International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 11, November, 2011

Pages: 116-120

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001

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Author: Anupama N, N.Srinivasaragavan, Varun Malhotra, Basavarajaiah

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background: Yoga is probably best lifestyle ever devised in the history of mankind. The word YOGA comes from the Sanskrit root ?YUJ? which means to unite. (the union of body with the
soul.) Kriya in Sanskrit means action, most commonly refers to technique or practice with in a
yoga practice. Sudarshana kriya is a unique rhythmical breathing process to eliminate stress and
support the various organ systems with in the body, transform overpowering emotions and
restore peace of mind. Objective:
To assess the effects of Sudarshana kriya on respiratory function. Materials and methods: 36 subjects practicing Sudarshana kriya for more than 2 years, who were in the age group of 18-30 years nonsmokers (interviewed using standard
questionnaire), from Art of living ashram, Bengaluru were chosen as test group. 36 subjects
who were not practicing any type of yoga of same age group and non smokers were chosen as
controls. Pulmonary function tests like FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and PEFR results were analysed
using appropriate statistical method. Results:
Study group showed significantly higher FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC. Suggesting sympathovagal balance. Conclusion: Pulmonary functions
improve significantly with Sudarshana kriya due to respiratory muscle strengthening and good
lung expansion and by harmonizing the central nervous system and our breathing.

Keywords: Sudarshana Kriya yoga, respiratory rate and pulmonary function tests.

Full Text:


Patanjali, foremost exponent of Yoga, describes pranayama as the gradual unforced cessation of breathing. Pranayama is derived from two Sanskrit wordsprana(life) and yama means(control). 1,2,3 Pranayama or control of prana or life force yields heartbeat, pulse and mind control. Sudarshana kriya is a Sanskrit term meaning ?proper vision, purified action?. By ?controlling the breath? it normalizes breathing by concentrating on it systematically. Regular practice of Sudarshana Kriya reduces symptoms of mental depression, 4,5,7 decreases fasting blood glucose levels in type-2 Diabetes Mellites6 and for treating stress and anxiety in post traumatic stress disorder.10 Sudarshana Kriya leaves one more alert aware, attentive and focused.8 Our study is designed to observe the effect of Sudarshana Kriya on pulmonary function tests.


36 (18 males, 18 females) subjects practicing Sudarshana kriya (SKY) for more than 2 years who were in the age group of 18-30 years, from art of living ashram, Bengaluru were chosen as test group. 36 subjects who were not practicing any type of yoga (nonSKY) of same age group were chosen as controls. The subjects had no history of allergic disorders, respiratory disorders, no history of systemic disease and no history of smoking. The breathing techniques that are part of Sudarshana Kriya are

a) Three-Stage Pranayama with Ujjayi or "Victory Breath"

, b) Three sets of Bhastrika or "Bellow's Breath", and

c) Sudarshana kriya or the "Healing Breath Technique" and they were practiced in that order. The breathing practices are done in a vajrasan posture, on the carpet spread over the floor. Eyes are kept closed throughout the sessions.

Normal breathing is at the rate of 14 to 16 breaths per minute. Ujjayi is a slow and deep breathing technique at 2 to 4 breaths per minute.

Three-Stage Pranayama with Ujjayi breath is an advanced form using a specific ratio of inhalation and exhalation, and breathholds. Participants practice this component where specific arm positions are held for approximately ten minutes in total. It involves taking a breath for a period of 4– 10 seconds, holding the inhaled breath for a further 4–10 seconds, exhaling over a period of 6–12 seconds, and holding one‘s breath in the exhaled The second breathing component of Sudarshana kriya is Bhastrika. Here the breathing is vigorous and faster, about twenty to thirty respiratory cycles per minute. Three approximately one-minute rounds of Bhastrika are followed by a few minutes of normal breathing. Arm movements are used to increase the force and depth of inhalation and exhalation. Practice of this component lasts for approximately five minutes.

The central component of Sudarshana kriya which is an advanced cyclical breathing exercise of slow, medium, and fast rates in succession. Slow breaths are about 20 respiratory cycles per minute, medium breaths are about 40–50 respiratory cycles per minute, and the fast breathing is about 60–80 cycles per minute. The participant rotates through these breathing patterns during Sudarshana kriya. Daily home practice of Sudarshana kriya takes approximately 10 minutes. During the instruction phase, several longer group sessions of Sudarshana kriya, lasting approximately thirty minutes, are practiced. Pulmonary Function Tests like FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and PEFR were measured using Medspiror. The results were analyzed using Z-test to test the statistical significance of difference in the two groups (Table 2)


Pulmonary Function Test values are significantly higher in SKY group indicating better control of breathing, stronger respiratory muscles and overall lower resistance to passage of air during expiration. (Table.1 and Table.2)


Sudarshana kriya appears to be specialized pranayamic breathing capable of inducing series of beneficial changes besides causing improvement in respiratory functions. Various respiratory parameters improve after Sudarshana Kriya. A significant increase in FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC , PEFR, increase in the vital capacity, tidal volume increase in expiratory and inspiratory pressures, breath holding time and decrease in the respiratory rate. Bhastrika strengthens the diaphragm (due to deep inspiration), expiratory muscles of abdomen transverse abdominus external oblique (due to forceful expiration). Probable explanation for this could be, regular inspiration and expiration of long medium and short durations during Sudarshana Kriya leads to strengthening of respiratory muscles. This helps the lungs to inflate and deflate maximally. This maximum inflation and deflation is an important physiological stimulus for the release of surfactant and prostaglandins increasing the alveolar spaces, thereby increasing lung compliance and decreasing bronchial smooth muscle tone activity.11 A decrease in breathing frequency have shown increase synchronization of brain waves eliciting delta wave activity indicating parasympathetic dominance. Although these mechanisms provide some clues to pranayama‘s mechanism, the neural mechanism that causes this bodywide autonomic shift is not reported. It has been proposed that certain voluntary breathing exercises can modulate the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system bringing their levels of activation into a normal range.5 Techniques involving focusing on a single thought resulted in regularity of respiration while in the thoughtless state there was reduction in the rate and regularity of respiration. Sudarshana kriya by long term manipulation of breathing by practicing slow deep breathing likely results in over stretching of pulmonary stretch receptors, increase the lung volumes and capacities. Long term practice results in manipulation of vagal tone, thereby reducing rate of respiration at rest. Voluntary, slow, deep breathing functionally resets the autonomic nervous system through stretch-induced inhibitory signals and hyperpolarization currents propagated through both neural and non-neural tissue which synchronizes neural elements in the heart, lungs, limbic system, and cortex.9 Inhibitory current regulates excitability of nervous tissues and is known to elicit synchronization of neural elements which typically is indicative of a state of relaxation. Synchronization within the hypothalamus and the brain stem is likely responsible for inducing the parasympathetic response during breathing exercises.5 Sudarshana Kriya is understood to use specific rhythms of breath to eliminate stress and support the various organ systems with in the body, transform overpowering emotions and restore peace of mind. 10





1. Sivananda. The Sivananda Yoga Centre. (1983). The book of Yoga. London: Ebury Press. pp14-15.

2. Yogananda, P. (1946). Autobiography of a yogi. Los Angeles: SelfRealization Fellowship. pp 1920-1921.

3. Yogananda, P. Undreamed of possibilities. The teachings of Sri Sri Paramahansa Yogananda. pp 5-6.

4. Janakiramaiah N, Gangadhar BN, Naga Venkatesha Murthy PJ; Antidepressant efficacy of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in melancholia: A randomized comparison with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and imipramine. Journal 120 International Journal of Current Research and Review Vol. 03 issue 11 November 2011 of Affective Disorders, 2000; 57(1): 255-259.

5. Naga Venkatesha Murthy PJ, Janakiramaiah N, Gangadhar BN, SubbakrishnaDK; P300 amplitude and antidepressant response to Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY). J Affect Disord, 1998; 50: 45–48.

6. Agte VV, Tarwadi K; Potential of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga practice in treatment of type 2 diabetes. Altern Complement Ther, 2004; 10:220–222.

7. Anette Kjellgren, Sven Å Bood Kajsa Axelsson Torsten Norlander m/logon/logon.asp?msg=ce, Fahri Saatcioglu; Wellness through a comprehensive Yogic breathing program – A controlled pilot trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2007; 7: 43-51.

8. Dr. M. Bhatia EEG during sudarshana Kriya a quantitative analysis. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1998; 50(1): 45-48.

9. Vedamurthachar, A (A); Janakiramaiah, Nimmagadda (N); Hegde, Jayaram M (JM); Shetty, Taranath K (TK); Subbakrishna, D K (DK); Sureshbabu, S V (SV); Gangadhar, B N (BN); Antidepressant efficacy and hormonal effects of Sudarshana Kriya Yoga (SKY) in alcohol dependent individuals. 2006Aug; 94 (1-3): 249-253.

10. Brown RP, Gerbarg L; Sudarshan Kriya Yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: Part II—Clinical applications and guidelines. J Altern Complement Med. 2005; 11: 711–717.

11. Belman MJ, Gaesser GA; Ventilatory muscle training in the elderly. J Appl physiol,1998; 64(3): 899 – 905.


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Women Researcher Award:

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‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
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List of Awardees

Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19

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