International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, ResearchBib, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, BOAI, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, e-Print, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg, SciPeople.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Readers around the world

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 14, July, 2013

Pages: 88-95

Date of Publication: 29-Jul-2013


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON METHODS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF ENTERIC FEVER

Author: Renu Mathew, Jobin.S.R.

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: Enteric fever continues to be a global health problem and isolation of organism from blood is the gold standard for the diagnosis. Objectives: Aim of this study was to find out the usefulness of three different methods such as blood culture, clot culture and Widal test for diagnosis of enteric fever. Materials and Methods: Total number of blood samples collected was 290 from patients with pyrexia for blood culture, clot culture and Widal test. Results: Among the 290 cases studied, 117 patients were positive for enteric fever with either positive Widal test and or with culture positivity. Culture was positive in 40 patients (34%). Out of 117 positive cases of enteric fever, 89 (76%) had typhoid fever and 28 (24%) patients had paratyphoid fever. This was on the basis of significant Widal titers and isolation of Salmonella from blood or clot. Significant Widal titers were seen in 96 patients. Discussion: The sensitivity and specificity of clot culture were 95% and 100% respectively and both blood culture and clot culture had shown the same rate of isolation. Advantage of clot culture is that it can be done with the sample taken for Widal test. The sensitivity and specificity of the Widal test were 47.5% and 69.2% respectively and Widal test done on convalescent-phase serum gave more reliable results. Conclusion: Blood culture and clot culture had more importance when compared to Widal test for the diagnosis of enteric fever.

Keywords: Blood culture, Clot culture, Enteric fever, Salmonella typhi, Widal test

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
Enteric fever continues to be a global health problem, with an estimated 21.6 million people (incidence of 3.6 per 1,000 population) and kills an estimated 200,000 people every year.The disease is endemic in many developing countries, particularly in Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, South and Central America and Africa, with annual incidence rate estimated to be greater than 900 per 100,000 populations in India. 1 Enteric fever includes typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers caused by Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi A, B and C. Isolation of organism from blood is the gold standard for diagnosis of enteric fever. Other methods like bone marrow culture, clot culture, antigen detection, Widal test and stool culture can also be done for the diagnosis. Delayed and inaccurate diagnosis and treatment results in increased costs and higher rates of serious complications and deaths. Early detection and antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance must be applied to prevent the complications as well as the emergence of multidrug resistance strains.2

In view of the above facts, the present study was undertaken to compare the usefulness of different methods for the diagnosis of enteric fever.

AIM
A cross sectional study to find out the usefulness of three different methods such as blood culture, clot culture and Widal test for diagnosis of enteric fever.

OBJECTIVES
1. To isolate and identify the agents causing enteric fever (Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C) using clot culture and conventional blood culture method.

2. To detect the presence of antibodies against Salmonella antigens in serum using Widal test.

3. To compare the results of clot culture method and Widal test with conventional blood culture method which is the gold standard for diagnosis of enteric fever.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was carried out at Saveetha Medical College, which is a tertiary care hospital in Thandalam, Kanchipuram district. Study period was from October 2011 to January 2012.

INCLUSION CRITERIA
Patient with clinically suspected Enteric fever (pyrexia of more than five days) from all age groups.

Exclusion criteria

  • Patients with respiratory tract infections (tuberculosis, pneumonia).
  • Patients with urinary tract infections
  • Patients with malaria
  • Immuno-compromised patients (AIDS)

Total number of samples collected was 290. Venous blood (5-10 ml from adult and 2-5 ml from paediatric patients for blood culture, clot culture and Widal test) was collected aseptically from patients with pyrexia attending the Paediatric and Medicine departments at Saveetha Medical College and hospital. Consent form and proforma were duly filled up. After clotting of blood in the sterile tube, the specimens were centrifuged for 5 minutes at 3000 rpm (rotation per minute) and serum was aseptically removed for Widal test. The clot was used for clot culture.3 The specimens were transported within two hours to the laboratory. 4 For whole blood culture, 2-10 ml blood was added to the brain heart infusion broth without centrifugation.5

Conventional blood culture method (Gold standard):
Blood contains substances that inhibit the growth of the bacilli and hence it is essential that the broth be taken in sufficient quantity to provide at least fourfold dilution of blood. The addition of liquid (sodium polyanethol sulphonate) counteracts the bactericidal action of blood.

From adult patients with pyrexia, 5-10 ml blood was collected and inoculated in to 50- 100 ml Brain Heart Infusion medium. (In pediatric age group, 2-5 ml blood was collected and inoculated in to 20-50 ml Brain Heart Infusion broth)

  • The culture was incubated at 370 c for 24 hours.
  • At interval of 1, 3, 7 day, subculture was done on Blood agar and Mac Conkey agar.
  • Non-lactose colonies from the Mac Conkey agar plates were identified by Gram staining, oxidase test and conventional biochemical tests (such as indole, citrate, urease, triple sugar iron, mannitol motility and slide agglutination test with high titre sera.5,6

CLOT CULTURE METHOD
Clot cultures yield a higher rate of isolation than blood culture as the bactericidal action of the serum is obviated. Clot culture can be done with the sample taken for Widal test. A total of 5 ml blood is enough for both isolation of agent causing enteric fever as well as antibody detection. For blood clot culture, a modification of method described by Escamilla et al 7 was used. ? Five ml of blood was collected from patients with pyrexia and allowed the blood to clot. ? After the blood clotted in the sterile tube, the specimens were centrifuged for 5 minutes at 3000 rpm (rotation per minute) and the serum was aseptically removed for Widal test. ? The clot was used for blood clot culture. ? The clot was broken up with a sterile glass rod and added to bottle of 50 ml bile broth. ? Streptokinase (100 units per ml) was added into the broth to facilitate lysis of the clot.6 ? Culture was incubated at 370C for 24 hours. ? At interval of 1, 3, 7 day subculture were done on Blood and Mac Conkey agar. ? Non-lactose colonies from the Mac Conkey agar plates were identified by Gram’s staining, oxidase test, conventional biochemical tests and slide agglutination test using high titre sera. WIDAL TEST Widal test is a tube agglutination test which detects the presence of agglutinins (H and O) in patient’s serum with typhoid and paratyphoid fever. The antigen used in the test is the H and O antigen of Salmonella typhi and the H antigen of Salmonella paratyphi A and B. Commercial antigen from Tulip Diagnostics was used. ? Appropriate number of sets (as required; one set for each antigen suspension) of 8 test tubes were taken and labeled them 1 to 8. ? 1.9 ml of physiological saline was pipetted into tube No.1 of all sets. ? 1 ml of physiological saline was added to each of the remaining tubes (2 to 8). ? 0.1 ml of serum sample to be tested was added to tube No.1 of all sets and mixed well. ? 1 ml of the diluted serum sample from tube No.2 was transferred to No.3 and mixed well. Serial dilution till tube No.7 in each set was continued. ? 1.0 ml of the diluted serum from tube No.7 of each set discarded. ? The dilutions of the serum sample achieved from tube No.1 to 7 respectively in each set was as follows 1:20, 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, 1:320, 1:640, 1:1280.Tube No.8 in all sets, served as a saline control. ? To all the tubes (1 to 8) of each set one drop of the respective well mixed antigen suspension from the reagent vials was added and mixed well. ? Covered and incubated at 370C overnight (approximately 18 hours). ? The reading was taken after incubation. ? Significant titer was taken as 1:80 and above for TO and 1:160 and above for TH. 4,8 RESULTS A total number of 290 blood samples were collected from patients with clinically suspected enteric fever and subjected to blood culture, clot culture and Widal test. Duration of fever was ranging from 5 to 14 days. Among the 290 cases studied, 117 patients were positive for enteric fever with either positive Widal test and or with culture positivity. Culture was positive in 40 patients (34%). Out of 117 positive cases of enteric fever, 89 (76%) had typhoid fever and 28 (24%) patients had paratyphoid fever. This was on the basis of significant Widal titers and isolation of Salmonella from blood or clot. Significant Widal titers were seen in 96 patients. Out of 117 patients 77 (66%) were inpatients and 40 (34%) were outpatients. Among 117 positive cases, 66 (56%) patients were males and 51 (44%) were females. Out of 117 positive cases, 30 (26%) were belonging to the age group of < 20 years, 52 (44%) between 21-40 years, 32 (27%) between 41-60 and 3 (3%) from above 60 years of age group. Maximum number of patients 52 (44%) were from 21-40 years of age group. Distribution of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A infection is shown in Fig- 1

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
The results of clot culture, Widal test were compared with blood culture (Gold standard). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on the compared results, which is depicted in Table 1 and 2. Table- 1: The sensitivity and specificity of clot culture were 95% and 100%. Positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 99.2% respectively. Chi-square test value was 273.313, P<0.001 and df 1. Table – 2 : There was significant difference (Chi-square value=4.343, P<0.05 and df=1) between the Widal test and blood culture method for the detection of enteric fever. But the sensitivity and specificity of the Widal test were 47.5% and 69.2% respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values were 19.79% and 89.17%. Comparison of sensitivity and specificity of clot culture and Widal test is shown in Figure 2 and Table 3. Fig 2 (Graph 1) Table -3 Table-4 Table-5 The higher rate of isolation was found to be with low Widal titer as shown in Table 4 and 5. Out of 40 Salmonella isolates, 29 isolates were Salmonella typhi and 11 were Salmonella paratyphi A.

DISCUSSION
Typhoid fever remains as an important cause of morbidity even at present. In the present study, 290 blood samples were taken from patients with clinically suspected enteric fever and blood culture, clot culture and Widal test were done for the diagnosis. Among the 290 cases studied, 117 patients were positive for enteric fever with Widal test, blood and clot culture. Culture was positive in 40 patients of which 29 isolates were Salmonella typhi and 11 were Salmonella paratyphi A. Culture positivity was 34%. Significant Widal titers were seen in 96 cases (82%). In our study, out of 117 positive cases, maximum number 52 (44%) was from the age group between 21 to 40. A similar study done by Karkey A et al had reported the maximum positivity from adult age groups. 9 The sensitivity and specificity of clot culture was 95% and 100% respectively in our study. A similar study by Simanjuntak CH et al, Indonesia compared the sensitivities of whole blood and clot culture in 155 patients with typhoid or paratyphoid fever. Salmonella typhi or Salmonella paratyphi A were isolated from 98.7% of blood culture and 94.8% of clot culture. Whole blood culture and clot culture were of nearly equal sensitivity. The results of the above study correlated well with ours. 10 Mantur B G et al had a similar study where the clot culture was found to be much more sensitive for Salmonella than whole blood culture. Bacterial growth was significantly faster in culture of blood clots compared to whole blood.11 Isolation rate of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A was 76% and 24% in our study. In a similar study done by Krishnan P et al in Chennai, 70% of isolates were Salmonella typhi and 30% were Salmonella paratyphi A, which was in accordance with our study.12 Among 290 sera 194 blood samples shown <1:80 antibody titer for both antigens, 15 were culture positive for Salmonella typhi in both blood and clot culture method. Out of 194 samples that had shown <1:80 antibody titer for both O and AH antigens, 6 blood samples were positive for Salmonella paratyphi A. In our study, the sensitivity was 47.5% and specificity was 69.2% for Widal test. Similar study done by Taiwo SS et al, has reported the sensitivity as 90% and specificity as 88.5% which was more when compared with the present study. 13 Widal test done on acute phase serum of patients suspected to have typhoid fever had shown limited diagnostic value because of its low sensitivity. Widal test done on convalescentphase serum gave more reliable results with higher specificity and sensitivity. Paired sera testing would be more advantageous than a single Widal test.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • In this study, 89 (76%) had typhoid fever and 28 (24%) patients had paratyphoid fever on the basis of significant Widal titers and isolation of Salmonella.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of clot culture were 95% and 100% respectively with an advantage that it can be done with the sample taken for Widal test.
  • Both blood culture and clot culture had shown the same rate of isolation, confirming the significance of blood culture as the gold standard for diagnosing enteric fever.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of the Widal test were 47.5% and 69.2% respectively and Widal test done on convalescent-phase serum gave more reliable results.
  • In conclusion, Blood culture and clot culture had more importance when compared to Widal test for the diagnosis of enteric fever.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We acknowledge Dr. Shameem Banu, Professor and Head and Dr. Kalyani. M, Professor of Department of Microbiology for their valuable support in carrying out this study.

References:

1. Eric Mintz. Enteric fever – Epidemiology and Reports from the Field: Global situation and WHO recommendations. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference Asia-Pacific symposium on typhoid fever and other Salmonellosis. Dhaka, Bangladesh 1-2 March 2013.

2. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s (2000), Principles and practice of infectious diseases, 6th edition, chapter 220, Salmonella species, including Salmonella typhi, page no – 2636 -2650.

3. Koneman’s (2006), Colour Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, Sixth edition, page no 251-257.

4. Olopoenia LA, King AL. Widal agglutination test - 100 years later: still plagued by controversy. Postgrad Med J 2000; 76(892): 80-4.

5. Paniker CK. Enterobacteriaceae-III Salmonella. In: Ananthanarayan R, Paniker CK, editors. Textbook of Microbiology. 8th ed. Chennai, India: Orient Longman Private limited; 2010. p. 289-290.

6. Chakraborty P (2007), A text book of Microbiology, chapter 77, Pyrexia of unknown origin, page no: 676-677.

7. Escamilla J, Ugrate HF, Kilpatrick ME. Evaluation of blood clot cultures for isolation of S. typhi, S. paratyphi A and Brucella melitensis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1986; 24(3):388-90.

8. Old DC. Salmonella. In: Collee JG, Fraser AG, Marmion BP, Simmons A, editors. Mackie And McCartney Practical Medical Microbiology. 14th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1996. p. 385-404.

9. Karkey A, Arjyal A, Anders KL, Boni MF, Dongol S, Koirala S, My PV, Nga TV,Clements AC, Holt KE, Duy PT, Day JN, Campbell JI, Dougan G, Dolecek C, Farrar J, Basnyat B, Baker S. The burden and characteristics of enteric fever at a healthcare facility in a densely populated area of Kathmandu. PLoS One. 2010 Nov 15; 5(11):e13988.

10. Simanjuntak CH, Hoffman SL, Darmowigoto R, Lesmana M, Soeprawoto, Edman DC, Streptokinase clot culture compared with whole blood culture for isolation of Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi A from patients with enteric fever. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1988; 82(2):340-1.

11. Mantur BG, Bidari LH, Akki AS, Mulimani MS, Tikare NV, Diagnostic yield of blood clot culture in the accurate diagnosis of enteric fever and human brucellosis. Clin Lab. 2007;53(1-2):57-61.

12. Krishnan P, Stalin M, Balasubramanian S. Changing trends in antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A in Chennai. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2009 Oct-Dec; 52(4):505-8.

13. Taiwo SS, Fadiora SO, Oparinde DP, Olowe OA, Widal agglutination titers in the diagnosis of typhoid fever .West Afr J Med. 2007 Apr-June; 26(2):97-101.




Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to June 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. entitled "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2021 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions