International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - Vol 04 ISSUE 16, August, 2012

Pages: 116-119

Date of Publication: 28-Aug-2012


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ANALYSIS OF DEEP GROOVE BALL BEARING USING FEM-A REVIEW

Author: Sumit Kumar Dahiya, A.K. Jain

Category: Technology

Abstract:In a deep groove ball bearing various research has been done for improving the performance .In this paper in various parameters like stress, strain, vibration effect, penetration, failure analysis, deflection and various localized effect on the ball bearing are presented. Even during various operations seizing of bearing was also found. All these failures were determined by using FEM & various method & experimental setup.

Keywords: Bearing, FEM, Review

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
The term rolling bearing includes all forms of roller and ball bearing which permit rotary motion of a shaft. Normally a whole unit of bearing is sold in the market,which includes inner ring, outer ring,rolling element(balls or rollers) and the cage which separates the rolling element from each other. Rolling bearings are high precision, low cost but commonly used in all kinds of rotary machine.it take long time for the human being to develop the bearing from the intial idea to the modern rolling bearing.Deep groove ball bearing is the more popular rolling bearing.normally this kind of bearing is used to support only radial load.the deep groove ball bearing has high load carrying capacity because it has high osculation and relatively large ball diameter. Literature Review In a deep groove ball bearing J. lieblein & M.zelen(1) discussed Fatigue is an important factor in determining the service life of ball bearings. Bearing manufacturers are therefore constantly engaged in fatigue-testing operations in order to obtain information relating fatigue life to load and other factors. Several of the larger manufacturers have recently pooled their test data in a cooperative effort to set up uniform and standardized ball-bearing application formulas, which would benefit the many users of antifriction bearings. These data were compiled by the American Standards Association, which subsequently requested that the National Bureau of Standards perform the necessary analyses. This paper summarizes the principal results of the analyses undertaken by the Bureau, and describes the statistical procedures used in the investigation. Zeki kiral, Hira karugulle (2) discussed dynamic loading of a rolling element bearing structure was modeled by a computer program developed in visual basic programming language.A force model was proposed to model the localized rolling element bearing defects.The enevelop method was employed in the frequency domain analysis.The effect of the rotational speed on the diagonostics of rolling element bearing defects was investigated effect of the structure geometry on the monitoring techniques was studied.An optimum monitoring method could be employed by analyzing the rolling element bearing structure following the procedure proposed in that study. Wouter Ost & Patrick De Baets (3) have discussed failure analysis for the deep groove ball bearing of an electric motor were periodically monitored for vibration, the ball bearing were replaced when before the expected lifetime of the bearing the measured vibration exceeded the tolerated level.The bearing on the axle side of the motor was the locating bearing while the ball bearing of the fan side was mounted as a floating bearing.The outer rings of the fan side bearing showed signs of fretting wear.Through visual inspection,optical microscopy & scanning electron microscopy of the raceways indicated that the bearing were subjected to an axial load. While replacing the deep groove ball bearing by a cylindrical roller bearing can easily prevent the fretting wear on the fan side bearing. Yuon kang & Ping-Chen shen ,et al (4) .study presented a modification of the Jones-Harris Method (JHM) for the determination of deflection in deep groove ball bearing. The finite element method (FEM) & curve fitting have been utilized to modify the load- deflection relationship of Hertz contact formula in JHM, several cases of deep- groove bearings are simulated to determine contact deflection.Results obtained from the modified JHM (MJHM) are more accurate than the JHM result by the comparison between FEM & experiment result, through which accuracy of determination for load – deflection relationship of deep groove ball bearing.The factor & exponent of the load- deflection relationship are determined by using FEM ,experiments have verified that MJHM result are approximately equal to FEM result L.Hua, & D.S.Qiah ,et al (5).discussed the principal of groove ball section ring rolling & characteristic of plastic penetration, a 3-D finite element (FE) analysis model for the plastic penetration of ball groovesection ring is established under ABAQUS software environment. The distribustion pattern of the plastic zone in the process of plastic penetration is reveated by 3D simulation by researching the diffusion rules of the plastic zone under the conditions of different ring radial thickness & feed speed, the influences of ring radial thickness & feed speed on plastic penetration are obtained that result validated by experiment & simulation. Tuncay Karacay, Nizami Akturk(6) . Have discussed vibration measurement & signal analysis was widely used for condition monitoring of ball bearing as their vibration signature reveals important information about the defect development with in them. Each defect produces characteristic vibration in ball bearings. The bearing run through out their life span under constant speed & loading condition vibration signatures produces are recorded & statistical measures are calculated during the test. Vibration spectra are obtained & examined to determine where the defect was on the running surfaces. M.S.Patil, Jose Mathew,et al.(7) have presented analytical model for predicting the effect of a localized defect on the ball bearing vibration. In the analytical formulation the contacts between the ball & the races are considered as non-linear springs, the contact force is calculated using the hertzians contact deformation theory. A computer programmed was developed to simulated the defect on the raceway with the result presented in the time domain & frequency domain. Tang Zhaoping, Sun Jiapping(8). Wrote about the contact analysis in a 3-D model of deep groove ball bearing was built by using APDL language in the finite element software ANSYS, through contact analysis, the change could be showed in stress ,strain, penetration, sliding distance friction stress,among the inner ring, outer ring rolling element & cage . the simulation result revealed that the computational values were consistent with theoretical values. M.Dougdag, M.Ouali et al. (9) have conducted an experimental verification of a simplified model of a nonlinear stiffness ball bearing in both static & dynamic modes & testing its capabilities to simulate effects. Analytical model was developed using a different method comparatively to classical ones the ball’s deformation is obtained without using palmgren’s method. These modification were done in order to realize two objectives . The first one ball bearing stiffness computing & to improve a more realistic simulation of dynamic behavior of a defective ball bearing. To verify experimentally the developed mode of rigidity in both static & dynamic conditions a number of compression test were done on the ball bearing . result of defects simulation & model behavior in statics & dynamics are compared to experimental result. Abhay k. Jha , M.Swathi kiranmayee (10). Have discussed 440c stainless steel of martensitic grade is being extensively used for bearing application because of its high wear & corrosion resistances . during one of the ground test of propulsion system booster pump bearing seized operation after performing its partial intended function. The bearing was removed from the assemebly & cut operation. The ball & outer caging were analyzed used metallographic technique & compared with another bearing taken from the fresh stock. V.N. Patel , N Tandon et al. wrote about the defection of local defects existing on race of deep groove ball bearing in the presence of external vibrations using envelope analysis & doffing oscillator.through these techniques it has been revisited & confirmed that the defect detection in evelope analysis mainly depended on the selection of centre frequency & bandwidth. Centre frequency with several bandwidths have been studied & compared for identification of defective frequency. 


CONCULSION

This paper present a review on various method used for the analysis of deep groove ball bearing considering various parameters. The review is presented in the tabular form. It is found that FEM and experimental setup was used in most of the cases. Various parameters are stress, strain , penetration,deflection,vibration effect etc. also the effect of operating condition on the seizing is presented

References:

1. Lieblein & m.zelen “statistical Investigation of the fatigue life of deep –groove ball bearing”.Journal of research of the national bureau of standard vol 57, no 5, nov 1956 research paper 2719

2. Zeki kiral & hira karagulle “simulation & analysis of vibration signals generated by rolling element bearing with defects”.Tribology International 36 (2003) 667-678.

3. Wouter Ost & Patrick de baets “failure analysis of the deep groove ball bearings of an electric motor “Engineering failure analysis 12 (2005) 772-783

4. Yuan Kang Ping-chen shen et.al “A modification of the Jones- Harris Method for deep- groove ball bearings” Tribology International 39 (2006) 1413-1420

5. L.Hua & D.S Qian & L.B.Pan “Analysis of plastic penetration in process of groove ball –section ring rolling” Journal of Mechanical science & Technology . 22 (2008) 1374- 1382.

6. Tuncay Karacay & Nizami A Kturk “Experimental diagnostics of ball bearing using statistical & spectral method. “ Tribology international 42 (2009) 836-843

7. M.S. Patil & Jose Mathew et.al “A theoretical model to predict the effect of localized defect on vibration associated with ball bearing “International Journal of Mechanical science 52 (2010) 1193-1201.

8. Tang Zhaoping & Sun Jianping “The contact analysis for deep groove ball baering based on Ansys “ procedia Engineering 23(2011) 423-428

9. M.Dougdag & m ouali et.al “An experimental testing of a simplified model of a ball bearing : stiffness calculation & defect simulation springer science

10. Abhay K.Jha & M.swathi Kiranmayee et.al “ Metallurgical Analysis of ball bearing seized during operation” ASM- International 1059-9495 11. V.N.Patel & N.Tandon et.al “defect detection in deep groove ball bearing in presence of external vibration using envelope analysis & doffing oscillator “ Journal of measurement 45 (2012) 960-970

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