IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 08, August, 2011
Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001
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DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC MATTER IN GROUNDNUT CAKE, PANICUM MAXIMUM AND RUMEN
EPITHELIAL SCRAPING BASED DIETS BY WEST AFRICAN DWARF SHEEP
Author: O. A. Ogunwole
Category: General Sciences
Abstract:Three West African dwarf rams fitted with rumen cannula, were used in a completely
randomized design for the study of the degradation of organic matter (OM) of groundnut cake
(GNC), Panicum maximum (Guinea grass), rumen epithelial scraping (RES), and diets
containing increasing levels of RES. Concentrate diets were formulated such that 0% (A), 50%
(B), and 100% (C) of groundnut cake were replaced with RES in a diet containing 20% GNC.
The soluble fraction ?a' (86.81, 80.55, 68.83), insoluble fraction ?b' (4.8, 3.88, 4.62) and rumen
undegradable organic matter (RUOM) (8.39, 15.57, 26.55) obtained for GNC, grass and RES
respectively varied significantly (p< 0.05). Significant variations (p< 0.05) were also observed
for a, b and RUOM of the test diets A, B and C. Effective degradability (ED) of OM in GNC,
grass and RES (at the outflow rate of 0.02) were 77.34, 58.68 and 38.73 respectively, varied
significantly (p< 0.05). The ED of OM obtained for the diets decreased significantly (p< 0.05)
with increased inclusion of RES. The RES contained (26.55%) significantly higher (p< 0.05)
level of RUOM compared to either Panicum maximum (15.57%) or GNC (8.39).
Keywords: Rumen epithelial scraping, degradability, Organic matter, Cannulated sheep, Supplement.
Ruminants are unable to meet their maintenance requirement by feeding on grasses alone (Adegbola, 1985). Adequacy of nutrition in terms of quality and quantity can confer a measure of immunity on the animals without succumbing to diseases Even, the so called grasses or legumes are not available all year round. This is because of seasonal effects, which minimizes forage production especially during the hot dry period that does not favor the growth of grasses and legumes. Dietary supplementation therefore, remains the most obvious way of manipulating the supply of absorbed nutrients (Preston, 1995). Most supplements are expensive and their use in ruminant nutrition competes with monogastric animals and human nutrition. Preston (1995) prescribed six nutritional attributes of a good supplement for ruminants. The fermentable energy, fermentable nitrogen, micronutrients and roughage ensures optimal rumen ecosystem while bypass nutrients (by pass energy and by pass protein) complement the need of the animal as a whole. The choice of supplement must tilt towards the more available and less costly alternative. By pass nutrients sources such as oilseed cakes and fishmeal may be too expensive for use in the small scale farming system. The most sustainable solutions may therefore be the exploitation of a vast, cheap, available and underutilized slaughterhouse wastes from abattoirs and animal by products hitherto unused which also constitutes environmental pollutant. Rumen epithelial scrapings of cattle are such major wastes from abattoirs. Available reports (Isah, 2001; Fajemisin, 2002; Ogunwole, 2004) indicated that an average of 0.6 Kg of properly dried scrapings could be obtained from slaughtered adult beef cattle when processed. The authors projected that more than 82 metric tons of the scrapings could be generated annually from Ibadan metropolis alone, So far, the use of RES in goat production has been documented (Isah, 2001; Fajemisin, 2002).The chemical composition and degradability of dry matter (Ogunwole et al., 2009), crude protein (Ogunwole et al., 2011) in GNC, Guinea grass, RES and diets based on it in fistulated WAD rams have been reported. The present study was undertaken to investigate the degradation characteristics of organic matter in GNC, Guinea grass and RES and diets based on RES in WAD rams.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sources and Description of Rumen Epithelial Scraping
Samples of RES for this study were collected at the main abattoir in Bodija market, Ibadan, Nigeria. Processing methods and preparation of RES have been outlined and documented (Ogunwole et al., 2009; 2011). Concentrate supplements were formulated such that 0% (A), 50% (B), and 100% (C) of GNC were replaced weight for weight with RES in a concentrate diet containing 20% GNC. The formulated diets were then used for the experiment. The composition and nutrient content of experimental diets is shown in Tables 1 and 2.
Experimental Site, Animal Feeding and
The study was carried out at the International livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Ibadan, Nigeria. The station is located between latitudes 60 10? and 90 10? North of the equator and longitudes 30 and 6 0 of the Greenwich. Three matured rams with a mean live weight of 26.53 ± 3.32kg each one fitted with a permanent ruminal cannula, were used for the degradability studies. The sheep were housed in individual pens on a smooth concrete floor with wood shavings as bedding. The wood shavings were replaced on alternate days. The animals were allowed to graze on Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) from 08.30h and 16.30h after which they were driven back to their pens. Each of them was offered a supplement of wheat bran at 17.00h daily at 3% of their live weight. They also had free access to fresh clean water and salt lick ad libitum. The animals were sprayed with Asuntol to remove external parasites and were also administered Banmith F(R), a dewormer by oral drenching as prophylactic treatments. Determination of the dry matter (OM) degradability was by measuring loss of OM from 2g samples suspended in nylon bags in the rumen for different length of time (Mehrez et al., 1980). Samples were incubated for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h. After
Empirical evidence from this study revealed that rumen epithelial scrapings compared with groundnut cake and grass contained prime substantial slowly degradable, higher rumen undegradable by-pass or escape (nutrients) organic matter that could be of subsequent post ruminal digestion and use by the animals
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