International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 08, August, 2011

Pages: 171-174

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001

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Author: Virendra S Ligade, D.Sreedhar, Manthan.J, Prashant .M, Ajay.P, N.Udupa

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:The objective of this paper is to provide a literature review on analysis of Cascade Refrigeration Systems using various working fluids (refrigerants) and to give useful guidelines regarding background and operating principles of Cascade System. The recent interest and development of two-circuit cascade systems are highlighted and principal aspects of the environmental pollution by working fluids in Cascade refrigeration systems are reported. Thus, paper discussed one of the crucial point of refrigerants selection which makes these systems more efficient from both economical and environmental point of view.

Keywords: Spa, India, Market

Full Text:


Spa is a treatment, where there is use of drinking waters, hot baths and natural vapor baths, as well as various kinds of mud and sand are applied for body treatment. The term Spa is derived from the name of the town of Spa, Belgium, whose name is known back to Roman times, when the location was called Aquae Spadanae, perhaps related to the Latin word "spargere" meaning to scatter, sprinkle or moisten. The belief in the curative powers of mineral waters goes back to prehistoric times. Such exercise has been popular worldwide, but is especially well-known in Europe and Japan. Taking bath in hot and cold springs so as to cure some ailment is not new to human beings. Many people around the world believed that bathing in a particular spring, well, or river resulted in physical and spiritual purification.

Forms of ritual purification existed among the native Americans, Persians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. Today, ritual purification through water can be found in the religious ceremonies of Jews, Muslims, Christians, Buddhists, and Hindus. 1 Spa Types and Treatments: 2 In today’s modern era there are various types of spa with range of treatments as per customers need. Few of them are listed below.


Day Spa: In a day spa a cosmetic treatment is given for the hands and nails that usually involve shaping and polishing the fingernails, pushing back the cuticles, and treating a rough skin, and they also provide a cosmetic or medical care for the feet. Medical Spa: These are centers where Aurvedic massage therapy, aesthetic medical skin care, aesthetic surgery, use of cosmeceuticals, cosmetic dentistry, purification and holistic treatments are blended together seamlessly with the help of physician-directed team of licensed professionals combine years of expertise and training to help consumers look and feel best.3 Resort and Destination Spa: Today all major hotels and resorts across the country have a special section dedicated to spa treatments. These are centers were body massage is done by applying various aromatic oils. Spa treatments relax and rejuvenate with natural therapies and oils in a soothing environment.4

Global Spa market Scenario: Spa practices have been popular worldwide, but are especially widespread in Europe and Japan and USA. The estimated size of the global spa market is US$ 60 billion, which has seen a 20 to 30 percent surge in the last few months.

Asian Spas: Favorite destination Asia has a rich cultural history. Asian spas have become increasingly popular in recent years. The popularity of Asian spas in the international market is causing greater demand for trained Asian spa personnel in the international market. Asian spas have proven to be a good source of income and a way of increasing GDP throughout Asia due to their unique characteristics in the global industry. The culture and local wisdom in Asia varies greatly from country to country. Spa culture also varies by its origin. For example, Shiatsu and Onzen spa culture from Japan; Chinese acupuncture, Reflexology, Tui-Na and Tai Chi from China, Ayurveda from India, and Traditional Thai Massage from Thailand.5

Indian Spa Market: Enormous potential ahead The spa industry in India has huge potential and has some unique development in recent years. Kerala, with its ayurvedic roots, has emerged as a sizzling destination for spa tourism. Other than Kerala, Maharashtra and North India had major growth witnessed In recent years. India is a powerhouse in the industry with its confluence of hightech medicine, traditional healing and an abundance of tourist attractions. Other than skin treatment and massages spas provides different therapies, such as reflexology, hydrotherapy, aromatherapy, and meditation which is very well-known among Indian consumers. By looking at the potential ahead some groups of companies are even planning to setup a chain of spas across country. Further to make industry more professional the concerned associations are trying to bring all spa community together to create an organized message of the significance of spa. According to RNCOS business research, the market is poised to grow at an estimated CAGR of around 30% (which is one of the highest among the beauty service market segments) during 2009-2012. The estimated market size of spas in India is US$ 384 million, with an estimated annual growth rate of 20 to 40 percent. The total numbers of spas in the country are about 2,300. The number of therapists required in the Indian spa industry is about 3, 00,000 by 2012.6 According to Assocham each foreigner visiting India during the 2010 Commonwealth Games, the estimated profits is expected around Rs 8 billion, mainly through spas. International visitors during games would spend Rs 10,000 to Rs 35,000 in spa treatments. It also estimates that the Indian spa industry will receive investment of $35 billion in the next 3-4 years.

Major Drivers and Challenges in Spa industry: 1. Large young consumer’s base: People under the age of 15-64 years constitute the consumer base for the spa market since this category react to the latest trends and fashions scenarios. The number of people under this particular age group is growing at a rapid pace and is forecasted to climb to about 790 million by 2015.

2. Life style of consumers: with increase in power of purchasing the consumers are more of aware of health and beauty. The reason for the demand for spa in India is greater access to television, which has created a growing awareness of the western world, greater product choice, availability and contribution of International beauty pageants. The demographic profile of spa industry is widening and extending to the males too.

3. Medical tourism: India will keep on to be a hot spot for medical tourists that seek travel services that incorporate diverse wellness packages, including those that couple medical procedures with spa indulgences, ayurvedic treatments or cultural immersion experiences. India occupies a unique and enviable position with a globally recognized and well-respected medical establishment generating Englishspeaking, highly qualified doctors.7

4. Entry of foreign players: More international investments are expected in day spas, as well as resort spas. International players are planning to open its specialty and day spas across the country—beginning with Mumbai, Delhi and Bangalore. The companies are targeting major metropolitan areas as well as tourist destinations, in order to cater to both local consumers and international travelers. Additionally, domestic companies have recently taken over a chain of day spas demonstrating that international players are seeking entry into the Indian spa market.8


1. Lack of trained personnel: Some of the issues related to spa are Who should perform medical spa services? What services should be offered and how should they be regulated? In what environment should these services be provided?

2. Lack of regulations and standards: The Ministry of Health has decided to regulate the wellness industry. The government has invited suggestions from industry, consumer bodies and civil society. According experts with the spa industry growing at about 70% annually, regulatory guidelines will help spas distinguish themselves from day spas, medi-spas and salons which are mushrooming everywhere.9 Before deciding which Medi spa is right for you, it's important to verify all accreditation and licenses to be sure it's a legitimate operation and to be sure you're in good hands. And even it's critical that you know what type of insurance is in place to protect against financial loss should the unthinkable occur. Once you've checked the Med spa out for safety, you are all set to begin enjoying the wonderful range of medical services in the calming, recharging environment of a spa for rejuvenated and refreshed you.10


India may become a premier spa destination for multinational and National spa giants in coming years, as India is known for land of alternative therapies for fighting some diseases and stress. India has advantage over other countries because of its huge geographical area, diverse culture , rich knowledge Ayurveda, growing hospitality industry, increased tourism industry, younger population and awareness of well-begin among the society all these factors may contribute to this sector which may become a quite unique in future.





2. ples/5d7a1ab1f2d102c9b0d9dc52 5af38a92.pdf

3. 200803/market23.shtml



6. es/health-wellness/essentials-forthe-spa-industry.htm


8. rketstrends/regions/bric/7842882. html?page=2

9. m/india/Ministry-plans-toregulate-spas-invites-guidelinesfromindustry/articleshow/ s

10. icle/What-Is-A-Med-Spa--WhatServices-TheyOffer/1143575#ixzz0sPUZ7Ein


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

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‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

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A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
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List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. entitled "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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