923 Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005, page 586, figure 875 Thallus green colour, constriation absent at the crosswalls, cells 8 µm broad and 4 µm long, trichome straight, tip portion rounded, granule uniformly present. Collection No. JS-68; Date: - 30/11/2011 pH:- 7; Temperature- 31°; Place:- Near Singur Abani Maidan, West Bengal. Habitat: - Growing on the surface of a stagnant water body. Distribution in India:- This is probably the first record of the species from India. 11. Oscillatoria raoi DeToni, J. 1939 Desikachary 1959, page 223, plate 42, figure 16-19 Thallus light green colour, trichome more or less straight, constriction not present at the joints, cells 5 µm broad and 4 µm long, end cell more or less rounded not capitate, without any calyptra. Collection No. JS-34, 155; Date: - 05/11/2011, 28/01/2012 pH:- 7; Temperature- 29°C; Place:- Near Singur Co-operative Bank, West Bengal. Habitat: - Aquatic, found in the stagnant water in a rice field. Distribution in India:- Karnataka (Somashekar , 1984); Uttar Pradesh (Kumar, 1970; Pal, 1975; Bendre and Kumar, 1975); Punjab (Pandhol and Grover, 1976; Sarma and Kant, 1978); Maharashtra (Bhoge and Ragothaman, 1986; Kumawat and Jawale 2006); West Bengal (Sinha and Mukherjee, 1984; Chakraborty et al. 2010). 12. Oscillatoria princeps Vaucher ex Gomont 1982 Desikachary 1959, page 210, plate 37, figure 1, 10, 11, 13, 14; Geitler 1932, page 947, figure 598a, 601c-g; Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005, page 590, figure 883; Prescott 1962, page 489, plate 110, figure 1. Thallus blue green, slightly curved, constriction absent at the cross-walls, 6 µm long and 24 µm broad, end cell slightly capitates. Collection No. JS-15; Date: - 09/08/2011 pH:- 6.5; Temperature- 30°C; Place:- Beside Singur station, West Bengal. Habitat: - Whitish green algal mass, attached on the surface of the aquatic plants. Distribution in India:- Andhra Pradesh (Ghousuddin, 1937; Venkateswarlu, 1976; Sarojini, 1996); Assam (Biswas, 1934; Deka and Sarma, 2011); Delhi (Rao, 1940); Gujarat (Gupta, 1964; Patel et al., 1974); Himachal Pradesh (Kumar et al., 2013); Jammu and Kashmir (Subba-Raju, 1963; Mir and Suri, 1975; Anand, 1976, 1979); Karnataka (Srinivasan, 1963; Kamat, 1972; Tiwari, 1972, 1975; Bongale and Bharati, 1980a, 1980b); Kerala (Suxena et al., 1973; Shaji and Panikkar, 1994); Madhya Pradesh (Bendre and Agarkar, 1965; Agarkar, 1967; Tiwari, 1972, 1975; Dikshit and Agarkar, 1974); Maharashtra (Dixit, 1936; Kamat, 1963b; 1974; Palli,1975; Kumawat and Jawale, 2006); Odisha (Rao, 1939; Mohanty, 1982; Dash et al., 2011; Das andv Adhikary, 2012; Patil and Neelima. 2013); Punjab (Vasishta, 1963; Grover and Pandhol,1975; Pandhol and Grover, 1976); Rajasthan (Goyal, 1964); Tamil Nadu (Rao, 1938b; Tiwari, 1972, 1975; Ramkrishnan and Kannan, 1992; Anand and Subramanian, 1994; Subramaniyan et al., 2012; Madhumathi and Vijayakumar, 2013); Uttar Pradesh (Rao, 1936; Mitra, 1961; Gupta, 1957; Singh, 1959b; Saxena, 1960; Gupta and Nair, 1962; Prasad, 1964-65; Das et al., 1965; Gupta and Srivastava, 1965; Gupta, 1966; Shukla, 1966; Kumar, 1970; Singh et al., 1970; Pal and Yadav, 1974; Bendre and Kumar, 1975; Chaturvedi and Pandey, 1976; Rai and Kumar, 1976, 1979; Darbal et al., 1978; Prasad and Saxena, 1980; Pandey, 1982a; Misra and Srivastava, 2005; Tiwari and Chauhan, 2006; Misra et al., 2008); Uttarakhand (Gupta, 2005); West Bengal (Biswas, 1925, 1927, 1949; Banerji, 1938; Kachroo, 1959; Sinha and Mukherjee, 1975; Sen and Gupta, 1998; Chakraborty et al. 2010) This appears to be the one of the most common species of Oscillatoria in India. 13. Oscillatoria okeni Agardh ex Gomont 1892 Synonym: Phormidium okenii (C. Agardh) Anagnostidis and Komárek 1988 Desikachary 1959, page 231, plate 38, figure 17 Thallus yellowish green, trichome more or less straight, constriction at the cross-walls, 4-5 µm broad and 4 µm long, end cell attenuated, slightly bent, undulating, end cell not capitate, without calyptra. Collection No. JS-69,117; Date: - 12/01/2012 pH:- 7; Temperature- 32°C; Place:- Near Singur Co-operative Bank, West Bengal. Habitat: - Aquatic, lodged on the aquatic plants in a rice field.

Distribution in India:- Assam (Deka and Sarma, 2011); Uttar Pradesh (Rao 1937, Kumar, 1970; Bendre and Kumar, 1975; Chaturvedi and Pandey 1976, Pandey and Chaturvedi 1979, Chadha and Pandey 1983; Singh and Suxena 1969; Tiwari and Chauhan 2006; Mishra et al. 2008); Andra Pradesh (Sarojini 1996); Arunachal Pradesh (Singh et al. 1997); Delhi (Suryaprakasa 1940); Odisha (Rao 1938a; Ghadai et al. 2010; Mohanty 1982); Southern east coast of India (Thajuddin and Subramanian 1992); Tamil Nadu (Tiwari 1972; Deepa et al. 2011; Subramaniyan et al., 2012); Madhya Pradesh (Singh and Samdariya 2006); Bihar (Ranjana et al. 1998); Uttarakhand (Shukla et al. 2009); Maharashtra (Kamat 1963a; Kamat 1975); Punjab (Pandhol and Grover 1976, Sarma and Kanta 1978); Kerala (Parukutty 1940); West Bengal (Sinha and Mukherjee 1975a, Sen Sarkar et al. 2013); Karnataka (Kamat, 1972). 14. Oscillatoria vizagapatnesis Rao, C.B. 1938 Rao, C.B. 1938, page89, figure 1-3; Desikachary 1959, page 205, plate 39, figure 16,18; Komárek and Anagnostidis 2005, page 602, figure 909 Thallus yellowish green colour, trichome straight, 12 µm broad and 4 µm long, without constriction at the crosswalls, tip portion elliptical forming cap like structure. Collection No. JS-126; Date:- 12/01/2012 pH: - 7; Temperature- 29°C; Place:- Near Singur Abani Maidan, West Bengal. Habitat: - Light green, growing on the moist soil. Distribution in India:- Andhra Pradesh (Rao, 1938b); Assam (Deka and Sarma, 2011); Gujrat (Vaidya and Upadhayaya, 1968); Jammu and Kashmir (Anand, 1976, 1979); Karnataka (Kamat, 1972); Kerala (Shaji and Panikkar, 1994); Madhya Pradesh (Tiwari, 1972, 1975); Maharashtra (Patil and Neelima. 2013); Rajasthan (Anantani and Marathe, 1972); Odisha (Sethi et al., 2012); Tamil Nadu (Tiwari, 1972; 1975); Uttar Pradsh (Khan, 1970; Bendre and Kumar, 1975; Pal, 1975); West Bengal (Chakraborty et al. 2010; Sen Sarkar et al., 2013). 15. Oscillatoria amoena (Kützing) Gomont 1892 Desikachary 1959, page 230, plate 40, figure 12; Prescott 1962, page 484, plate 109, figure 2-4. Thallus light green colour, trichome straight, end cell slightly attenuated, 8 µm broad and 4 µm long, end cells capitate, slightly constricted at the cell walls, granule uniformly distributed, end cell with calyptra. Collection No. JS-32, 49; Date: - 05/11/2011 pH: - 6.5; Temperature- 30°C; Place:- Beside Singur Mahamaya High School, West Bengal. Habitat: - Attached on the surface of the bamboo in a shaded area in a small water body. Distribution in India:- Uttar Pradesh (Chaturvedi and Pandey, 1976; Prasad and Mehrotra, 1980); Karnataka (Bongale and Bharati, 1980; Somashekar and Ramaswamy, 1984); Jammu and Kashmir (Goyal et al., 1984); Madhya Pradesh (Mishra and Purohit, 1979); Punjab (Sarma et al., 1979); West Bengal (Sinha and Mukherjee, 1975b; Mkhopadhyay and Chatterjee, 1981). 16. Oscillatoria laete-virens P.L.Crouan and H.M.Crouan ex Gomont 1892 Synonym: Phormidium laetevirens (P.L.Crouan and H.M.Crouan ex Gomont) Anagnostidis and Komárek 1988 Geitler 1932, page 949, figure 603c; Desikachary 1959, page 213. Thallus blue green in colour, trichome slightly bent at tip portion, cross wall slightly constricted, 4 µm broad and 6 µm long, apical part slightly attenuated and bent, cells more or less as long as broad, end cell not capitates, without calyptras. Collection No. JS-131; Date: - 28/01/2012 pH:- 7; Temperature- 30°C; Place:- Beside Singur station, West Bengal. Habitat: - Aquatic, attached on aquatic weeds. Distribution in India:- Gujarat (Vasishta, 1968); Himachal Pradesh (Vasishta, 1968; Kumar et al., 2013); Karnataka (Bongale and Bharati, 1980a); Maharashtra (Kumawat and Jawale, 2006); Uttar Pradesh (Gupta, 1975; Singh, 1961; Gupta and Nair, 1962; Gupta, 1966; Pandey, 1965a. 1965b; Pandey, 1969, 1970; Khan and Kumari, 1972; Pal and Yadav, 1974; Bendre and Kumar, 1975; Chaturvedi and Pandey, 1976; Pandey and Chaturvedi, 1979; Prasad and Mehrota, 1980; Prasad and Saxena, 1942; Kumar, 1970), Madhya Pradesh (Sharma and Naik, 1996); Andhra Pradesh (Sarojini, 1996); Tamil Nadu (Subramaniyan et al., 2012; Madhumathi and Vijayakumar, 2013). DISCUSSION During the course of investigation it has been observed that O. simplicissima, O. princeps, O. subbrevis, O. sancta and O. tenuis are most dominant species in unpolluted habitats and O. limosa is common in polluted habitats. From this studies we can easily explain the ecological preferences of various species of Oscillatoria and role of some of them (O. limosa) as pollution indicator.

CONCLUSION
Under this study we recorded 16 species of Oscillatoria Vaucher from various localities of Singur block of Hooghly district of West Bengal. Actually these types of studies pinpoint the habitat specified knowledge of this group of algae in the concerned area. As we all know that cyanoprokaryotic members can withstand a wide ecological regime this study will also help to fill the existing lacunae in our knowledge of the biodiversity of the group in this country. In this study we found O. simplicissima, O. princeps, O. subbrevis, O. sancta and O. tenuis as most common species in unpolluted habitats where as O. limosa is common in polluted habitats. O. nitida appears to be the first Cyanoprokaryote recorded in India.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors thankful to the Head, The department of Botany, The University of Burdwan for proving the necessary laboratory facilities and one of the authors Mr. Jayanta Sikdar is also thankful to University Grants commission (UGC), New Delhi, for providing financial assistance under RGNFS scheme. Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

References:

Agarkar D S, Myxophyceae of Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh. Phykos 1967; 6(1and2): 1-6.

Ahmad M R. Algal flora of some ponds of Kanpur. Phykos 1967; 29(1 and 2): 156-164.

Ahmad M R. Algae of Allen forest lake Kanpur, India. Nova Hedwigia 1972; 23(1): 125-129.

Anand N, Revathi G. Blue green algae from rice fields of Tamil Nadu. Phykos 1987; 26: 17-21.

Anand N. Hand Book of Blue-Green Algae.

Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India 1989 pp. 1-79. Anand N. Indian fresh water microalgae.

Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India 1998 pp. 1-94

Anand N, Subramanian T D. Distribution of natural populations of blue green algae in a rice field. Phykos 1994; 33(1 and 2): 163–169. Anand V K. A preminary list of Cyanophyceae of Saruinsar lake (Jammu). Geobios 1976; 3: 132-133.

Anand V K. Blue-green algae of Gadigarh stream (Miran Sahib, Jammu)-I. Phykos 1979; 18(1and2): 21-24.

Anantani Y S, Marathe K V. Observation on algae of some arid and semi-arid soils of Rajasthan. J Univ Bombay 1972; 41(68): 88-98.

Ansari Z, Tambe S S, Nandan S N. Biodiversity studies of Cyanophyceae in Mausam River of Malegaon city, district: Nasik, state: Maharashtra. International Journal of Science and Pharma Educational Research 2012; 1(2): 69-72.

Ashtekar P V, Kamat N D. Nostocales of Marathwada, Maharashtra. Phykos 1980; 19(1): 89-93.

Balasingh G S R. Studies on phytoplankton diversity and seasonal abundance of perennial pond in Kanyakumari–Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Basic and Applied Biology 2010; 4(3): 188–193.

Bando T. A revision of the genera Docidium, Haplotaenium and Pleurotaenium (Desmidaceae, Chlorophyta) of Japan. J Sci Hiroshima Univ Ser, B Div 2 1988; 22: 1–63.

Banerji J C. Studies on the Myxophyceae of lower Bengal – II, J Dept Sci Calcutta Univ 1938; 1: 95–109. Bendre A M, Agarkar M S. Myxophyceae of Bhopal and its environs. Phykos 1965; 4: 76-82.

Bendre A M, Kumar S. Cyanophyceae of Merut. Phykos 1975; 14(1and2): 1-7.

Baruah P P, Kakati B, Ahmed I. Some fresh water algae of oil refinery effluent drains of Assam, India. Our Nature 2009; 7:139-145.

Bharadwaja Y. The freshwater algae of Manipur, India –I. Proceedings: Plant Sciences 1963; 57(4): 239-258. Bharate V P, Tarar J L. Algae on coal-tar. Phykos 1982; 21: 141- 142.

Bharati S G, Bongale U D. Studies on the soils and soil algae of Raichur, Karnataka State, India. Karnatak Univ J Sci 1975a; 20: 130-141.

Bharati S G, Bongale U D. Systematic account of fresh water algae of Karnataka State Part I soils and soil algae of Dharwar. India. Karnatak Univ J Sci 1975b; 21: 203-207.

Bhoge O N, Ragothaman G. Studies on the Cyanophyceae from Jalgaon region, Maharashtra. Phykos 1986; 25:129-131.

Bhosale L J, Dhumal S N. Fresh water phytoplankton from Gadhinglaj Tahsil of Kolhapur distrist, Maharashtra, India. Indian Hydrobiology 2012; 15(2): 153-165.

Biswas K. Road slimes of Calcutta. J Dept Sci Calcutta Univ 1925; 7:1-10. Biswas K. Flora of salt-lakes Calcutta. J Dept Sci Calcutta Univ 1927; 8: 1-41.

Biswas K. Observation on algal collections from Khasia and Jainta Hills, Assam, India. Hedwigia 1934; 74: 1-24.

Biswas K. The role of common algal communities of the river Hooghly on the drinking water, Calcutta. 150th Ann vol Roy Bot Gdn 1942; 189-206.

Biswas K. Common fresh and brakish water algal flora of India and Burma. Rec Bot Surv India 1949; 15(1): 1-105.

Bongale U D, Bharati S G. On the algal flora of cultivated soils of of Karnataka State, India. Phykos 1980a; 19(1): 95-109. Bongale U D,

Bharati S G. fresh water algae of Devanagere and Rachur of Karnataka State, India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 1980b; 77: 6-11.

Brühl P, Biswas K. The algae of Bengal filter-beds. J Dept Sci Calcutta Univ 1922; 4: 2–17.

Chadha A, Pandey D C. Algal flora of Allhabad, Part IV, A general account. Bibl Phycologica 1983; 66:141-178.

Chakraborty T, Mukhopadhyay A, Pal R. Micro algal diversity of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Indian Hydrobiology 2010; 12(2): 204-224.

Chariyan K J. Effect of Paushamycin on paddy field soil algae of Umrer, Nagpur district, Maharastra. International journal for Environment Rehabilitation and Conservation 2010a; 1(1): 66-72.

Chariyan K J. Rhizosphere algae of paddy in vidabha region of Maharashtra state. International journal for Environment Rehabilitation and Conservation 2010b; 1(1): 59-65.

Chatterjee M, Choudhury A, Chatterjee S P. Algal flora of the water reservoirs of Golapbag, Burdwan, West Bengal. Phykos 1980; 19(1): 67-69.

Chaturvedi U K, Pandey U C. A list of blue-green algae and green algae from Rohilkhand division, U.P., India- IV. Phykos 1976; 15(1 and 2):127-131.

Darbal P K, Bendre A M, Singh L. Cyanophyceae of Rishikesh and its adjacent foot-hills. Botanical Progress 1978; 1: 41- 44.

Das A K, Shukla A C, Gupta A B. The Utilization of hydrophytes as a source of subsidiary protein food. Ichthyologica 1965; 4(1and2): 50-52.

Das S K, Adhikary S P. Algal diversity in the reservoir of Odisha state, India. Indian Hydrobiology 2012; 15(1): 17-41.

Dash P K, Mohapatra P K and Kar M. Diversity of cyanobacteria from freshwater bodies of Simlipal biosphere reserve, Orissa, India. E-planet 2011; 9(1): 1–14.

Deepa P, Jeyachandran S, Manoharan C, Vijayakumar S.Survey of epilithic cyanobacteria on the temple walls of Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu, India. World Journal of Science and Technolog 2011; 1(9): 28-32.

Deka S J, Sarma G C. Preliminary checklist of Oscillatoriaceae (Cyanophyta), Goalpara District, Assam, India. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology 2011; 2(4): 430-433.

Desikachary, T.V. 1959. Cyanophyta (monograph) ICAR, New Delhi. Pp. 686. Dey H S, Tayung K, Bastia A K. Occurrence of nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria in local rice fields of Orissa, India. Ecoprint 2010; 17: 77–85.

Dikshit R, Agarkar M S. Algae of Bandhavgarh. Vibha 1974, 2(1): 159-163.

Dixit S C. The Myxophyceae of the Bombay Presidency, India – I. Proceedings of Indian Acad Sci Sect B: Plant Sciences 1936; 3(1): 93–106.

Dubey S, Dixit A, Boswal M V. Seasonal distribution of aero-algal allergens in the wet lands of Kanpur. The Bioscan 2010; 3: 673–680.

Dwivedi S, Srivastava S, Mishra S, Kumar A, Tripathi R D, Rai U N, Dave R, Tripathi P, Chakrabarty D, Trivedi P K. Characterization of native microalgal strains for their chromium bioaccumulation potential : Phytoplankton response in polluted habitats. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2010; 173:95-101.

Frémy P. Cyanophycées de l’Inde méridionale, Barmea, suppl. II. Dr. A.A Weber Van Bosse Jubilee volume 1941; 21-40.

Ganapati S V. Studies on the chemistry and biology of the slow sand filters of the Madras Water Works. Proc. Nat Inst Sci India 1940; 6: 237-300.

Garg J and Garg H K. Nutrient loading and its consequences in a lake ecosystem. Tropical Ecolgy 2002; 43(2):355-358.

Geitler L. Cyanophyceae in Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora. Leipzig 1932; 14: 1-1196 pp.

Ghadai A K, Sahoo S and Raut S. Agroecological survey of cyanobacterial population in paddy field soils of Gunupur. International Journal of Agriculture Sciences 2010; 2(2): 28-32.

Ghousuddin M. A preliminary survey of the algal flora of Hydrabad (Deccan). J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 1937; 39(1and2): 149-150.

Gomont, M. Monographie des Oscillariées. Ann Sci Nat Bot Ser 1892; 16:198-246.

Gonzalves E A, Joshi D B. The algal–flora of temporary aroundI. An ecological study of the algae in some rain water pools near Borivli. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 1943; 11: 34-35.

Gonzalves E A, Joshi D B. Fresh water algae near Bombay I. The seasonal succession of the algae in a tank at Bandra. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 1946; 46(1): 154-176.

Gonzalves E A. The algal-flora of the hot springs of Vajreshwari near Bombay. J Univ Bombay 1947; 16: 22-27.

Goyel S K. Algal flora of Jodhpur and its environs. J. Bombay Nat Hist Soc 1964; 61(1): 69-73.

Goyal S K, Sharma B M, Gupta R S. Algal flora of rice field soils of Jammu and Kashmir State. Phykos 1984; 23: 59–64.

Goyal A, Tyagi S and Tyagi Y. Some Oscillatoria Species from rice field soils of district Muzaffarnagar (U.P.). India. Plant Archives 2008; 8(1): 367 – 368.

Grover I S, Pandhol R K. Algal-flora of paddy fields of Ludhiana and its adjacent areas. Phykos 1975; 14(1and2): 89-97.

Gupta A B. A contribution to the algal flora of the Allahabad district. J Res 1956; 3(1): 76-81.

Gupta A B. The algal flora of some paddy fields and its importance in soil economy. J Res 1957; 4(1): 1-24.

Gupta A B, Nair G U. A contribution to the algal-flora of Garhwal. J Agra Univ Res Sci 1962; 11(3): 227-240.

Gupta A B. Role of subterranean Myxophyceae in rice field. Labdev J Sci Tech 1964; 2(1): 1-2.

Gupta A B. Algal flora and its importance in the economy of rice fields. Hydrobiologia 1966; 28(2): 213-222.

Gupta D. Some new records of blue green algae from West Bengal. Bull Bot Soc Bengal 1965; 19(1): 1–2.

Gupta D. Some new records of blue-green algae from West Bengal. Bull Bot Soc Bengal 1975; 29(1): 29–31.

Gupta D, Sen C. Some Cyanophyceae from Gangetic delta of West Bengal (India) I. Hooghly district: A taxonomic enumeration. J Econ Taxon Bot 1987a; 10(2): 381–386.

Gupta D, Sen C. Observations on blue green algae of paddy field soils of Gangetic West Bengal I. Burdwan district. Indian Agric 1987b: 31(3); 221–225.

Gupta R K. Algal flora of Dehradun district, Uttaranchal. Botanical Survey of India Kolkata, 2005; 238-240.

Gupta S, Agrawal S C. Vegetative survival of some wall and soil blue-green algae under stress conditions. Folia Microbiol 2008; 53(4): 343-350.

Jana B B, Sarkar H L. The limnology of Swetganga-A thermal spring of Bakreswar, West Bengal, India. Hydrobiologia 1971; 37: 33-47.

Jha M N, Jha U N, Ahmad N, Mallik M K. Cyanobacterial flora of rice field soils of Pusa and its adjoining areas. Phykos 1986; 25: 97-101.

Kachroo F. Aquatic vegetation of Damodar vally. J Asiatic Soc 1959; 1(4): 271-298. Kamat N D. The Oscillatoriaceae of Ahmadabad, India. Bombay Univ J 1962-63; 31 (3 and 5): 20–27.

Kamat N D. The algae of Mahabaleshwar. Phykos 1963a; 22(3and4), 34-37. Kamat N D. The algae of Kolhapur, India. Phykos 1963b; 22(3and4): 209-305.

Kamat N D. Algae of Simla (Miscellaneous Note). Phykos 1968a; 65(1): 271-277.

Kamat N D. Algae of Alibag, Maharashtra. Phykos 1968b; 65: 88-104.

Kamat N D. Oscillatoriaceae of Mysore state. Phykos 1972; 11(1and2); 59-63.

Kamat N D. Algae of Marathawada, Maharashtra. Phykos 1974; 13(1): 22-32.

Kamat N D. Algae of Vidarbh Maharashtra. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 1975; 72(2): 450-476.

Kannan L and Vasantha K. Microphytoplankton of the Pitchavaram mangals, south east coast of India: species composition and population density. Hydrobiologia 1992; 247(1- 3): 77-86.

Kant S, Kachroo P. Limnological studies in Kashmir Lakes-II. Diurnal movements of phytoplankton. J Indian bot Soc 1975; 54: 9-12.

Karande V C, Uttekar G V, Kamble P, Karande C T. Diversity of cyanobacteria in biofilms on building facades of Weatern Maharastra. Phykos 2012; 42(2): 54-58.

Marathe K V, Sontakke S D. Observations on some wall algae. Botanique 1977; 8(1-4): 31-34.

Kasthuri J, Cholarajan A, Vijayakumar R and Muthukumaran P. Physico–chemical and microbial analysis of coir Industry effluent. Asian J Res Pharm Sci 2011; 1(2): 44–46.

Keshri J P, Chatterjee S. First record of two cyanoprokaryotas, Oscillatoria (Oscillatoriales) and Nostoc (Nostocales), endophytic within the angiosperm Alternanthera sessilis (Amaranthaceae) from India. Alogological Studies 2010; 135: 83-88. Khan M. Algal-flora of Dehradun-I, Myxophyceae. Phykos 1970; 9(2): 126-131.

Khan M, Kumari S. Some adition to the algal flora of DeradunIII, Cyanophyta. J Ranchi Univ 1972; 8: 298-300. Khan M, Rawat R S. Studies on the algal flora of Golatappar swamp (A preliminary report). Phykos 1972; 11(1 and 2): 67-70.

Komárek J. Inter generic characters in unicellular cyanobacteria living in solitary cells. Archiv für Hydrobiologia/Algological Studies. 1999; 94: 195–205.

Komárek, J, Anagnostidis K Süβwasserflora von Mitteleuropa 19/2, Cyanoprokaryota 2. Teil/Part 2: Oscillatoriales- In Büdel, B., Gärtner G., Krientz, L. and Schagest, M. (eds.). Spektrum Akademischer Verlag 2005; 759 pp.

Kumar H. Cyanophyceae of Sardhana. Phykos 1970; 9(2): 79- 85.

Kumar B N, Choudhary S K. Algal flora of Jagatpur wetland in the middle Ganga flood plain near Bhagalpur, Bihar (India). J Ind Bot Soc 2009; 88(3and4): 8–11.

Kumar N S V, Hosmani S P. Assessment of algal biodiversity and pollution in Santhe (Darga) lake (Mysore district) Karnataka. In: Lake 2010: Wetlands, Biodiversity and climate change 2010; pp 1-20.

Kumar, Sahu R. Ecological studies of Cyanobacteria in sewage pond of H.E.C. industrial area, Ranchi India. Bioscience Discovery 2012; 3(1): 73–78.

Kumar R, Seth M. K, Suseela M R. Cyanophycean flora of Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh. Phykos 2013; 4 (1): 1-7.

Kumawat D A, Jawale A K. The genus Oscillatoria Vaucher from fish ponds of Jalgaon district, Maharashtra (India). J Ind Bot Soc 2006; 85: 97–102.

Laloraya V K, Mitra A K. Studies on the blue-green algae of the paddy fields of India. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 1973; 47: 347.

Madhumathi V, Vijayakumar S. Survey of Cyanobacterial flora from Samuthiram Lake of Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India. J Algal Biomass Utln 2013; 4(1): 70–79.

Martens G Von. A third list of Bengal algae determined by G.V. Martens. Proc Asiatic Soc Bengal 1870; 39: 9-12.

Martens G Von. A fifth list of Bengal algae (determined by G.V. Martens Communicated by S. Kurz). Proc Asiatic Soc Bengal 1871; 40: 170-173.

Martens K V, Chaudhari P R. Preliminary observation on the algae in two water treatment plants in Nagpur division. Journal of the I W W A 1976; 8(3): 223-226. Martens K V, Sontakke S D. Observation on some wall algae. Botanique 1977; 8(1-4): 31-34.

Mikter S S, Shukla S P. Study on algal flora of algal moss association on barks of some selected tree species at Rono hills of Papum Pare district in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Bulletin of Arunachal Forest Research 2006; 22(1and2): 1–8.

Mir A M, Suri B L. Phytoplankton of Ladakh. Geobios 1975; 2(6): 199-200.

Mishra G P, Jaishree Purahit. A preliminary list of soil algae from Sagar. Phykos 1979; 18: 63-67.

Misra P K, Srivastava K A. Fresh water Cyanophycean algae from North- Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. J Ind Bot Soc 2005; 84: 67-75.

Misra P K, Mehrotra R K, Shukla M and Prakash J. Genus – Oscillatoria Vaucher from district Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. J Ind Bot Soc 2008; 87(1and2): 57–60.

Mitra G P. Some aspects of fixation of elementary nitrogen y blue-green algae in the soil. Proc Nat Acad Sci India 1961; 31(1): 98-99.

Modassir Y, Ansari A. Plankton Community of the Hypersaline Salterns of Goa, India. Biological Forum 2011; 3(1): 78-81.

Mohanty R C. Blue-green algae of Bhubaneswar and its adjoining regions-II. Phykos 1982; 21: 96-98.

Mukhopadhyay A, Chatterjee P. A check of blue-green algae from the paddy fields of 24-Parganas and Hooghly districts of West Bengal – I. Phykos 1981; 20(1and2): 81–84.

Munawar C. Limnological studies on fresh water ponds of Hydrabad, India. Hydrobiologia 1974; 44 (1): 13-27.

Muthukumar C, Muralitharan G, Vijayakumar R, Panneerselvam A, Thajuddin N. Cyanobacterial biodiversity from different freshwater ponds of Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu (India). Acta Botanica Malacitana 2007; 32: 17–25.

Nagasathya A, Thajuddin N. Cyano-bacterial diversity in the hypersaline environment of India. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 2008; 7(5): 473–478.

Nandan S N, Ahuja S R. Study of blue green algal biodiversity of lentic hydrosphere of Haranbari dam of Maharashtra (India). Asian J Exp Biol Sci (Spl) 2010; pp 132–135.

Naskar N, Naskar K R, Sen C R. Brakish water Oscillatoriaceae from North 24–Parganas, West Bengal, India. Bangladesh J Plant Taxon 2008; 15(1): 31–38.

Nedumaran T, Manokaran S. Cyanobacterial flora in some salt pans of Pudukkottai district, Tamilnadu, India. Journal of Phytology 2009; 1(3): 169–171.

Pal S, Yadav A K. Some cyanophyceae from Saharanpur district. A taxonomic enumeration. Phykos 1974; 13(1): 38-47.

Pal S. A check list of algae from Ghaziabad. Phykos 1975; 14(1and2): 67-76.

Pal T K, Santra S C. Contributions to the Cyanophyceae of Murshidabad. Phykos 1982; 21: 150–152.

Pandey D C. A study of the algae from paddy field soils of Ballia and Ghazipur districts of Uttar Pradesh, India-I. Nova Hedwigia 1965a; 9(1-4): 299-334.

Pandey D C. A study of the algae from paddy field soils of Ballia and Ghazipur districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. Nova Hedwigia 1965b; 10(1/2): 177-207.

Pandey S N. Studies on planktonic algae of Kanpur. Labdev J Sci Tech. India 1969; 78(2): 163-167.

Pandey U C, Chaturvedi U K. Algae of Rohilkhand division, U.P., India- V. Phykos 1979; 18(1 and2): 37-43.

Pandey U C. Additions to algal flora of Rohilkhand division-VI, Cyanophyceae. Phykos 1982a; 21: 137-140.

Pandey U C, Pandey D C. Additions to the algal flora of Allahabad-VIII, Cyanophyceae. Phykos 1982b; 21: 76-79.

Pandhol R K, Grover I S. Algal flora of Ludhiana and its adjoining areas. Phykos 1976; 15: 23-32.

Parukutty P R. The Myxophyceae of Travancore state, India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Section B 1940; 11(3): 117-124.

Patel R J, Soni M J, Vaghela J K. A preliminary survey of cyanophyceae of Anand (Gujrat, India). Bangladesh J Bot 1974; 3(1):23-33.

Patil V P, Nandan S N. Biodiversity of Cyanophyceae from Amarabati Dam of Dhule district, (Maharashtra). Journal of Experimental Science 2011; 2(3): 33-36.

Patil, Neelima. Cyanophycean flora of Toranmal, district Nandurbar, Maharashtra. Indian Hydrobiology 2013; 16(1): 32-41

Prain D. The vegetation of the district Hooghly, Howrah and 24-Parganas. Rec Bot Surv India 1905; 3: 143–339.

Prasad B N. On the algal flora of river Varnua in Varanasi district. J Sci Res B H U 1964-65; 15(1): 142-151.

Prasad B N, Srivastava P N. Thermal algae from Himalayan hot springs. Proc Nat Inst Sci 1965; 31(1 and 2): 45–53.

Prasad B N, Srivastava P N. Systematic and Ecological studies on algae of alkaline usar soil. Phykos 1968; 7(1and2): 102- 111. Prasad B N, Mehrotra R K. Blue-green algae of paddy fields of Uttar Pradesh. Phykos 1980; 19(1): 121-128.

Prasad B N, Saxena M. Ecological study of Blue-gren-algae in river Gomati. Indian J Environ Hlth 1980; 22(2): 151-168.

Prain B N. The vegetation of the districts of Hooghly-Howrah and the 24-Pergunnahs. Rec Bot Surv India 1905; 3(2): 143-339.

Prescott G W. Algae of the Western Great Lakes Area 2nd Ed. W.M.C. Brown Company Publishers, Dubuque Lowa 1962; pp. Rai L C, Kumar H D. Systematic and Ecological studies on algae of some habitats polluted with fertilizer factory effluent. Nova Hedwigia 1976; 27: 805-811.

Rai L C, Kumar H D. Studies on some algae of polluted habitats. Recent Researchers in plant Sciences. Ed S S Bir, Kalyni Publishers, New Delhi, India, 1979.

Ramanathan G, Sugumar Jeevarathinam R A, Rajarathinam K. Studies of Cyanobacterial distribution in estuary region of southeastern coast of Tamilnadu, India. J Algal Biomass Utln 2013; 4 (3): 26–34.

Ramkrishnan N, Kannan L. Blue green algal flora of Muthupet, Tamil Nadu. Phykos 1992; 31(1and2): 169-171.

Ranjana Jha A N, Siddiqui E N, Roy A K , Dogra J V V, Varma S K. Phytodiversification and human welfare, MD Publications Pvt Ltd, New Delhi 1998.

Rao C B. The Myxophyceae of the Untied Provinces, India–II. Proc Indian Acad Sci 1936; 3(2): 165-174.

Rao C B. The Myxophyceae of the Untied Provinces, India–III. Proc Indian Acad Sci 1937; 6: 339–375.

Rao C B. The Myxophyceae of the Orissa Province, India–I. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Section B 1938a; 8(3): 157-170.

Rao C B. The Myxophyceae of the Madras presidency, India-I. J Indian Bot Soc 1938b; 17: 81-96.

Rao C B. The myxophyceae of the Orissa provinces, India-I. J India Acad Sci 1939; 8(B): 157-170.

Rao C S. The myxophyceae of the Delhi province, India-I. India Acad Sci 1940; 11(3B): 125-131.

Rao S D, Pattnaik H. Studies on some blue-green-algae growing at high temperature. Phykos 1975; 14(1and2): 27-28.

Rao V.S. An ecological study of three fresh-water ponds of Hydrabad-India-IV (Diatom, Euglenineae, and Myxophyceae). Hydrobiologia 1977; 53(1): 13-32.

Reddy P M, Venkateswarlu V. Ecological studies in the paper mill effluents and their impact on the river Tungabhadra: Heavy metals and algae. Proc Indian Acad Sci (Plant Sci) 1985; 95(3): 139-146.

Reddy P M, Venkateswarlu V. The impact of paper mill effluents on the algal flora of the river Tungabhadra. J Ind Bot Soc 1992; 71: 109–114.

Saha L C, Wujek D E. Phytoplankton distribution in an oligotrophic pond and a eutrophic pond. Acta hydrochimica Hydrobiologica 1989; 174: 407-416.

Sankaran V, in: Rana, B C (Eds). Damaged Ecosystem and Restoration, World Scientific Publishing Co Pvt Ltd Singapore 1998; pp 281-293.

Santra S C, Pal U C, Maity H, Bandyopadhyay G. Blue green algae in saline habitats of West Bengal, A systematic account. Biol Mem 1988; 14(1): 81–108.

Sarma T A, Kanta S. Algal flora of Patiala and its environs. Phykos 1978; 17(1and2): 105-111.

Sarma T A, Kanta S, Sunita. Algal flora of Patiala and its environs- Cyanophyceae II. Phykos 1979; 18: 13-19.

Sarojini Y. Seasonal changes in phytoplankton of sewage and receiving harbor waters at Vishakhapatnam. Phykos 1996; 35(1and2): 171-182.

Saxena P N. Algal flora of “Usar” lands in Uttar Pradesh. Sci and Cult 1960; 25(9): 542-543.

Senthil K R, Sivakumar K. Studies on phytoplankton diversity in response to abiotic factors in Veeranam Lake in the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu. Journal of Environmental Biology 2008; 29(5): 747-752.

Sen C R, Gupta D.The genus Oscillatoria Vaucher from greater Calcutta. Bull Bot Soc Bengal 1987: 41: 41–45. Sen C R, Gupta D. The genus Oscillatoria vaucher from lower gangetic plants of West Bengal. Phykos 1998; 37(1and2): 89–93.

Sen N, Naskar K R. Algal flora of Sundarban Mangals. Daya Publishing House, New Delhi 2003.

Senthil P, Jeyachandram S, Manoharan C and Vijayakumar S. Microbial diversity in rubber industry effluent. I J P B S 2012; 2(1): 123-131.

Sen C R, Gupta D. The genus Oscillatoria Vaucher from lower gangetic plants of West Bengal. Phykos 1998; 37(1 and 2): 89–93.

Sen Sarkar N, Bandyopadhyaya T, Dutta S, Das S. Algae in the assessment of industrial effluents: Case study in Southern Bengal, India. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2013; 32(2) : 101-114.

Sethi S K, Samad L K, Adhikary S P. Cyanobacteria and microalgae in biological crusts on soil and sub-aerial habitats of eastern and north eastern region of India. Phykos 2012; 42 (1): 1–9.

Shaji C, Panikkar M V N. Cyanophyceae of Kerala, India. Phykos 1994; 33(1and2): 105–112.

Sharma S, Naik M L. Rice field cyanobacteria of Pithora block of Raipur District of Madhya Pradesh. Phykos 1996; 35(1and2): 139-141.

Shukla P. Behaviour of catalase in some members of Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae. Hydrobiologia, 1966; 27(3-4): 460-464.

Shukla S K, Misra P K, Shukla C P. Cyanophycean algae from the foot hills of indo-western Himalaya. Ecoprint 2009; 16: 65-73.

Silambarasan G, T Ramanathan, Kathiresa K. Diversity of Marine Cyanobacteria from tree Mangrove Environment in Tamil Nadu Coast, South East Coast of India. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2012; 4(3): 235-238.

Singh K P. The Myxophyceae of the Kumaon hills, U.P., India–I. Proceedings: Plant Sciences 1959a; 49(3): 161–166.

Singh K P. The algal flora of vindhyan formations of the Mirzapur district, U.P. Proceedings: Plant Sciences 1959b; 49(1): 66–73.

Singh K P. The Myxophyceae of the Kumaon hills, U.P., India – II. Uttara Bharati 1961; 8(1): 101-108.

Singh K P, Chaturvedi U K. Myxophyceae of the Rohilkhand division, U.P. India-II. Phykos 1970; 9(1): 36-40.

Singh R N. An investigation into the algal flora of paddy field soils of the United Provinces. J Indian Jour Agri Sci 1939a; 9(1): 55-77.

Singh R N. The Myxophyceae of the United Provinces, India-IV. Proc Indian Acad Sci 1939b; 9(2): 63-68.

Singh R P, Balasingh G S R. Limnological studies of Kodaikanal lake (Dindugal District), in special reference to phytoplankton for diversity. Indian journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences 2011; 1(3): 112-118.

Singh R, Samdariya P, in: Kumar A, Singh L K (Eds). Advance Ecology. Daya publishing house, Delhi 2006, pp 191-197.

Singh N I, Singh N S, Devi G A, Singh S M. Blue green algae from rice growing areas of Arunachal Pradesh. Phykos 1997; 36(1and2): 21–26.

Singh V P. On a collection of algae from the Chamba State, Punjab–I. Proceedings: Plant Sciences 1941; 14(3): 250-255. Singh V P,

Saxena P N, Tewari A, Khan M A. studies on the seasonal variation of algal-flora of seawage. Phykos 1970; 9(2): 57-62.

Singh V P, Saxena P N. Preliminary studies on algal succession in raw and stabilized sewage. Hydrobiologia 1969; 34(3and4): 503-512.

Sinha B D, Srivastava N K. Algal flora of Balmikinagar Bihar. Phykos 1980; 19(2): 171-174.

Sinha J P, Mukherjee D. On blue-green algae from the paddy fields of Bankura district of West Bengal–I. Phykos 1975a; 14(1and2): 117–118.

Sinha J P, Mukherjee D. On blue-green algae from the paddy fields of Bankura district of West Bengal–II. Phykos 1975b; 14(1and2): 119–120.

Sinha J P, Mukherjee D. Blue-green algae from the paddy fields of Bankura district of West Bengal – III, Phykos 1984; 23: 142–143.

Somasekhar L K, Ramaswami S N. Biological assessment of water pollution: a study of the river Kapila. International Journal of Environmental Studies 1984; 23(3and4):261-267.

Srinivasan M V. Some myxophyceae from the Mysore state. Phykos 1963; 2(1and2): 45-48. Subba Raju. The algal flora of Kashmir-I J Osmania Univ Sci 1963; 1: 9-17.

Sugumar R, Ramanathan G, Rajarathinam K, Jeevarathinam A, Abirami D, Bhoothapandi M. Diversity of salt pan marine cyanobacteria from Cape Comarin coast of Tamil Nadu. Journal of Phytology 2011; 3(9): 1–4.

Subramaniyan V, Savarimuthu J, Chocckaya M. Studies on cyanobacterial population in industrial effluents. J Algal Biomass Utln 2012; 3(1): 39-45.

Sudhakar G, Venkateswarlu V.Ecological imbalance in the rivers of Andhra Pradesh (India): effect of paper mill effluents on the rivers of Tungabhadra and Godavari. International Journal of Environmental Studies 1989; 34(142): 89-97.

Suryaprakasa C. The Myxophyceae of the Delhi province, India–I. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Section B 1940; 11(3): 125-131.

Suseela M R, Toppo K. Fresh water algal flora of Changu lake of Sikkim Himalayas, India. Phytotaxonomy 2004; 4: 100- 103.

Suxena M R, Venkateswarlu V, Subba Raju N, Rao V S. The algae and Testacea of Cranganore, Kerala State India. J Indian bot Soc 1973; 52: 316-341.

Tarar J L, Kelkar D B. Effects of some selected antibodies on soil algae. Curr Sci 1979; 48(3): 352-354.

Tarar J L, Mazumdar Studies on the algae ambazari water treatment plant. Proceedings: Plant Sciences 1981; 90(4): 299-304.

Thajuddin N, Subramanian G. Survey of cyanobacterial flora of the southern east coast of India. Botanica Marina 1992; 35: 305-314.

Thakur H A, Behere K H. Study of filamentous algal biodiversity at Gangapur Dam Nasik dist. (M.S.), India. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The World Lake Conference 2008; pp 456-461.

Thomas J, Gonzalves E A. Thermal algae of Western India. Hydrobiologia 1965; 25(3and4): 330–340.

Tiwari G L. Study of blue-green algae from paddy fields soils of India. Hydrobiologia 1972; 29: 335–350.

Tiwari G L. A study of the Blue green algae from paddy field soils of India-II. Taxonomic considerations of Non-heterocystous blue-green algae. Nova Hedwigia 1975; 26: 765- 786.

Tiwari A, Chauhan S V S. Seasonal variation in some Oscillatoria species from polluted ponds of Agra. J Ind Bot Soc 2006; 85: 110–117

Tiwari A, Chauhan S V S. Seasonal variation in some Oscillatoria species from polluted ponds of Agra. J Ind Bot Soc 2006; 85: 110–117.

Vaidya B S, Upadhyaya M M. Terrestrial algae of Ahmedabad. Vidya 1968; 11(2): 190-197.

Vasishta P C. More Cyanophyceae of Hoshiarpur. J Bombay nat Hist Soc 1961; 58(1): 135-146. Vasishta P C. More Cyanophyceae of Hoshiarpur II. JBNHS 1963; 60(3): 671-678.

Vasishta P C. Thermal cyanophyceae of India-I. Phykos 1968; 7 (1 and 2): 198-341.

Venkataraman G S. Observation on some myxophyceae from high altitudes. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 1958; 55: 318-321.

Venkateswarlu V. Taxonomy and ecology of algae in the river Moosi, Hydrabad, India. Nova Hedwigia 1976; 27: 661- 688.

Vijayakumar S, Thajuddin N, Manoharan C. Biodiversity of cyanobacteria in industrial effluents. Acta Botanica Malacitana 2007; 32: 27-34.

Vishnoi S R, Srivastava P N. Some interesting algal taxa from alkaline pond of Gura Vishnoiyan, near Jodhpur (Rajasthan, India). J Ind Bot Soc 2006; 85: 107–109.

Zafar A R. Certain aspects of distribution pattern of phytoplankton in the lakes of Hydrabad. Proc Symp Recent Adv Trop Ecol 1968; 368-375.
 





LEGEND TO FIGURES
Oscillatoria princeps Vaucher ex Gomont; Plate I, Figure 1 and Plate III, Figure 29 Oscillatoria simplicissima Gomont; Plate I, Figure 2 and Plate III, Figure 24 Oscillatoria laete-virens PAGEL.Crouan and H.M.Crouan ex Gomont; Plate I, Figure 3 Oscillatoria vizagapatnesis Rao, C.B.; Plate I, Figure 4 Oscillatoria proboscidea Gomont; Plate I, Figure 5 and Plate III, Figure 18 Oscillatoria anguina (Bory) Gomont; Plate I, Figure 6 and Plate III, Figure 30 Oscillatoria limosa Agardh ex Gomont; Plate II, Figure 7 and Plate III, Figure 17 Oscillatoria nitida Škorbatov; Plate II, Figure 8 and Plate III, Figure 25 Oscillatoria raoi DeToni, J.; Plate II, Figure 9 and Plate III, Figure 20 Oscillatoria sancta (Kützing) Gomont; Plate II, Figure 10 and Plate III, Figure 22 Oscillatoria subbrevis Schmidle; Plate II, Figure 11 and Plate III, Figure 19 Oscillatoria salina Biswas; Plate II, Figure 12 and Plate III, Figure 23 Oscillatoria tenuis Agardh ex Gomont; Plate II, Figure 13 and Plate III, Figure 21 Oscillatoria okeni Agardh ex Gomont; Plate II, Figure 14 and Plate III, Figure 27 Oscillatoria amoena (Kützing) Gomont; Plate II, Figure 15 and Plate III, Figure 28 Oscillatoria obscura Brühl et Biswas; Plate II, Figure 16 and Plate III, Figure 26 Study Area: - Plate IV