International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 09 Issue 02, January, 2017

Pages: 32-36

Date of Publication: 20-Jan-2017


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Ridge Augmentation Meet for Esthetics: An Interdisciplinary Approach

Author: Irudayanirmala J., Ramakrishnan T., Shobana P., Vidya Sekhar, Edilbert raja I., Karthikeyan A.

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Aim: Dentoalveolar defects occur due to maxillofacial trauma, accidents, traumatic tooth extraction, advanced periodontal diseases, which results in loss of alveolar ridge and attached mucosa. These defects when occur in anterior region needs hard and soft tissue augmentation. Though many techniques exist for effective soft and hard tissue augmentation, approach is mainly based on the extent of the defect and specific procedures for prosthetic rehabilitation. Bone graft along with GBR is valuable treatment option for ridge augmentation followed by Fixed partial denture.
Case Report: This article presents case report of hard tissue augmentation in seibert`s class 3 alveolar ridge defect followed by Fixed partial denture with Gingival colored porcelain in missing Right maxillary lateral incisor region.
Discussion: Increase in the density of the defected area can be achieved by bone grafting with GBR. Thus it paves the way for replacement of the lost tooth along with function and esthetics.
Conclusion: The clinical and radiographic findings of this case suggests that bone grafting procedures combined with resorbable collagen membrane followed by esthetic metal ceramic fixed partial denture can be an acceptable alternative to removable partial denture, implant therapy.

Keywords: Dentoalveolar defects, Guided bone regeneration, Bioresorbable Demineralized bone matrix, Ridge augmentation, Fixed prosthesis

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

    Alveolar ridge augmentation designed to correct deformed alveolar ridge by enlarging or increasing, as in size, extent or quantity.1

    Alveolar process is often affected after tooth loss by a continuous resorptive process in dentoalveolar defects. principal site of resorption is Labial aspect of the alveolar crest in which  First   reduces in width  and later in height. These local  alveolar ridge defects creates  aesthetic and functional problems  that includes loss of papillae, formation of open inter dental spaces, loss of buccal contour, unaesthetic  gingival texture,  phonetic problem, and food impaction  respectively.2

   Based on the location of the deformity, Seibert  1983 classified  ridge defect as  class1,class II, class III.2

Class 1 -   Bucco lingual loss of tissue with normal apico coronal ridge height.

Class II  – Apico coronal loss of tissue with  normal  buccolingual ridge  width..

Class III -  Combination of both buccolingual and apico coronal loss ( both  width and height)

 Advanced alveolar bone loss in above defects  prevents replacement in an optimal prosthetic position. So ridge augmentation play a major role in  replacement of  teeth. It require bone regeneration outside of the existing bony walls that includes GBR techniques involving  bone grafting material  and membrane.3  

 GBR is technique that has same principle as GTR, but is not associated with teeth. Primary objective of GBR is to regenerate a single tissue i.e bone compared to GTR which regenerate  multiple  tissues (bone,cementum,PDL)4

     Sterile bio resorbable Demineralized bone allograft has been used alone in ridge augmentation which is osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive in nature. GBR stabilize the bone graft below the membrane, minimize the risk of collapse and  soft tissue in growth over osteogenic cells intended  for bone regeneration.5

  • This is the case report of Hard tissue augmentation with bone graft along with collagen membrane to enhance  bone regeneration in  seibert`s  class 3  alveolar ridge defect  in  missing Right maxillary lateral incisor region. Later right maxillary lateral incisor was replaced with ceramic fixed partial denture with gingival-colored porcelain  using central incisor and canine as abutments.

CASE REPORT:

  • A 24 years old Female named Ramani was referred to the Department of periodontics, Adhi parasakthi dental college and hospital, for ridge augmentation, prior to fixed partial denture replacement by the Department of prosthodontics.

Implant was not planned because of inadequate width and height. Also patient needs immediate replacement. Medical history was Non-contributory. The dental history revealed, loss of Right maxillary lateral incisor due to trauma 1 year back. Evaluation of the edentulous space (through  clinical and Radiographic examination) revealed  siebert`s  class 3 ridge defect  (Combination of both buccolingual and apico coronal loss ( both  width and height) [Fig.1,2] In order to create  an emergence profile and soft tissue contour  around the  fixed partial denture, the ridge defect was planned to be corrected using Guided bone regeneration technique using bone graft with a resorbable collagen( Heali-guide) membrane.

     SURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS:

RECIPIENT SITE:

          Patient was asked to rinse with 10 ml of 0.2%  chlorhexidine  for one minute before surgery. Local anesthesia was given  and  crestal  incision  was placed on the edentulous area of Right maxillary  lateral incisor region, continuing  with the  intra sulcular incision  at the adjoining teeth.

         Full thickness mucoperiosteal flap elevated that showed  deformity in  the  labial  aspect.  A surgical  bur was used to  decorticate the bone  for binding of bone graft over the defect area and also providing  vascular supply.[Fig.3]

Allograft ( sterile bio resorbable Demineralized  bone matrix- Xeno graft)  was placed over the deformity[Fig.4]  and covered with  resorbable collagen membrane (HealiGuide).[Fig.5] Flap was  closed by  Horizontal mattress suture  using 3-0 silk[Fig.6] and  periodontal  dressing  was placed. Post operative instructions were given. Patient was advised Amoxicillin (500mg),  three times daily  for 5 days, and Ibuprofen (400mg) thrice daily or 3 days along with  10ml of chlorhexidine (0.2%)  mouthwash  twice daily  for 14 days.  The patient was recalled  after 1 week for suture removal. Healing was satisfactory with no post surgical complications.

Patient was recalled after 1 month and clinical examination of the treated ridge defect showed significant improvement in ridge width.[Fig.7] Post operative models after 1 month showed improvement in ridge contour.[Fig.8]                                                                                                                        

RESTORATIVE PROCEDURE:

Teeth preparation  done on  maxillary  central incisor and  canine region.[Fig.9] Contouring of  gingiva was done  to get  emergence profile[Fig.10]  Since  maxillary right central incisor pulp horn was so high, Intentional RCT was done on this tooth.[Fig.11].Immediately temporary crown placed.[Fig.12]. After 2 days post operatively, healing of gingiva took place with contoured margins. [Fig.13]   In this case, young female patient had high esthetic expectations, Gingival-colored porcelain  was used to  metal-based  ceramic crowns to  compensate soft tissues  on the maxilla .So metal ceramic crown  with Gingival colored  porcelain  was  constructed between  maxillary right central incisor and canine region.[Fig.14,15] Then the prosthesis was checked for any occlusal discrepancies. The patient was instructed oral hygiene instructions including  dental floss and interproximal brushes designed for fixed partial denture. The esthetic outcome of the procedure satisfied  both clinician and patient.                                                              

DISCUSSION:

Large  vertical and  horizontal  bone defects in missing teeth  are not  successfully  treated  by conventional  fixed or removable  prosthesis alone. Bone grafts with GBR showed successful bone regeneration  in the  ridge defects.

Bone regeneration occur at the periphery of the defect, by the formation of woven bone with new blood vasculature. New vascular supply comes from surgically created perforations in the cortical bone. Then woven bone is replaced by mature lamellar bone.4

Collagen membrane used for GBR  has the ability to promote platelet aggregation, be  chemotactic  for  fibroblast,  enhance  wound  stability  required  for proper healing, and mechanical support to the tissue during bone formation.[5,6] Non –degradable membranes has been used for ridge  defects with good results, however need of second surgery for its removal, and infection on exposure overcome by rersorbable membrane.

 Recently, Non-expanded dense PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) membrane provided sufficient regenerated ridge due to its no need for primary closure, easy to achieve over filling.7 Bone replacement grafts have an ability to  stimulate progenitor cells .Progenitor  cells undergo  differentiation to  osteoblasts  and form  bone  under the membrane.5

There are various treatment options for the patients who have severe maxillary dento alveolar defects. Although removable partial dentures are indicated in soft and hard tissue lost in order to acquire lip support. They are not the first choice of patients who have high esthetic and  functional  expectations.

Conventional tooth supported FPD may be an ideal treatment option where implants are contra indicated or patients refuse the implant therapy due to its  surgery, and long time to complete the treatment. However, Natural abutment teeth with sufficient bone support are required  for  these kinds of prosthesis. Moreover it reduces treatment time and cost.8

CONCLUSION:

  • Prior to treat Dentoalveolar defects, Careful diagnosis and surgical – prosthetic treatment planning with joint consultation should be performed. In order to obtain better results, ridge augmentation with bone grafting along with GBR is more predictable and  metal ceramic fixed partial denture with Gingival-colored porcelain enhanced the  esthetic outcome. Correction of a localized ridge defect with hard tissue augmentation is a valuable method for FPD in which  improved  mucogingival  esthetics as well as phonetics.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

 Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and  included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors/ publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

References:

  1. American Academy of Periodontology. Glossary of periodontal Terms (2001).
  1. Lakshmaiahenkatesh P.M, Suryaprakash M.S, Varadan K.B, Rajanna.S. Pre psosthetic reconstruction  of alveolar ridge. Journal of the International clinical Dental Research organization, 2011; 3(2) : 78-83.
  1. Aparna singh, Anika Daing, Vishal Anand. Two dimensional alveolar ridge  augmentation using particulate  hydroxy apatite and collagen membrane: A Case report. Journal of  oral biology and  cranio facial research, 2014;4:151-4.
  1. Newman MG, Takei HH, Klokkevold PR, Carranza FA. Caranza`s clinical periodontology.10th ed. St.Louis: Elsevier (saunder`s);2006.p.113
  1. Parthasaradhi T, Preethe Padmanabhan, Ramya V. Successful localized ridge augmentation: A combination  therapy using  GBR and PRP. Biomedical andPharmacology Journal,2015;8:347-52.
  1. Rakhmatia Y.D, Ayukawa Y, Furuhashi A, Koyano K. Current  barrier  membranes: Titanium  mesh and other membranes for  guided bone regeneration  in dental applications. Journal of prosthodontic research,2013;57:3-14.
  1. Yamashita M, Horita S, Takei N, Sasada Y. Minimally invasive Alveolar ridge preservation /Augmentation procedure. Funakoshi Research institute of  clinical periodontology.
  1. Yazicioglu Y, Ozkurt-Kayahan Z, Ozcakir-Tomruk C, Katipoglu B. Prosthetic management of a Maxillary Alveolar defect with an Implant-Retained Fixed prosthesis:  A  clinical report. Dentistry,4(5):225.

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Best Article Award

A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
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A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
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A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09


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