International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 08, August, 2011

Pages: 86-91

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001

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Author: C.Manoharan, M. Jeyakumaran

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:The proliferation of information and communication technology has brought profound changes in the
availability and accessibility of information. It enables the learners of flexible learning to stimulate a
virtual learning. The World Wide Web technology as a vehicle for disseminating course materials and
its arrival has triggered the beginning of some fundamental changes in teaching, training, and selfdirected
learning. In this paper the authors highlight the different categories of web-based learning,
software tools used in web-based learning, equipment and requirements for creating electronic portfolio
and the uses of web-tools in distance education.

Full Text:


The rapid development in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) provides tools such as computers, interactive multimedia CD-ROMs, E-mail and Internet. The use of such well advanced technologies has now enabled the learners of flexible learning to stimulate a virtual learning and take the learners to virtual campus wherein teacher-learner interaction becomes possible in the cyberspace. The flexible teaching-learning strategies provide high quality education and ensuring equity in educational opportunities, particularly to the disadvantaged like physically challenged adult learners etc. The World Wide Web technology as a vehicle for disseminating course materials and for creating active learning experiences within a classroombased course. 


Web-based communication is seen by many as the key technological innovation of the last decade of the twentieth century. Web-based communication has attracted the attention of educators and trainers to the idea of distance education in a way that no earlier technology managed to do. The explosive growth of this technology, applied in designing and delivering instructional programs and in facilitating learner-instructor and learner-learner interactions in Web-based delivery of distance education. Web-based learning is a major sub-component of the term ?e-learning‘ with which instruction is delivered. It seeks to serve learners at some distance from their learning facilitator. It attempts to serve learners interacting with the learning source and thus it reduces the barriers of time and space to learning. 


Web-based learning has the following formats within ?learning context? i.e. how and when a learner encounters and undertakes the content (Robert H. Jackson, 2004)


In Asynchronous format learners rely on some structured plan that directs the learner through learning experiences without real-time interaction from an instructor. Self Study may be supplemented by asynchronous interaction with the instructor, for instance through email, voice mail, comments from threaded discussions. The majority of today's ?on-line learning‘ is in the ?directed study‘ format. ?Self Study‘ requires the learner to have a highly developed internal selfmotivation characteristic. Failure to have such internal drive leads to higher dropout rate of correspondence learner compared to traditional residential learners on most campuses.


In Synchronous format learners rely on the instructor. Here, some commonly shared experience or event generally occurring in realtime with highly interactive and structurally dynamic is led by the instructor. Instructor-led events have the capability to dynamically react to real-time environments and change the plan of study or flow of learning to meet the needs of learners at that particular time. This engagement style helps sustain learner interest and probably contributes to reduction of dropout rate.


Small group collaboration is an informal context defined as that informal education that goes on learner-to-learner gathering in hallways and libraries between classes and informally digests and shares their learning experiences. This learning method depends on learner-learner interaction rather than learner-content interaction. Small Group Collaborative activity may utilize asynchronous tools such as email, threaded discussion groups, listserves as well as use of synchronous tools such as telephone, text chat etc. Research indicates that successful incorporation of small group collaborative learning activities both increase the learner's satisfaction with the learning process and can decrease the time required from an instructor in administering and structuring a course or programmes.


There are several software tools used in webbased learning in the context of what general and administrative functions they address (Robert H. Jackson, 2004). They are;


These are multimedia creation tools. A multimedia professional uses these tools to create media that can either stand-alone or be added as a module into a management system. Examples range from simple tools like Microsoft PowerPoint to sophisticated, programmable tools like Macromedia's "Director" and "Author ware" software. These tools are used to develop content for all the content delivery systems.


Advanced Collaboration tools (Real-time Virtual Classroom) is a software product that facilitates the synchronous, real-time delivery of content or interaction by the web, but is not necessarily intended to comprehensively measure performance over time or handle course administrative tasks. Place ware Auditorium andCentre‘s Conference products are examples of real-time virtual classrooms.


These tools used to embrace a wide range of learning management. Within a Learning Management System (LMS), learners generally are provided an integrated view of all their active coursework and assignments in a "syllabus" spanning multiple courses and that provides comprehensive assessment and goals tracking. Bryan Chapman (2004) categorized the systems based on the capability to accommodate third party materials. These systems accommodate learning content from other sources than that they themselves deliver. Bryan Chapman (2004) distinguished the two vendors: Computermanaged instruction (CMI) and integratedinfrastructure system provide distinct sets of services.


If third-party courseware is among one‘s priorities, choose a CMI system. CMIs are open system one can attach third-party courses and they tend to focus on self-paced courses. The drawback of CMIs is they focus little on the community aspect of learning. CMIs include Docent, Ingenium, Manager's Edge, Librarian, Phoenix and WBT Manager


Integrated-infrastructure system does not accommodate third-party courses as well. On the other hand, it accommodates a mix of selfpaced, virtual and live-classroom training. Internet-infrastructure systems tend to be quick starters. They tend not to be self-paced, instead focusing on collaboration and involvement of an instructor. The drawback of Integratedinfrastructure systems is they may not recognize courses created elsewhere. Examples of integrated-infrastructure systems include Generation21, Mentor ware, Top Class, Virtual U, Web Course in a Box, WebCT, and WebMentor.


An electronic portfolio is a web or otherwise electronically based compilation of documents, images, and projects that relate to a learner's professional development. It can contain items from simple to complicated visual art presentation. The traditional storage format for portfolios in education is paper-based, usually in folders, boxes, or three-ring binders hold papers, pictures, cassette tapes, larger containers and more. With an electronic portfolio, information can be stored digitally on a computer hard drive or some sort of removable media such as floppy disk, Zip disk, CD-ROM, etc. Documents can be stored in many digital formats such as text documents, pictures files, web pages, digital video and presentation files. This electronic information takes up very little physical space and is easily accessed. In an electronic portfolio one can easily add text, sound, pictures, graphics, and even video. A standards-based portfolio uses a database or hypertext links to clearly show the relationship between the standards or goals, artefacts and reflections. Electronic Portfolios are a creative means of organizing, summarizing, and sharing artefacts, information, and ideas about teaching and learning, along with personal and professional growth. A portfolio is a sampling of the breadth and depth of a person's work conveying the range of abilities, attitudes, experiences, and achievements. Learners can gain valuable computer skills while creating or editing parts of their own electronic portfolios. Often, the terms Electronic Portfolio and Digital Portfolio are used interchangeably; however there is a distinction: an Electronic Portfolio contains artefacts that may be in analog form, such as a video tape, or may be in computer- readable form; in a Digital Portfolio, all artefacts have been transformed into computer-readable form. An electronic portfolio is not a haphazard collection of artefacts (i.e., a digital scrapbook or a multimedia presentation) but rather a reflective tool that demonstrates growth over time. (Barrett, 2000). An ideal Electronic Portfolio should include the following: i. a brief biographical sketch ii. Include one‘s resume, copies of documents, licenses, tests, etc. iii. a description of the classes one has taught (in brief), include grade level iv. describe one‘s teaching philosophy, one‘s teaching style, and include why he or she teaches v. demonstrate one‘s continuing education and creativity vi. include copies of recent lesson or unit plans one has used with photos of class engaged in the activities; student papers, even a video clip in action, and photos of classroom vii. letters of commendation, evaluations, recognition or honours one has received


 To create an electronic portfolio the following equipments are required; i. A Computer works best with video input and output and with RAM. ii. A colour flat-bed scanner is the best choice. iii. A Digital Camera with close-focus adjustment (e.g. Cannon VizCam). It also allows one to capture video and take single frame pictures. iv. A Hand-held Digital Camera used at the time of a field trip, or out to recess. v. Multimedia Software Programme or Web Authoring Programme. Multimedia Software Programme used portfolios can be easily learnt and it allows the learner a great deal of flexibility. If one does not want or need a lot of multimedia features like sound and videos, may use a web authoring programme to create electronic portfolios. A web authoring programme changes the format of graphics so that they take up very little space, so portfolios would take up much less hard drive space. Once the portfolio is completed, it could be uploaded to the internet so that it could be shared with educators, friends, and relatives around the world.


An electronic portfolio should fulfil the following requirements; i. Each portfolio should be designed for electronic access on the web. ii. Each portfolio should include a table of contents and an opening narrative that highlights how one‘s portfolio meets the professional standards. iii. A personal statement of educational philosophy and a current resume are also the required elements for every portfolio. Seminar and class discussions, papers, and teaching experiences should assist the person in shaping the philosophy statement. iv. The portfolio should contain evidence of one‘s teaching and learning that represents one as a professional educator. Examples may include lesson and unit plans, digitized photos or video and audio clips, selfassessments or reflections, evaluations and assessments, professional development activities, class organization and management information, research, and the integration of interactive technologies into the classroom. v. Each piece of work or evidence should contain a caption, annotation, or shore narrative to explain how this piece connects to one‘s learning and the professional standards. The electronic portfolio is not an electronic scrapbook or a fancy multimedia presentation. One‘s portfolio should International Journal of Current Research and Review Vol. 03 issue 08 August 2011 90 demonstrate that one has the knowledge, skills and perspectives to be an effective educator and that one is capable of translating pedagogical knowledge into practice. The portfolio should contain thoughtful responses about each item that connects with one‘s teaching philosophy in relation to professional standards.


Web-Based Learning has the following advantages: i. Fosters meaning-making, discourse ii. Moves from knowledge transmission to learner-controlled systems iii. Provides for reciprocal teaching iv. Is learner-centered. Self-paced learning is possible in this method v. Encourages active participation, knowledge construction vi. Based on higher level thinking skills -- analysis, synthesis, and evaluation vii. Promotes active learning viii. Allows group collaboration and cooperative learning ix. Provides multiple levels of interaction x. Focuses on real-world, problem solving xi. More and recent information related to a topic can be accesses and delivered. xii. Updated information is available in the web sites. xiii. More information will be gathered in short duration of time. So energy and time will be saved. xiv. Abstract concept can be easily explained with the help of animation and graphics. xv. It can be used for increasing course delivery for a large number of clients at a particular point of time. xvi. Learners on- the- job are facilitated by it for own-time access and interaction. xvii. Instructional materials are already instructionally designed for wider use. xviii. Web-based instruction will be more effective at higher education and research level.


The World Wide Web has streamlined the communication process across the world. It is very useful for learners due to its ability to remove time and space barriers. It is more effective when combined with the synchronous media. This process is immensely useful for distant learners because it is highly interactive and cost effective. It is the easiest and the most popular way to access the internet. The web has also emerged as recent mode of instruction. Because of the E-mail, internet, World Wide Web (WWW) and easy access to remote database, the distance learner have new opportunities to find information at the press of a computer key. The web designers, educationists, cognitive psychologists and scientists are looking forward at how the instruction can be organized and presented effectively through web sits. Web courses are exciting and, if designed properly, can provide valuable and active learning experiences.



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Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to June 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. entitled "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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