International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, ResearchBib, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Advertisement

Full Html

IJCRR - vol 06 issue 03, February, 2014

Pages: 01-06

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CHORDA TENDINAE OF MITRAL VALVE IN HUMAN HEARTS

Author: S. Kavitha, A. Anand, K.Y. Manjunath

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Objective: Chorda tendinae are the connecting link between heart valves and the ventricular chambers. In valve replacement surgeries, the effective post surgical performance of the valve depends on the length of the chordae which are anchored. This study aims at giving a definitive measurement of the chordae from the papillary muscle of the ventricle to the leaflet of the valve so that an operating surgeon can have a fair idea of how much length of the chordae can be sacrificed. Materials and Methods: 50 human hearts were studied and the length, breadth and the numerical count and the position of the chordae of the mitral valve were studied. Results: The mean length of anterior chorda was 12.77mm \?4.03 S.D and posterior 12.33mm \?3.89 S.D. The mean breadth of anterior chorda was .28mm\? .20 S.D and posterior .25mm \? 0.14 S.D .The anterior papillary muscle contained around an average of 10.42 \? 2.48 S.D chordae and the posterior papillary muscle contained around an average of 9.72 \? 2.39 S.D chordae. Based on the position of attachment, lateral chordae were approximately 73.22% and apical chordae 19.06% and marginal chordae was 7.72%. Conclusion: The length and the breadth of the chordae of the anterior papillary muscle were more than the length and breadth of the posterior papillary muscle. Approximate measurements of chordae will give a definitive value in mitral valvular replacement surgeries.

Keywords: chorda, chordae, tendinae, mitral valve, ventricle, leaflet, papillary muscle

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION Cardiovascular diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in our modern world. This is due to affluent practices of the population with associated factors like obesity and a sedentary lifestyle combined with a diet rich in fats. Whatever be the underlying cause which results in a cardiac affliction, it has affected the quality of life and a significant reduction in the life expectancy of individuals with cardiac ailments. Advancements in cardiothoracic surgery has resulted in replacement of heart valves using artificial heart valves which has a definitive life span and issues of compatibility. Of late, cadaveric heart valve replacements have gained precedence. In cadaveric heart valve replacement surgeries, thorough knowledge of valvular anatomy and dimensions of the valves is a must before planning a surgical procedure. Preservation of chordae either in artificial heart valve and cadaveric heart valve replacement surgeries has been advocated for efficient post surgical valvular function of the heart. This study pertains to supplementing the preservation of chordae of the valvular apparatus in replacement surgeries. Detailed approximate measurements of the dimensions of the mitral valve apparatus will serve as a guideline for determining the architecture of chordae during valve replacements. Preservation of chordae is advocated as it contains extensions of ventricular conducting tissues1 . A detailed classification of the types of chordae is not possible because of variations in individuals and in places of free edge of the valve where the chordae are not attached become prone to prolapse1 . This assumes significance because anatomical or near anatomical alignment of the mitral valve has to be maintained post surgically for efficient function of the heart. The opening of the mitral valve is smaller than the tricuspid opening and the annulus itself is made of fibrocollagenous elements of different consistencies which help the annulus change in the shape and dimensions during the phases of cardiac cycle which ensures an optimal efficiency in valvular action2 . Near normal alignment of mitral valve in cadaveric heart valve and artificial heart valve replacements can be achieved by paying attention to the presurgical dimensions of the fibrocollagenous structure of the mitral valve. This study aims to give the operating surgeon a guideline for approximate measurements of chordae tendinae of the mitral valve. Many studies have elaborated on the importance of preservation of the chordae which reduces the risk of catastrophic ventricular rupture3 . Approximate measurements of the chordae have to be known because there is always a possibility of over shortening of the chordae during valve replacement procedures which can result in rupture of papillary muscle4 . This study assumes significance since in conventional operative procedures for replacement of the mitral valve as there is a loss of continuity between the annulus of the mitral valve and the papillary muscles. This loss of continuity results in a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction and an increase in after load by eliminating regurgitation in patients with mitral regurgitation5 . Left ventricular function in post mitral valvular surgical procedures depend on preservation of chordae tendineae6 because preserved chordae is bound to promote effective valvular function. Moderator bands are structures which connect the septum of the ventricles to the ventricular free wall. These moderator bands histologically are made of cardiac muscle fibres, blood vessels and purkinje fibres and are directly involved in the conduction of electrical impulses in the heart. Presence of conducting structures in the chordae tendinae as an extension of ventricular conducting system will have to be taken into consideration in valve replacement surgeries 7, 8. Hence histological study of the chordae was also performed to demonstrate the presence of conducting tissues of the chordae in the present study.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The specimens for the study were obtained from the departments of Forensic medicine and Anatomy of VMKV Medical College & Hospitals, Salem after obtaining necessary clearances from the Institutional Review Board and Ethical Committee for conducting the study. The specimens were fresh cadaveric human hearts numbering 50. The equipments utilized for the study were digital vernier calipers, hand lens, measuring scale and digital photographic equipment. Tissue sample was taken from a few chordae and paraffin wax blocks were prepared after processing, sections were taken and stained and examined under microscope for evidence of any conducting structures present in the chordae. The study pertained only to the chordae and papillary muscles attached to the mitral valve. The requisite parameters of the study were length (fig – 3) and breadth of the chordae, the number of chordae and the position of attachment of the chordae (fig – 4) between the papillary muscle and the annulus was documented. The length of the chorda was measured from the point of origin from the papillary muscle to the point of attachment to the leaflet. The breadth of the chorda was taken at the midpoint of the chorda after measuring the length. The number of chordae was enumerated for both anterior (fig – 1) and posterior papillary (fig – 2) muscles. The measurements obtained from the set parameters were documented.

Statistical Analysis

The measurements were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software version 16. The range, standard deviation and mean were calculated. Chi square test was done to compare the variables.

RESULTS

The length of the chordae in anterior papillary muscle ranged from a minimum of 5.80mm to a maximum of 25.17mm with a mean of 12.77mm. The length of chordae in posterior papillary muscle ranged from a minimum of 5.57mm to a maximum of 22.05mm with a mean of 12.33mm. The length of the chordae of anterior papillary muscle was marginally higher than that of the posterior papillary muscle. The breadth of the chordae in anterior papillary muscle ranged from a minimum of .02mm to a maximum of .89mm with a mean of .28mm.The breadth of chordae in posterior papillary muscle ranged from a minimum of .07mm to a maximum of .68mm with a mean of .25mm. The breadth of the anterior papillary muscle was marginally higher than that of posterior papillary muscle. The total number of chordae in anterior papillary muscle ranged from a minimum of 07 to a maximum of 16 with a mean of 10.42 chordae. The total number of chordae in the posterior papillary muscle ranged from a minimum of 06 to a maximum of 17 with a mean of 9.72chordae. In the present study the anterior papillary muscle contained more chordae than the posterior papillary muscle. The position of attachment of chorda tendinae in both anterior and posterior papillary muscles, the laterally attached chordae were 73.22%, apical chordae 19.06% and marginal chordae were 7.72%. The percentage of lateral chordae was more in anterior and posterior papillary muscles The chordae tendinae were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (fig – 5) which showed evidence of collagen fibres and cardiac muscle which collates that the chordae does contain conducting tissue.

DISCUSSION

Although numerous studies have elaborated on the position and attachment of chordae, enumerates the length and breadth of chordae from the tip of papillary muscle to the septal leaflet. These measurements will give a definitive value for preserving the chordae in mitral valvuloplasty performed for mitral valve insufficiency. Post surgical efficiency of the left ventricular function improved after preservation of chordae in patients who underwent mitral valvuloplasty9 . In mitral incompetence the length, location and number of chordae are required to estimate the reattachment of the chordae to the ventricular wall10. The chordal length and breadth measurements play an important role as a long length or short length would lead to mitral valve prolapse syndrome11. The length and breadth of the chordae of anterior and posterior papillary muscles will provide an approximate guideline value for determining the position and attachment of a prosthetic valve. Various authors have elaborate classifications for attached position of the chordae to the papillary muscle. The length and breadth of the chordae is determined based on the position of attachment to the papillary muscle. Based on the position of chordae, the attachments can be apical, marginal and lateral. This inequality in the arrangement of chordae determines the efficacy and robust function of the mitral valve. Hypothetically if all chordae were of equal length and with the same positional attachment, mechanical function of the mitral valve would be inefficient. Too many chordae also will interfere with left ventricular function12 . The length and breadth of the chordae determines the positional attachment of a prosthetic mitral valve in cases where the preservation of chorda papillary complex is advocated. Any laxity in reattachment of the chorda leads to discrepancy of effective valvular function and leads to mitral valve prolapse11 . The measurement of parameters obtained from the present study correlates with a study performed in the United Kingdom13. The sections taken from the chordae when analyzed under microscope after staining with haematoxylin and eosin showed evidence of wavy collagen and cardiac muscle tissue similar to the study performed earlier13. The presence of collagen and some amount of elastic fibres in the chordae is suggestive of the enormous amount of force required for repetitive movements of the valve and optimal performance of the left ventricle. Preservation of the chordae in mitral valve replacement procedures caused significant reduction in the operative mortality14. The preservation of chordae of both anterior and posterior papillary muscles of left ventricle during mitral valve replacement provides a tethering effect of chordal support and totally prevents mitral regurgitation5 . In conventional mitral valve replacements, the mitral regurgitation is more.

CONCLUSION

To summarize as evident from the analysis of the set parameters, it is observed that the length and breadth of the chordae of anterior papillary muscle are higher than the length of the chordae of the posterior papillary muscle. Numerically the chordae of the anterior papillary muscle were significantly more than the chordae of the posterior papillary muscle. In both anterior and papillary muscles of the left ventricle, laterally attached chordae were more in number than the apical and marginal chordae. In the present study the number of apical chordae was more in anterior papillary muscle and the percentage of marginal chordae was more in posterior papillary muscle of the left ventricle. The results obtained from the present study can be used as guideline for measurements in prosthetic valve replacements for mitral valve and will help the surgeons in planning a procedure and have a reduction in morbidity and mortality in critical situations.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors sincerely wish to thank the management, administrators and the Professor and Head of the department of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine of Vinayaka Missions Kirupananda Variyar Medical College, Salem for their whole hearted support and permissions to utilize their resources and conduct this study. The authors acknowledge the great help received from the scholars whose articles cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors/editors/publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed. Authors are grateful to IJCRR editorial board members and IJCRR team of reviewers who have helped to bring quality to this manuscript.

References:

REFERENCES

1. Susan Standring. Gray’s Anatomy, 39th Edition. Anatomical basis of clinical practice, Churchill Livingstone, London. 2005; 39:1008.

2. Susan Standring. Gray’s Anatomy, 40th Edition. Anatomical basis of clinical practice, Churchill Livingstone, London. 2008; 40:970.

3. Miller DW Jr, Johnson DD, Ivey TD. Does preservation of the posterior chordae tendinae enhance survival during mitral valve replacement? Ann Thoracic Surg 1979; 28:22- 7.

4. Trites PN, Kiser JC, Johnson C, et al. Occlusion of Medtronic Hall mitral valve prosthesis by ruptured papillary muscle and chordae tendinae. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1984; 88:301-2.

5. Shigehito Miki, Kenji Kusuhara, Yuichi Ueda et al. Mitral valve Replacement with preservation of chordae tendinae and papillary muscles in Ann Thorac Surg Jan 1988; 45: 28- 34.

6. Spence PA, Peniston CM, David TE, Mihic N, et al. Toward a better understanding of etiology of left ventricular dysfunction after mitral valve replacement: An experimental study with possible clinical implications. Ann Thorac Surg 1986; 41:363-371.

7. Gulyaeva AS, Roshchevskaya IM. Morphology of moderator bands (Septomarginal Trabecula) in porcine heart ventricles. J Vet.Med – Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 2012; 41:1-9.

8. Roberts WC, Cohen LS .Anomalous left ventricular band. An unemphasized cause of a precordial musical murmur. Am.J.Cardiol, 1969; 23:735-8.

9. Jose Luiz Dancini, Pablo Maria Alberto Pomerantzeff,Guilherme Sobreira Spina, et al. Valve Replacement with Chordal preservation and Valvuloplasty for Chronic Mitral Insufficiency. Arq Bras Cardiol 2004; volume 82: 243-50.

10. Gerda L Van Rijk et al. Evolving significance of Human chordae Tendineae. Am. J. of Card Surg 1994; 9:255 – 261.

11. Harken D. E, Ellis L.B, Ware P.F, Norman L.R. The surgical treatment of mitral stenosis, valvuloplasty in New England J Med 1948; 238: pp: 801 – 806.

12. Silverman M E, Hurst J.W, et al. The mitral complex: interaction of anatomy, physiology and pathology of the mitral annulus, mitral valve leaflets, Chordae tendineae and papillary muscle. Am heart J 1968; 76: 399.

13. Millington-Sanders C, Meir A, Lawrence L, Stolinski C. Structure of chorda tendineae in the left ventricle of the human heart. Journal of Anatomy. 1988; 192:573 – 581.

14. Lillehei CW, Levy MJ, Bonnabeau RC. Mitral valve replacement with preservation of papillary muscles and chordae tendineae. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1964; 47:532.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
Hacked By Idamane Ayang img { opacity: 0.6; }
Hacked By Idamane Ayang



Batin Tak Kuatke Ngo Ngempet Larane Mergo Aku Tresno Kowe

contact me: westaukelaran404@protonmail.com

Kelelawar Cyber Team - Pancasila Cyber Team - Jombang Hacker Crew - Padang Black Hat - Jawa Timur Cyber Team - Cidro Xploit - Ponorogo1337 - Ponorogo Black Hat - Ponorogo Cyber Team - Jawa6etar - Ponorogo Hacker Team



List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2022 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions