International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 08, August, 2011

Pages: 16-20

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001

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Author: Asha.K, Vinay.M, Anitha.T, Indira.V.Ingole, Kalpana.T

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:The styloid process is a clinically important structure because of its close proximity to the
maxillovertebro-pharyngeal recess. During routine osteology demonstration classes an
abnormally elongated styloid process on right side of 5.4cms length was observed.The clinical
implications of such an elongated styloid process and its variations in dimensions are discussed
in this paper.

Keywords: Skull, Styloid process (SP), Elongated styloid process (ESP), Eagle‘s syndrome.

Full Text:


The styloid process is a thin, cylindrical, sharp osseous outgrowth from the base of petrous temporal bone anteromedial to mastoid process / between external auditory meatus and jugular foramen (infront of stylomastoid foramen). The name styloid process is derived from Greek word ?stylos? meaning a pillar. The length of styloid process normally varies from 2-2.5cm [1] in adults. It has a tapering apex which is directed downwards and forwards. The SP gives attachement to three muscles ie, stylopharyngeus at its medial base, styloglossus on mid anterior and stylohyoid at anterior tip and two ligaments, stylomandibular and stylohyoid ligament. The apex of SP is connected to the ipsilateral cornu of hyoid bone via stylohyoid ligament which are embryological remnants of second bronchial arch. The apex of SP is clinically important because it is located between external and internal carotid arteries, just lateral to tonsillar fossa [2] . The facial nerve emerges from stylomastoid foramen and runs anteromedial to SP. The glossopharyngeal nerve exits through jugular foramen and curves around stylopharyngeus muscle. The vagus and accessory nerve also run medial to it. The approximation of glossopharyngeal nerve with the stylohyoid ligament is the basis for glossopharyngeal neurological symptoms seen in Eagles syndrome. ?ELONGATED STYLOID PROCESS? a term used since a publication by Eagle in 1937 reports concerned findings in dentomaxillofacial and Ear-nose-throat patients. Eagles syndrome or styalgia caused by ESP is an uncommon and underdiagnosed clinical entity. The elongated styloid process may produce characteristic head and neck pain syndromes, commonly known as Eagle's syndrome. An awareness of this syndrome is important to all health practitioners involved in the diagnosis and treatment of neck and head pain.


During routine osteology demonstration classes of skull for undergraduate students, an adult female skull [prominent superciliary arches, less prominent glabella, smooth muscle attachments], we found that the styloid process was abnormally lengthy as shown in figure-1. The length of SP was measured with the help of measuring tape using the inferior border of tympanic plate [just anterior to stylomastoid foramen] as the inceptive point to the tip of styloid process. The length measured was 5.4cm. This length is 2.16% longer than normal length. A bony protuberance or ossified mass with a circumferential diameter of 10mm was seen at proximal 1/3rd near the base of styloid process.

reporting Eagle syndrome is reported to be 40 +/- 4.72 mm.[10] Eagle‘s definition is that the normal styloid process measures between 2.5-3cms in length. An elongated styloid process occurs in about 4% of the general population. Only small percentages (between 4-10.3%) of these patients are symptomatic. So, the true incidence is about 0.16%, with a female-to-male predominance of 3:1. The length of the styloid process has also been studied by Wang et al,[11] Basekim et al,[12]. Savranlar et al, [13] and Jung et al,[14] from radiographs or three-dimension computed tomography. Data on the osteometric values of the styloid process are scanty. Thot et al reported that the length of the left side styloid ranged from 0.7 to 1.6 cm, and on the right side, from 0.8 to 2.4 cm. The average lengths for the left and right styloids were 1.52 cm and 1.59 cm, respectively, in Indian subjects [15]. Jung et al suggested that the styloid process should be considered to be elongated, when its length exceeds 45 mm [14]. Keur et al stated that, if the length of the process or the mineralised part of ligaments which appeared in radiography was 30 mm or more, this could be considered an elongated styloid process [16]. Thot et al stressed that length in isolation is not a risk factor, but that its combination with increased acuity in deviation from the norm, both anteriorly and medially, makes the elongated styloid process the sole cause of Eagle‘s syndrome [15] . The styloid process, stylohyoid ligament and lesser horn of the hyoid bone are derived from Reichert‘s cartilage, which arises from the second branchial arch. According to other authors, the cause for ESP was as follows: Eagle (1937-1948), it was post surgical trauma with reactive hyperplasia [17]. Lentini (1975), it was due to persistence of the mesenchymal elements (Reichert cartilage residues) of styloid process [18] . . Epifanio (1962), due to endocrine disorders in women at menopause, accompanied by the ossification of ligaments elsewhere (eg, iliolumbar, thyrohyoid) [19]. Gokce C et al , due to ectopic calcification (EC), especially in patients with abnormal calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and vitamin D metabolism (as in end-stage renal disease) [20] . The cause of elongation of the styloid process has not been fully elucidated. Several theories have been proposed by Steinmann [21] . 1. Congenital elongation of the process due to persistence of a cartilaginous anlage in the stylohyale. 2. Calcification of the stylohyoid ligament giving the appearance of an elongated styloid process. 3. Growth of osseous tissue at the insertion of the stylohyoid ligament. The third theory is based on histological evidence of metaplastic changes to the subperiosteal cells in the vicinity of the ligaments insertion. Regardless of the pathophysiology of elongation, the result is a rigid, abnormally long structure that can cause pain or discomfort by one or several mechanisms. An elongated styloid process or ossified stylohyoid ligament is not symptomatic in all cases. Only 4-8% cases are accompanied with symptoms [22]. Those vary from dysphagia, foreign body sensation, throat pain, ipsilateral otalgia, facial pain, pain radiating to maxillary and orbital region, headache, neck pain during rotation, pain during tongue extension, facial and carotid pain. It should be differentiated from other causes which mimic these symptoms like cervical spondolysis, cervical osteophytes[23] , and anomolous fourth part of vertebral artery [24] The first who described a case of stylohyoid ligament ossification seems to be Manchetti of Padua back of 1652 [25]. Diagnosis can be done by bimanual palpation of tonsillar fossa, which exacerbates the pain and relieved by local anaesthetics (normal styloid process is not normally palpable). It is further confirmed by panoramic radiography studies and CT. Treatment includes appropriate choice of therapy for symptomatic cases and depends on pain intensity or dysphagia and it can be conservative or invasive. These include antiinflammatory and corticosteroid drugs. If the Symptomatology persists then surgical treatment could be helpful by excision of elongated styloid process.


In this case, the length of styloid process of 5.4cms is clinically important and would have caused eagle‘s syndrome. The cause of such elongation would be calcification of stylohyoid chain and the osseous protuberance at proximal1/3rd of the base might represent the site of unification between the apex of process and the ossified section of stylohyoid ligament. This article reviews the clinical importance of ESP and was reported for consistent terminology in anatomy and anthropology.




1. Eagle WW. Elongated styloid process: further observations and a new syndrome. Arch Otolaryngol 1948; 47:630-40.

2. Hollinshead WH. Anatomy for Surgeons. The Head and Neck, 3rd ed., Vol. 1. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott Co. 1982; 365

3. Moffat DA, Ramsden RT, Shaw HJ. The styloid process syndrome: aetiological factors and surgical management. J Laryngol Otol. Apr 1977;91(4):279-294.

4. Kaufman SM, Elzay RP, Irish EF. Styloid process variation. Radiologic and clinical study. Arch Otolaryngol. May 1970;91(5):460-3.

5. Lindeman P. The elongated styloid process as a cause of throat discomfort. Four case reports. J Laryngol Otol. May 1985;99(5):505-8.

6. Correl R, Jensen J, Taylor J et al. Mineralization of the stylohyoidstylomandibular ligament complex: A radiographic incidence study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1979;48:286–291.

7. Langlais RP, Miles DA, Van Dis ML. Elongated and mineralized stylohyoid ligament complex: a proposed classification and report of a case of Eagle's syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. May 1986;61(5):527-32.

8. Montalbetti L, Ferrandi D, Pergami P, et al. Elongated styloid process and Eagle's syndrome. Cephalalgia. Apr 1995;15(2):80- 93.

9. Monsour PA, Young WG. Variability of the styloid process and stylohyoid ligament in panoramic radiographs. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. May 1986;61(5):522-6.

10. Balcioglu HA, Kilic C, Akyol M, Ozan H, Kokten G. Length of the styloidprocess and anatomical implications for Eagle's syndrome. Folia Morphol (Warsz). Nov 2009;68:265-70.

11. Wang Z, Liu Q, Cui Y, Gao Q, Liu L. [Clinical evaluation of the styloid process by plain radiographs and three-dimensional computed tomography]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi 2006; 20:60-3.

12. Basekim CC, Mutlu H, Gungor A, et al. Evaluation of styloid process by threedimensional computed tomography. Eur Radiol 2005; 15:134-9

13. Savranlar A, Uzun L, Ugur MB, Ozer T. Three-dimensional CT of Eagle‘s syndrome. Diagn Interv Radiol 2005; 11:206-9.

14. Jung T, Tschernitschek H, Hippen H, Schneider B, BorchersL. Elongated styloid process: when is it really elongated?Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2004; 33:119-24.

15.  Thot B, Revel S, Mohandas R, Rao AV, Kumar A. Eagle‘ syndrome. Anatomy of the styloid process. Indian J Dent Res 2000; 11:65-70

16. Keur JJ, Campbell JP, McCarthy JF, Ralph WJ. The clinical significance of the elongated styloid process. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986; 61:399-404.

17. Eagle W. Elongated styloid process: Further observation and a new syndrome. Arch Otolaryngol. 1948;47:630–640.

18. Lentini A. Gli aspetti clinici e radiologici delle anomalie dell'apparato stilo-joideo. Radiol Med. 1975;61:337-3640.

19. Epifanio G. Processi stiloidei lunghi e ossificazione della catena stiloidea. Rad Prat. 1962;12:127-132.

20. Gokce C, Sisman Y, Sipahioglu M. Styloid Process Elongation or Eagle's Syndrome: Is There Any Role for EctopicCalcification?. Eur J Dent. Jul 2008;2:224-8.

21. Steinmann EP. Styloid syndrome in absence of an elongated process. Acta Otolaryngol 1968; 66:347-56.

22. Eagle W. Elongated styloid process. Report of two cases. Arch Otolaryngol. 1937;25:584–587.

23. Zeliha U, Sebnem O, Gorkem E, Asim A, Patel B: Elongated Styloid Process and Cervical Spondylosis. Clinical Medicine: Case Reports 2008 , I:57-64.

24. Johnson CP, Scraggs M, How T, Burns J: A necropsy and histomorphometric study of abnormalities in the course of the vertebral artery associated with ossified Stylohyoid ligaments. J Clin Pathol 1995 , 48:637-640.

25. Lengele BG, Dhem AJ: Length of the styloid process of the temporal bone. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1988 , 114:1003-1006.


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

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‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

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A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
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A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
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A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
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A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
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A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
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A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
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A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
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A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
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A Study by Ese Anibor et al. entitled "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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