International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: SCOPUS, Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, BOAI, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, e-Print, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg, SciPeople.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Readers around the world

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 02 Issue 06, June, 2010

Pages: 13-20

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY ON ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS REPORTING IN CASUALTY OF RURAL TEACHING INSTITUTE OF A DISTRICT IN MAHARASHTRA STATE OF INDIA

Author: Abhay Bhausaheb Mudey, Padma Shetty, Ajay K Dawale, Gargi Mudey, Vasant V Wagh, Ramchandra C. Goyal

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:Introduction: Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) in developing countries is now becoming a burden on health system and society itself. World Road Statistics estimates India to have the second highest number of road accidents in a year. RTAs are mainly due to carelessness, addiction, overconfidence and changing life styles. Objectives: To study the epidemiological factors for causation of RTAs and To determine the distribution of RTAs with respect to time, type and site of accident. Study design: Cross sectional hospital based study Participants: 232 RTA cases reported to emergency room during six months from January to June 2009 was undertaken Main outcome measures: These are percentage of males involved, reason and types for accidents, drivers influence of alcohol, without license and protective equipments, number of disabilities. Result: 60-80% of total cases were males and in the age group of 20-40 years. 61.3% cases were due to vehicle to vehicle type of accidents, which mostly occurred at night and due to high vehicular speed mainly at night, due to high speed on highways. 44.7% had minor injuries, 23.4% had fractures whereas 12.8% had multiple injuries. 9.2% were transferred to another hospital for treatment. 61.7% of all RTAs cases were treated, cured and discharged. 23.5% had disability at the time of discharge. Unfortunately 5.60% could not survive.
Conclusion:
There is definite need of road safety education, enforcement of traffic safety regulations and strengthening of health care facilities with more emphasis on trauma care units to prevent RTAs in near future.

Keywords: Accidents, road safety, traffic regulations, injuries, RTAs

Full Text:

Introduction

Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) in developing countries is now becoming a burden on health system and society itself. RTAs are mainly due to carelessness, speeding, poor traffic sense, overtaking, overcrowding, addiction, overconfidence and changing life styles. A World Health Organization report estimates that road traffic accidents caused 1,180,000 deaths worldwide and the global cost of road traffic accidents to be $518 billion per year in 2002. [1] India has one of the highest road accident rates in the world. There has been a steady rise in the deaths due to road accidents in the country, with an increasing proportion to the total death in the country. In India, nearly 80,000 die and 340,000 injured every year in about 300,000 accidents on road network of just 22,00,000 Km. and there is an accident occurring once in every one minutes and death every 8 minutes [2]. Currently motor vehicle rank 9th in the order of disease burden and projected to be ranked third in year 2020.World Road Statistics (2007) s estimated that in the year 2005, India had the second highest number of road accidents. Families can be pushed into poverty by the loss of earnings of a family member killed or injured in a road accident. Beside the loss of earnings, the families struggle to meet the immediate financial needs that arise for providing medical care for funeral costs. Human vehicle and environmental factors play roles before, during and after a trauma event. Accidents therefore can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time place and person distribution. Keeping in mind all these factors, the study was conducted at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital Sawangi (Meghe) Wardha, in the state of Maharashtra, (India) with the objective of studying the epidemiological factors for causation of RTAs and determine the distribution pattern with respect to time, type and site of accident.

2. Methodology

Type of Study: A Cross sectional hospital based study

Study period: January to June 2009.

Study sample: All cases of RTAs reporting to the emergency room of Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital and Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College Sawangi (Meghe) Wardha. During the six month period, 201 cases of Road Traffic Accident were reported. A total 232 RTA victims Information was collected through interviewing the victim or their attendant and substantiating the additional information through the MedicoLegal Records.

Study variables:

Age sex education and occupation of victims. Time, place person and the type of vehicle involved in the accident. For the purpose of the study, a Road Traffic Accident (RTA) was defined as accident on the road between two or more objects, one of which must be any kind of a moving vehicle. Any injury on the road without involvement of a vehicle or injury involving a stationary vehicle was excluded from the study. The victims of the accidents were interviewed to obtain the information about the circumstances leading to accident. A pre-tested questionnaire specially designed for this purpose was used for interviewing the accident victims, either in the emergency room or in the wards of Hospital as per the convenience of the patients and relatives. In cases, where the condition of the victims did not warrant the interview, the relatives or attendants were interviewed. The medico-legal records and case sheets of the victims were referred for collecting additional information and for substantiating the information provided by the patient /attendant. Data was collected on daily basis which was compiled, tabulated and analyzed.

Results

Total no of MLC's in six months were 311cases out of which total no of Road Traffic Accidents are 201(64.63% of total MLCs) involving 232 victims including 13(5.60%) deaths. Out of 232 victims, 142 (61.2%) were drivers, among those 18 (12.67%) were under the influence of alcohol. Surprisingly only 7 (4.92%) drivers were wearing the helmets/seat-belts. Among all victims, laborer were (27.59 %), employee in service (24.57 %) and students (16.38 %) were found involved more in RTAs. (Table 1) Percentage of males involved in RTAs was 81.03 % with 74.51% of victims were in the age group 21-40 yrs. (Table 2) 61.3% of accidents were vehicle to vehicle type and accidents were took place mainly during night (60.7%) and on highways (43.78%) because of high speed of the vehicle. Among all vehicle to vehicle type accidents, 25.87% were two wheelers followed by four wheelers and Truck i.e. 20.90% each. Bullock cart and Bicycle were found involved in 5.47% and 4.98%. (Figure I) 44.72% had minor injuries, 23.4% had fractures whereas 12.8% had multiple injuries. Upper and lower extremities found involved more among all the type of injuries. (Table 3) 9.2% were transferred to another hospital for treatment. 61.7% of all RTAs cases were treated, cured and discharged. However 23.5% are living with some disability.

Discussion

Life styles are changing not only in urban area but also in rural area. The number of vehicles is increasing in rural area tremendously. In rural areas, people generally do not adhere to the traffic rules and discipline. The present study was carried out in the emergency room of a teaching institute and hospital located in a rural area whose catchment area is mainly from villages and a national highway. There are total 311 medicolegal cases reported to casualty during a study period and out which 201 (64.63%) were RTA cases involving 232 victims. Majority of the RTA victims were between the age group of 21 to 40 years. Similar finding were also reported in a study of Tanzania by Moshiro C and et al (2005). [3] The victims were mainly from the age group of 21-40 years. The age group of the drivers was between 21-40 years. Those above 40 years are generally more careful in driving, as well would have gained more driving skills over the years. Males were found to be involved more than females in RTAs, the similar findings were reported by many studies, Kumar A et al (1999)[4] and Singh R et al (2003) [5] this is because of their mobility and nature of outdoor works than females. It was also observed that majority of the victims were educated, and employed who have to travel either for studies or work. The victims were either Laborers (27.59 %), employed in service (24.57 %) or students (16.38 %). It was found that 16(11.26 %) drivers of vehicles did not have a valid driving license, which reflects poor enforcement of the traffic rules by the Traffic police Department. 61.3% of accidents are vehicle to vehicle type, of which 25.87% were two wheelers. Two wheelers are mostly driven by young students who are generally inexperienced drivers with a tendency to drive at an uncontrollable speed. 60.7% of the accidents took place at night, and 43.78% on highways especially on weekends. Most people move from their homes to holiday destination on weekends. Protective equipment was used by only 4.92% of the drivers whereas a study in Thailand by Thanaboriboon Y (2006)[6] found that only 10% of the drivers were using helmets and seat belts. This low percentage of use of protective equipment reflects poor law enforcement by the Road Traffic department, as well as a casual attitude towards life and law. According to one such study it was also seen that in most of the gulf countries the seat belt law is ignored because of which there is high prevalence of deaths among the road traffic accidents. [7]

The percentage of drivers who were found to have consumed alcohol is 12.67%, Similar findings were also reported by Jha and et al in 2003. [8] where they found that 14.9% drivers were under influence of alcohol. Impaired driving ability due to consumption of alcohol is documented by many studies in India and outside. The risk of accidents is higher in those whose blood alcohol levels are higher. 44.72% had minor injuries, 23.4% had fractures whereas 12.8% had multiple injuries. Upper and lower extremities were most affected among all the type of injuries. 9.2% were transferred to another hospital for treatment. 61.7% of all RTAs cases were treated, cured and discharged whereas 23.5% are still living with some disability. Unfortunately 13(5.60%) could not survived.

Conclusion

There is definite need of road safety education, enforcement of traffic safety regulations and strengthening of health care facilities with more emphasis on trauma care units to prevent RTAs in near future.

Recommendations

  • Safety measures like use of Helmets, leather cloths and boots, proper door locking and safety belts should be used by everyone to prevent injuries.
  • Driving on highways with a very high speed should be avoided specially during night hours.
  • Awareness regarding traffic rules should be necessary for all who drives on roads

References:

1. Peden M: Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. International J on Injury control safety promotion, 2005, 12(2) : 85- 91

2. Supriya satish Patil, RV Kakde, PM Durgawale and SV Kakde; Pattern of Road traffic Injuries: A study from Western Maharashtra, Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 2008 January;33(1): 56-57

3. Moshiro C, Heuch I, Astrom AN, Setel P, Hamed Y, Kyle G. Injury mobility in an urban and rural area in Tanzania:an epidemiological survey: BMC Public Health, 2005;5:11

4. Kumar A, Qureshi GU, Aggarwal A and Pandey DR. Profile of thorasic injuries with special reference to road traffic accidents in Agra, Journal of Indian Association of Forensic Medicine,1999;21(4):104- 109

5. Singh R, Sharma CS, Mittal R, Sharma A.Traumatic spinal cord injuries in Haryana: An epidemiological study; Indian Journal of Community Medicine,2003;28(4):184-6

6. Thanaboriboon Y. Risk factors of road traffic accidents; Health setuation in Thialand, 2006; 2(10):1- 6

7. Bener A, Abu-Zidan FM, Bensiali AK, Al-Mulla AAK, Jadaan KS. Strategy to improve road safety in developing countries, Saudi Medical Journal; 2003; 24:603-608

8. Jha N, Srinivasa DK, Roy G and Jagdish S. Injury pattern among road traffic accident cases: A study from South India;Indian Journal of Community Medicine; 2003;28(2):85-90

Research Incentive Schemes

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (JICRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (JICRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2020 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions