International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 06, March, 2013

Pages: 26-30

Date of Publication: 30-Mar-2013


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MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS REGARDING DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG DIABETIC AND NON-DIABETIC INDIAN POPULATION

Author: Abdullah Rehman, Umrana Mirza, Muneeb Jehan, Syed Arif Pasha

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Myths prevailing about diabetes in the society have become a major hurdle for its proper treatment and control1. Aim: To determine the myths and misconception about diabetes mellitus and its prevention and treatment among diabetic and non-diabetic population. Research Methodology: It was a cross sectional study conducted in a teaching hospital of Hyderabad (Deccan College of Medical Sciences) during April, May and June 2009. A self explained, semi-structured and pretested proforma was used to collect data from purposively selected 300 Diabetic and 300 Non diabetic patients who accompanied them while visiting this institute for their treatment. Information was collected regarding sociodemographic background and their myths and misconceptions regarding diabetes after oral, verbal and written consent. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Commonest myth among diabetic (40%) and non diabetic patients (71%) was that eating more sweets and sugar causes diabetes. Others were, diabetes is a contagious or inherited disease, diabetes can affect sexual life, insulin causes impotence and it is the only available cure for diabetes. Myths were significantly more common among females, non-diabetics and less educated group. 20 % of the diabetics and 29% of non diabetics were unaware of the complications of diabetes. 21% diabetics 29 % of non-diabetics were unaware of the role of diet in control of diabetes. Conclusion: The prevalence of myths about diabetes is high among both diabetic and non diabetic population which could be associated with poor health seeking behavior and poor compliance with treatment

Keywords: Diabetes, Myths, treatment

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder, its prevalence varying widely worldwide and ranging from as low as 50% The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 180 million people worldwide have diabetes. This number is likely to more than double by 20302 . In Keeping with scenarios of most developing countries, India has long passed the stage of diabetes epidemic. The problem has now reached pandemic proportions. It is a large public health problem growing astronomically every year. Apart from treatment of diabetes we need to pay attention to the prevention and health education of people about the diseases. Myths are defined as stories shared by a group of people which are a part of their cultural identity. They have a strong influence in the life of individuals and their way of living including seeking treatment during illness3 . This false collective beliefs become part of cultural identity and used to justify a social behavior. They have a strong influence in the life of Individuals and their way of living including seeking treatment during Illness. Myths have usually cultural and social backgrounds and usually they stay in a certain society if not challenged by scientific discourse. Lack of  education, poverty, lack to health care facilities added with multiple ethnic, linguistic and cultural groups add up to the emergence of many myths. Educational level is protective against myths4 . Therefore, understanding the myths and misconceptions about diabetes mellitus is important in providing better care and health education to both patients and healthy individuals.

OBJECTIVE
To determine the myths and misconception about diabetes mellitus and its prevention and treatment among diabetic and non-diabetic population.

SETTINGS AND DESIGN
It was a cross sectional study conducted in a teaching hospital of Hyderabad (Deccan College of Medical Sciences) during April, May & June 2009. A self explained, semi-structured and pretested proforma was used to collect data from purposively selected 300 Diabetic and 300 Non diabetic patients who accompanied them while visiting this institute for their treatment. Information was collected regarding sociodemographic background and their myths and misconceptions regarding diabetes after oral, verbal and written consent. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The questionnaire was developed based on international standards concerning the prevailing myths and misconceptions about diabetes mellitus5 . Total of 650 people approached our institute for their diabetes treatment which includes diabetic patients as well as non diabetic relatives or friends accompanying patients during the study period. Out of them 600 people got agree to participate in this research including diabetic patients as well as non diabetics. Ethical approval was obtained by ethical review committee of the study institute.

RESULTS
The current study was conducted in a tertiary care institution focusing on 300 diabetic and 300 non diabetic subjects visiting hospital along with patients and majority of them were males (58%). As shown in the table No.1 below, Majority of study group (39%) comprised of 30 to 50 years of age, while 20 % of the subjects were less than 30 years of age and 41 % of the subjects were of more than 50 years of age. Surprisingly, 31% of the subjects were illiterate and 41 % of them were educated up till 10th grade. High number of study subjects (45 %) were unemployed while out of those subjects, who were suffering from diabetes (300), 20 % were not on any treatment, 50 % were on drugs and 30 % were on insulin.



 

Table no 2 result shows that almost 35 % of diabetic subjects believe that diabetes is an inherited disease while almost 42 % non diabetics believed it so. 30 % of diabetics and 40 % non diabetics believed that diabetic patient should never take sugar and sweets. Surprisingly 8 % of diabetic and 25 % non diabetics thought that diabetes is a contagious disease. Almost 40 % diabetic and 71 % non diabetics said sugar causes diabetes. 40 % of diabetics believed that a patient can take anything to eat once the treatment has been started. 60 % diabetics believed that insulin is used for the final stage of diabetics and 20 % diabetics said it causes impotence. Almost 79 % of non diabetics believed insulin is a complete cure for diabetes and 57 % of it said once insulin is started, it is for life long. 30 % of diabetics said people with diabetes developed blindness at some point in time and 28 % diabetics believed that diabetes can affect sexual life too.

Above table no 3 shows awareness regarding complication of role of diet and life style in diabetes. Almost 20 % of diabetics and 29 % of non diabetics were not aware of complications of diabetes in our research while almost only 67 % diabetics and 49 % of non diabetics were aware of the role of diet in control of diabetes. Only 67% diabetics and 57 % of non diabetics were aware of the role of health life styles in the control of diabetes.

DISCUSSION
Myths prevail and stay in the societies due to lack of education, cultural beliefs and dogmas. These belief become such deep rooted that they sound true and get inculcated in successive generations. They may become slightly modified but stay in a society for a very long time unless challenged by scientific discourse. To change the behavior of the population we need to educate its masses6,7 . We don’t have many studies of the social aspects of many diseases and very meager literature is available based on the subject. We have however carefully collected almost all the myths and the results are surprising as these myths are common even in people who are educated, though less common than the uneducated lot. Many more such studies must be encouraged to enable us to prevent these myths from creating hurdles for scientific understanding of such common diseases. The most widely believed myth was that eating more sugar causes diabetes. This is not entirely true as it is not directly related to eating sugar, but is very much affected by diet in general. Some people also believe that soaking feet in water helps in decreasing blood sugar levels, a concept which is certainly not true. Some others are of opinion that herbal medicines are very effective in treatment of diabetes. These sections of people often present late to doctors and with complications as they first seek spiritual or herbal treatment. Nasir et al, reported high prevalence of such beliefs in spiritual treatment in Karachi, Pakistan. The prevalence of myths was found to be higher in females. This is almost similar to what was found in the study by Nasir et al in Pakistan8 . Educational status of people seemed to reduce their belief in the myths and they were better informed about the disease. This is similar to what was found by Nasir et al. This study therefore clearly reflects that prevalence of myths and misconceptions about diabetes and its treatment is high in our country and this could be a major hindrance in control and prevention of diabetes which is a disease of national importance. In a hospital based study carried out in India similar results were found. Twenty two percent of respondents believe that consuming sugar causes DM and myths were more common among females9 .

CONCLUSION
Myths and misconceptions about diabetes are prevalent in our society and this can have consequences upon the health seeking behavior of the people. In this study education is shown to be associated with decreased belief in myths. Myths and misconceptions are found to be highly prevalent among both even diabetics as well as non diabetics, though it was little less among diabetics in our research. We need to educate people about this disease and its preventive as well as treatment options. Advocacy of Diabetes program is highly encouraged to deal with the myths and misconceptions in the society.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Author acknowledges the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The author is also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

References:

1. Venkataraman , Kannan AT, Mohan V., Challenges in diabetes management with particular reference to India, Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 2009 Jul; 29(3):103-9.

2. Global estimates for prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in adults. WHO Ad Hoc Diabetes Reporting Group. Diabetes care. January 1993; 

3. Adler E, Paauw D. Medical myths involving diabetes. Prim Care 2003; 30:607-18.

4. Ben-Abdelaziz A, Drissi L, Tlili H, Gaha K, Soltane I, et al. Epidemiologic and clinical features of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care facilities. Tunis Med 2006 84: 415–22

5. Rai M, Kishore J. Myths about diabetes and its treatment in North Indian population. International journal of diabetes in developing countries, Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2009 Jul–Aug; 29(3): 129–132.

6. Funnell MM and Anderson RM. Empowerment and self-management education. Clinical Diabetes 2004; 22: 123–7.

7. Funnell MM, Anderson RM, Arnold MS, Barr PA, Donnelly MB, Johnson PD, et al. Empowerment: An idea whose time has come in diabetes patient education. Diabetes Educ. 1991;17: 37–41.

8. Nisar N, Khan IA, Qadri MH, Sher SA. Myths about Diabetes Mellitus among non diabetic individuals attending primary health care centers of Karachi suburbs. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2007; 17: 398-401.

9. Rai M, Kishore J. Myths about diabetes and its treatment in North Indian population. International journal of diabetes in developing countries, Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2009 Jul–Aug; 29(3): 129–132

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A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
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A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
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A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
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A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
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A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
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A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
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A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
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A Study by Ese Anibor et al. entitled "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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