International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 04 Issue 09, May, 2012

Pages: 30-35

Date of Publication: 17-May-2012


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TO EVALUATE CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS & THE EFFECT OF BODY MASS INDEX ON CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS IN YOUNG HEALTHY MALES

Author: V. Prabha, B.R. Doddamani, Sureshbalaji

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background and objective: Obesity is a serious & widespread problem globally. Reduced cardio respiratory fitness in young adults has emerged as an important factor for developing cardiovascular co morbidities later in middle age. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) is the internationally accepted parameter to evaluate cardio respiratory fitness. Numerous clinical investigations have established a strong association between low cardio respiratory fitness and mortality. Increased body fatness is an additional factor for developing cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the current study was designed to evaluate cardio respiratory fitness in terms of VO2max in young healthy males and to study the relation between body mass index and cardio respiratory fitness. Methodology: Hundred young healthy male subjects in the age group of 18 to 25 years were included in this study group. Body mass index was measured as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters square. Cardio-respiratory fitness in terms of VO2max was assessed by following the protocol of Queen's College Step Test. Results: There was a significant negative correlation between body mass index (BMI) and VO2max (ml/kg/min) (r = -0.66, p< 0.01). Conclusion: The results suggest the striking effect of body fatness on cardio respiratory functions. Excessive amount of body fat exerts an unfavorable burden on cardiac function and oxygen uptake by working muscles. Low cardio respiratory fitness in young adults with increased body fatness could be a factor for developing cardiovascular co morbidities later in middle age.

Keywords: VO2max, QCT, BMI

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
Obesity is a serious & widespread problem globally. Technological developments & modern day commodities have driven most people into sedentary life style leading to chronic diseases like hypertension, heart disease, chronic low backache & obesity. Maximal oxygen consumption is considered the gold standard of cardio-pulmonary and muscle cell fitness. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the highest rate of oxygen consumption attainable during maximal or exhaustive exercise. VO2max is internationally accepted parameter & is the first choice in measuring a person‘s cardiopulmonary status & it is a fundamental measure of physiological functional capacity to exercise. Those who are more fit have higher VO2max and can exercise more intensely and longer than those who are not as well conditioned. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease has increased substantially over the past two decades in younger population (1). Reduced cardiopulmonary fitness is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (2). Unfavorable cardiovascular risk profiles are found in youth with low levels of cardiovascular fitness and high percentage of body fat. Numerous risk factors for cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia are suspected to be influenced by fitness (3, 4) and these factors may mediate the association between low cardio respiratory fitness and mortality. Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Earlier studies have demonstrated the importance of low cardio respiratory fitness in young adulthood as a factor for developing cardiovascular co morbidities later in middle age (1). Hence, the current study was designed to evaluate cardio respiratory fitness in terms of VO2max and its relation with body mass index in young healthy male subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study group comprises of hundred young healthy males from Kolar city in the age group of 18-25yrs. Hundred apparently healthy male subjects were selected from Kolar city and examined. They were asked to fill a questionnaire to assess their physical activity status. The experimental protocol was fully explained to the participants to allay apprehension. They refrained from any energetic physical activity for 2 to 3 hours before the test. Informed consent was taken from all the subjects. The study was approved by institutional Ethical Committee. Experimental design: Data is collected by calculating body mass index and assessing VO2max indirectly by Queen‘s college step test. Weight was measured using calibrated weighing machine in light clothing and bare feet and height was measured using measuring scale in centimeters which was fixed to the wall. All experiments were performed at room temperature. Body mass index was calculated using the formula: BMI = weight (kg)/height (m2 ) Measurements of body weight (anthropometry) are used to reflect body fat in clinical settings as these measurements provide rapid and cheap way to estimate body fat. Queen?s College Step Test: Step test was performed using a stool of 16.25 inches (41.30cms) height. Stepping was done for a total duration of 3 minutes at the rate of 24 cycles per minute which was set by a metronome. After completion of the exercise the subjects were asked to remain standing comfortably and the carotid pulse rate was measured from the 5th to 20th second of recovery period. This 15 second pulse rate was converted into beats per minute and the following equation was used to predict VO2max (5). PVO2max (ml/kg/min) = 111.33 - (0.42 x pulse rate in beats per min) Statistical analysis: The results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package for social & sciences. Pearson correlation was applied to correlate between parameters.

RESULTS
Hundred young healthy males, in the age group of 18-22 yrs (19.38±1.49) were subjected to treadmill jogging test. Cardio respiratory fitness in terms of VO2max was evaluated and then the effect of BMI on cardio respiratory fitness was studied. BMI (22.04 ± 3.96) shows a highly significant direct correlation with treadmill heart rate (171 ± 12.61), r = 0.66 p<0.01 (Table 1). In contrast, BMI (22.04 ± 3.96) shows highly significant negative correlation with VO2max (39.45 ± 5.29) r = -0.66 p<0.01 (Table 2).

DISCUSSION
Physical fitness & its awareness have assumed more importance in the present day scenario. This is because of overweight & obesity is associated with many chronic diseases. Younger men with greater BMI are at greater risk of high blood pressure, high blood glucose levels, and high total cholesterol than older men. Obesity is an epidemic disease. Increased free fatty acids results in insulin resistance. The release of cytokines particularly IL-6 stimulate proinflammatory state that characterizes obesity. Increased secretion of prothrombin activator inhibitor- 1 from fat cells plays a role in procoagulant state of obesity and along with changes in endothelial function increases risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Production of estrogen from stroma mass plays a role in risk of breast cancer. Combined effects of these consequences of increased fat stores in an increase risk of shortened life expectancy. Rocchini et al studied that, blood pressure is increased in overweight individuals. Overweight subjects have much greater increase in sympathetic nerve firing rate than normal subjects. There is also increase in peripheral resistance. Obesity is said to produce a state of chronic volume overload because heart has to continuously circulate blood through the large and relatively low resistance depot of adipose tissue. Increased preload and stroke volume are associated with hypertension. Combination of overweight and hypertension leads to left ventricular hypertrophy and larger heart volume and thus a greater likelihood of cardiac failure. Other causes of left ventricular hypertrophy in obese include trophic effects of fat secreted hormones and a training effect on heart because of extreme amount of body weight that has to be lifted during normal activities(6). Coronary artery disease is increased in 3.3 fold with a BMI greater than 29kg/m2 compared with that in women with a BMI less than 21kg/m2 (7). A BMI of 27-29kg/m2 increases relative risk of 1.8. The all cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were higher in men with a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 and lowest in those with a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2 . Dyslipidemia may be important in relationship of BMI to increased risk of heart disease. There is positive correlation between BMI and triglycerides. However the inverse relationship between HDL cholesterol and BMI is more important because low HDL carries greater risk. VO2max is a measure of the functional limit of cardio respiratory system and single most valid index of maximal exercise capacity. The absolute value of VO2max is one of the indices of an individual‘s cardio respiratory fitness to transport oxygen to working muscles. Ozcelick et al showed high aerobic fitness is associated with a reduction in risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases (8). Fitness promotes muscle insulin sensitivity (9), insulin mediated transport of glucose from blood to muscle (10), improved nervous system function (11), and lower heart rates. Increased lipoprotein lipase activity in skeletal muscle which results in an enhanced clearance rate of plasma triglycerides, increased transport of lipids and lipoproteins from the peripheral circulation and tissues to the liver, and enhanced high density cholesterol are mechanisms by which lipids may improve with fitness (12). Mercedes et al have demonstrated the importance of low cardio respiratory fitness in young adulthood as a factor for developing cardiovascular co morbidities later in middle age (1). As QCT is a simple test & does not require specialized equipment. It is obvious, that wherever the test is to be used in field conditions, QCT would be the preferred method. Large number of individuals can be tested and they are easily performed by untrained individuals. In this study we found a significant negative correlation between BMI and VO2max (ml/kg/min) (r = -0.66, p<0.01). This indicates the striking effects of increasing BMI on cardio respiratory fitness. We also found a significant positive correlation between BMI and heart rate during test (r = 0.66 & p < 0.01). Chatterjee et al studied excessive amount of body fat exerts an unfavorable burden as well as hindering action towards cardiac function particularly during exhaustive exercise when excessive hyperactive body musculature fails to uptake sufficient amount of oxygen due to deposition of proportionately high amount of fat mass. Loss of weight during weight reduction program of obese increased their VO2max (ml/kg/min) due to withdrawal of fat induced inhibitory action towards oxygen utilization by body musculature (13). Elevated myocardial oxidative stress has been reported in patients with obesity. In obese individuals there is increase in type II muscle fibers and decrease in type I muscle fibers which may have important effect on reduced oxygen uptake. Reduced cardiac performance during progressive work rate exercise has been reported in obese individuals. Watanabe K et al have reported that VO2max was significantly decreased in overweight individuals. Greater the BMI, more severe will be the functional impairment. Excess body fat impairs cardio respiratory functions and decreases mechanical efficiency for a given workload. Obesity accentuates exercise intolerance and lowers aerobic capacity (14).

CONCLUSION
1. There was a significant negative correlation between BMI and VO2max (ml/kg/min). This suggests the possibility of effect of body fat on cardio respiratory functions & significant positive correlation between heart rate and VO2max.

2. These findings demonstrate the importance of low cardio respiratory fitness in young adults with increased body fat which could be a factor for developing cardiovascular co morbidities later in middle age.

3.BMI can be used in clinical settings to estimate body fat as it is a rapid and inexpensive method.

4.Queen‘s College Step Test is a valid method for the estimation of VO2max in young males. Step test does not require specialized equipment & can be used in field conditions, untrained individuals.

5.Given the current obesity trend and observations of a decline in daily energy expenditure among the people, improving cardio respiratory fitness in young men by engaging in physical activities is important.

Scope for further study:
Additional study including detailed measurement of cardiac function is needed to clarify whether cardiac impairment (or initial stages of impairment) exists.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

References:

1. Mercedes R, Samuel S, Stephen S et al. Cardio respiratory fitness in young adulthood and the development of cardiovascular disease risk factors. JAMA 2003; 290:3092-3100.

2. Shephard RJ, Allen C, Benade AJS et al. The maximum oxygen intake. An international reference standard of cardio respiratory fitness. Bull World Health Org.1968;38:757-764.

3. Meigs JB, Wilson PW, Cupples LA, Nathan DM, Singer DE, Agostino RB. Risk variable clustering in insulin resistance syndrome. The Framingham Offspring Study. Diabetes 1997;46:1594-1600.

4. Kraus WE, Houmard JA, Duscha BD. Effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on lipoproteins. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1483-1492.

5. Chatterjee S, Chatterjee P, Bandyopadhay A. Validity of Queen‘s College Step Test for use with young men. Br J Sports Med 2004;38: 289 -291. 38.

6. Rocchini AP. Obesity and blood pressure regulation. In: Bray GA, Bouchard C, James WP, editors. Handbook of Obesity: Etiology and pathology.2nd Ed. New York: Markel Dekker; 873-897.

7. Manson JE, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE et al. Body weight and mortality among women. N Engl J Med 1995;333:677-685.

8. Ozcelick O, Aslan M, Ayar A et al. Effects of body mass index on maximal work production capacity and aerobic fitness during incremental exercise. Physiol Res 2004; 53:165-170.

9. Wei M, Gibbons LW, Mitchell TL et al. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus in men. Ann Med 1999;130:89-96.

10. Perseghin G, Price TB, Petersen KF. Increased glucose transport, phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis after exercise training in insulin resistant subjects. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1362.

11. Melanson EL, Freedson PS. The effect of endurance training on resting heart rate variability in sedentary adult males. Eur J Appl Physiol 2001;85:442-449.

12. Hager RL, Tucker LA, Seljaas GT. Aerobic fitness, blood lipids and body fat in children. Am J Public Health 1995;85(12):1702-1706.

13. Chatterjee S, Chatterjee P, Bandyopadhyay A. Cardiorespiratory fitness of obese boys. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2005; 49:353- 357.

14. Watanabe K, Nakadomo F, Maeda K. Relationship between body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in Japanese junior high school boys and girls. Ann Physiol Anthropol 1994;13(4);167-174.

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
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88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. entitled "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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