International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 08, August, 2011

Pages: 158-163

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001

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Author: Abhishek Tiwari, R.C.Gupta

Category: Technology

Abstract:In this work, an experimental work was investigated on the R-404A which is eco friendly
refrigerant and has zero ozone depletion potential and low global warming potential than R-134a
used in a domestic refrigerator without any system reconstruction. The refrigerator performance
was then investigated using energy consumption test and freeze capacity test. The results indicate
that R-404A work normally and safely in the refrigerator. The refrigerator performance was better
than the pure R134a, thus R-404A refrigerant in domestic refrigerators is feasible and can replace
the R-134a.

Keywords: Domestic refrigerator, Performance characteristics; R-404A, R134a, Energy saving

Full Text:


 Refrigeration may be defined as the process to achieve and keep an enclosed space at a temperature lower than its surrounding temperature. This is done by continuous extraction of heat from the enclosed space whereas the temperature is below than that of the surrounding temperature. Most of the domestic refrigerators today are running based on the vapor compression refrigeration system. It is somewhat analogous to a reverse Rankine cycle. The vapor compression refrigeration system contains four main components which are compressor, condenser, expansion device, and evaporator.

In response to the international protocol agreements many experimental and theoretical studies is been carried out to replace R-12 and R-134a from a domestic refrigeration system.Exergey analysis of R- 413A as a replacement of R-12 in domestic refrigeration system is done by[2010],12 tests is taken out [six for each refrigerant] evaporator temperature range is kept constant from [15 to -10o c].The performance of R-413A was better than the R-12.B.O.bolaji[2010] reported the experimental study of R-152a and R-32 to replace R-134a in a domesticrefrigeration system, the pull down time by R-152a and R-134a achieved earlier than R-32,cop of R-152a was 4.7% higher than than the R-134a and cop of R-32 was 8.5% lower than the R-134a.Shengshan Bi[2010] analysed the performance of domestic refrigerator by using nano  refrigerants Tio2 with R-600a,the results showed that less power is consumed when nano refrigerant is mixed with R-600a and system performance was better when nano refrigerant is used miscibility of oil and  compressor life is also increasedrefrigerants [R-290 and R-600a] with 50% component ratio to.ChingSong Jwo[2008] reported the experimental investigation of hydrocarbon replace R-134a,they analysed that cop ofhydrocarbon refrigerant was higher than the R-134a,pwer is saved up to 4.4% and mass of refrigerant is reduced  up to 40%.M Mohan Raj[2008] reported the experimental study of R290/R- 600a mixture as an alternative to R-134a in domestic refrigeration system, refrigerant composed of R-290 and R-600a in a ratio of 45.2:54.8 by weight, overall performance was increasedmiscibility of oil is also increased with R290/R600a.M Fatouh[2006] assement of propane and commercial butane mixture as possible alternatives to replace R-134a from domestic refrigerator the performance characteristics of system predicted over a wide range of evaporator temperature[-35 to -10oc] and condensation temperature [40 to 60oc].finally the results confirmed that the propane/iso-butane/n-butane mixture with 60% propane is the best drop in replacement for R-134a in domestic refrigerator. MaoGang He[2004] reported the performance of mixing of the HFC152a/HFC125 in domestic refrigeration system. The theoretical performance showed that HFC 152a/HFC 125 mixtures in the composition of 0.85 mass fraction of HFC152a has same performance as with R- 12. Experimental system: The experimental domestic refrigerator was GL-195RL4 type manufactured by L G Electronics India Pvt.Ltd.,which was a single door multicontrolled refrigerator. 13 digital sensors and 2 pressure gauges were placed on the freezer compartment, fresh food storage compartment, and refrigeration system pipeline and detailed arrangement can be shown in fig.1,the power consumption was measured by a digital watt meter.



Before starting the experiment leaks were checked with the help of soap solution. The refrigerator was first charged with 60 g of R134a and tested at the intended various conditions. The experiment was repeated for 80 g, 100 g and 120 g of R134a. Tests were carried out the same way with R404A refrigerants by following the same procedures. The tests with R134a were carried out so that they can be used for comparison purposes.






A. The average COP obtained using R404A is higher than that of R134a.

B. Discharge pressure of R404A is about the same with that of R134a,which means it has almost same miscibility of oil and compressor life.

C. R134a offers lowest energy consumption. The compressor consumes 4.0% and 3.2% less energy when R- 134a was used than when R-404A in the system, respectively.

D. The performance of R134a in the experimental refrigerator closely follows that of R404A. Generally, the system performed better with R404Aa than R134a . This shows that R-404A can be used as replacement refrigerant for R134a in domestic refrigerator.


1. Akash, B.A., Said, S.A., 2003. Assessment of LPG as a possible alternative to R-12 in domestic refrigerator. Energy Conversion Management 44, 381–388.

2. Arora, C.P., 2000. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, 2nd edition. Tata McGraw Hill publishing company limited, New Delhi.

3. B.O.Bolaji, University of agriculture, Nigeria,

.4. Calm, J.M., 2006. Comparative efficiencies and implications for greenhouse gas emissions.

5. Calm, J.M., Hourahan, G.C., 2001. Refrigerant data summery.

6. Choi, D.K., Domanski, P.A., Didion, D.A., 1996. Evaluation of flammable refrigerants for use in water-to-water residential heat pump.

7. Devotta, S., Asthana, S., Joshi, R., 2004. Challenges in recovery and recycling of refrigerants.

8. He, M.-G., Li, T.C., Liu, Z.-G., Zhang, Y., 2005. Testing of the mixing refrigerant HFC152a/HFC125 in domestic refrigerator.

9. M.Mohanraj et al., mahallingam college of engineering and technology, pollachi,india

10. Mohanraj, M., Jayaraj, S., Muraleedharan, C., 2007. Improved energy efficiency of a domestic refrigerator retrofitted with hydrocarbon refrigerant mixture HC290/HC600a) as drop in substitute. Energy for Sustainable Development 11, 29–33.

11. Yang, Z., Liu, B., Zhao, H., 2004. Experimental study of the inert effect of R134a and R227ea on explosion limits of the flammable refrigerants. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 28, 557–563.

12. Calm, J.M., Hourahan, G.C., 2001. Refrigerant data summery. Engineering Systems 18, 74–88.

13. Sekhar, S.J., Lal, D.M., 2005. HFC134a/HC600a/HC290 mixture a retrofit for CFC12 systems. International Journal of Refrigeration 28, 735–743

14. Sekhar, S.J., Mohanlal, D., Renganarayanan, S., 2004. Improved energy efficiency for CFC domestic refrigerators retrofitted with ozone friendly HFC134a/HC refrigerant mixture.



Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
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List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. entitled "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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