International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, ResearchBib, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, BOAI, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, e-Print, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg, SciPeople.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Readers around the world

Full Html

IJCRR - vol 06 issue 05, March, 2014

Pages: 48-58

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF


Author: Shah S., Gosai R., Gonsai R. N.

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:This is a descriptive / retrospective crosssectional study. This study was carried out at the histopathology laboratory, Department of Pathology, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad from January 2008 to December 2009 on all splenecand tomy specimens and one splenculi biopsy. Total 200 cases were studied which were received already fixed in 10% neutral buffer formalin. Among the specimens the most common age group fell in 21-30 years (30%). Male to female sex ratio was1:1.1. In 30% cases cause of splenomegaly was not identified. Most common known cause for splenomegaly was portal hypertension (23.5%) followed by trauma (12.5%). Most common diagnosis made after microscopy and correlating clinical and radiological findings was fibrocongestive splenomegaly (67%), which was most commonly due to hepatic cause. Most common cause identified later in unidentified cases of splenomegaly was also fibrocongestive splenomegaly (69%).

Keywords: splenectomy specimens, splenculi biopsy

Full Text:


Spleen is mysterious organ, it can be troublesome specimen for surgical pathologist due to discordance between patient’s clinical condition and perceived findings. Patients with a dramatic clinical presentation that point to splenic pathology not infrequently have no discernable or have barely perceptible histological abnormalities of the spleen. Similarly, patients whose spleens contain histological findings that seem to deviate significantly from the “norm” may have no clinically detectable haematological complains.This review presents practical aspects of splenic histopathology specimens and relates this to the pathologist’s approach in evaluating the abnormal spleen and assists in resolving such discordance.Splenectomy dates back to1549 when first reported by Zacarello in Italy. In 1826 Quittenbaum did first elective splenectomy for portal hypertension and in 1866, Bryant did first splenectomy for leukemia. In 1892 emergency splenectomy was done for trauma in Germany. In 1911 and 1916 elective splenectomy was done for autoimmune haemolytic anemia and ITP respectively.6The spleen, in healthy adult human is approximately 11 cms4.3in length,usually weights 150 grams and lies beneath 9th to 12th thoracic rib and between fundus of stomach and diaphragm. It filters foreign matter including old / damaged blood cells : participates in immune response to blood borne antigens; major repository of mononuclear phagocytic cells in red pulp ,lymphoid cells in white pulp and platelets and produces new blood cells in infants / children or adults with severe anemia.Composed of red pulp(76-79%) and white pulp(5-20%) separated by marginal zone (diag 2) Massive splenomegaly ( Spleen > 1000 g) is due to CML, Gaucher’s disease, hairy cell leukemia, marginal zone B cell lymphoma,myelofibrosis,plasmacytoma,prolymph ocytic leukemia.Rupture is due to blunt trauma or abdominal surgery, causing haemoperitoneum and emergency splenectomy.spleen only rarely ruptures spontaneously (associated with infectious mononucleosis, malaria, Typhoid fever, leukemia / Lymphoma, other tumours,subacute bacterial endocarditis, peliosis lienis, acute splenitis, pregnancy) Gross rupture may be a very small capsular tear, often in superior pole or hilum Micro: neutrophil below capsular tear with intraparenchymal haemorrhage ; also lymphoid hyperplasia with prominent marginal zone. Splenectomy is usually performed for traumatic rupture.Usually no clinical consequence in adults. In children, it is associated with increased incidence and severity of infections, particularly encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumonia, Neisseria meningitides, Haemophilus influenza; overwhelming infections may begin days to years after splenectomy, without an identifiable focus and have 50-80% mortality despite antibiotics. In children, splenectomy is avoided in favour of splenic repair, partial splenectomy is performed for haematological disorder. Howell-Jolly bodies are evidence of no splenic function.


To study incidence of splenectomy in relation to different age ,sex, cause of splenomegaly and final diagnosis of splenectomised patients.\


This is a retrospective study carried out in histopathology laboratory of department of pathology, B.J.Medical College, Ahmedabad from January 2008 to December 2009 comprising of 200 cases.The parameters like age, sex, cause of splenomegaly and splenectomy, macroscopic appearance of spleen, final diagnosis ofsplenectomized patients were studied. All specimens were complete splenectomy samples except one which was a splenculi biopsy specimen.the spleens were already fixed in 10% neutral buffer formalin. Detailed clinical histories.clinical examinations and investigations done on patients were noted like personal history,past history, family history, clinical examinations, CBC, serum chemistry,coagulation profile, X-Ray, USG. Indication of splenectomy was noted. Spleens were sectioned serially by blade loafing and re-fixedin 10% formalin saline for 24-48 hrs before sectioning and processing.Gross and microscopic findings were note were weight, size, gross and microscopic findings and finally the pathological diagnosis in respect of different pathologies. In addition to hematoxylin and eosin, stains such as Giemsa, Perl’s, Prussianblue, congo red and Periodic Acid Schiff were used when necessary. RESULTS Total 200 specimens of spleen were studied in histopathology department of BJ medical college, civil hospital, Ahmedabad in period of 2008 to 2009. Table 1 shows age and sex distribution of splenectomy and chart 1 shows bar diagram of age. The age range was 2 to 65 years. Highest incidence was in 21 – 30 yrs group which was 30%, next was 31-40 yrs in which was 24.5%. Incidence declined after 40 yrs and least number of cases were in 61-65 yr group. M:F ratio was almost equal except in 2-10 yr group in which it was 2.6:1 and 31-40 age ratio was 1:1.88

Macroscopic examination Table 3 shows dimentions of spleen specimens. Dimension of spleen were varying from normal size and weight to massively enlarged spleen >1000 gm and huge in size in reactive follicular hyperplasia hyperplasia , hemangioma of spleen and splenomegaly due to other reasons. Out of 25 traumatic cases, laceration was found in 9 cases. Hemorrhagic area was found in 5 cases.spleniculi was found in 5 cases (2.5%), 2 in thalassemia patients, one each in tropical splenomegly syndrome, ITP case and portal hypertension. Infarct like areas were noted in 30 spleens, one in sickle cell anemia patients and all other due to large size of spleen.

Histopathological Diagnosis

Table 4 shows distribution of various diagnoses made by microscopy and correlating clinical and radiological findings. Fibrocongestive splenomegaly was the most common diagnosis made by microscopy. It was most commonly found in splenomegaly due to hepatic cause .congestion of red pulp and fibrosis was noted. In traumatic spleen no specific findings was noted except hemorrhage and necrosis. 9 cases were diagnosed as tropical splenomegaly – multiple eosinophils, sinusoidal dilation but no fibrosis or hemosiderin deposition led to this diagnosis. Extramedullary haematopoiesis was present in 10 cases in which 2 were of extensive degree found out to be myelofibrosis. In others it was due to chronic haemolytic conditions .Special mention is for a case of multinodular hemangioma found in 23 yr female in which grossely detected tumour of 10 cm size was present.Microscopically markedly proliferating and anastomosing vascular channels lined by endothelial cells showing vague hemangiopericytoma like pattern.At places vascular channels showed evidence of lobular pattern surrounded by hyalinised stroma. Two cases of solitary splenic lymphoma were found in 47 and 60 year males presented with provisional diagnosis of splenic abscess. Grossely multiple whitish nodule was present. Microscopically proliferation of white pulp was noted. There was formation of multiple nodules consisting of monomorphic small lymphocyte like cells having hyperchromatic vesicular nucleus and prominent nucleoli. Diagnosis of NHL of spleen – small lymphocytic variant was made which was confirmed on IHC. Two cases of TB were found having caseous inflammation and two of granulomatous inflammation with abscess formation. One case of reactive follicular hyperplasia was found.

Histopathology in undetermined causes of splenomegaly

splenomegaly Table 5 shows findings in splenomegaly due to undetermined causes. Out of 59 cases in which no cause was determined clinically or radiologically, in 69 % cases diagnosis of fibrocongestive splenomegaly was given.Hepatic causes were found out in 15 % cases by liver biopsy. In 7 % cases diagnosis of Tropical splenomegaly was given. Liver biopsy was done with splenectomy in 27 cases out of 200 (13.5%) Table 6 shows various liver biopsy findings.Cirrhotic changes were present in 2% of cases. Chronic venous congestion was found in 19% cases. 9 biopsies (33.3 %) gave final diagnosis as hepatic cause of splenomegaly, which is a significant finding.


There are very few studies based on Histopathological findings in spleen..This study is a novel study as it involves 200 cases and focussed on histopathological correlation of clinical findings.It revealed cause of splenomegaly in 31 % cases in which no diagnosis was made clinically which is quite significant. A hospital based study of splenomegaly with special reference to the group of indeterminate origin was done in March 2008 by Sundaresan JB, Dutta TK, and et. Al.1 at Department of Medicine, JIPMER, Pondicherry. But it was a clinical study.The common causes of splenomegaly in this study were malaria (22%), chronic myloid leukemia (11%), NCPF(9%), enteric fever (9%), cirrhosis of liver (8%) and HMS (7%). This is significantly different from the observations in previous studies 2,3 on splenomegaly from india. Malaria was observed in 3 patients (4%) only. In 32 patients (42.7%) the cause of splenomegaly could not be determined. In the study of Chandra et al (4) the common cause found were again cirrhosis of liver and chronic myloid leukemia. Idiopathic splenomegaly was found in 15 patients (18.1%) Histopathological study and audit of the spleen in Nigerians was done by Kayode et.al5 during the period of 18 yrs between 1988 and 2005. Only 123 specimens of spleen were received. 119 had adequate data to be included in this study. There were 76 males and 43 females. The age range was 1 yr to 86 yrs. The highest number of splenectomy was in the age group 11-20 (16 male, 6 females). The incidence declined after age of 60. Table 7 shows age wise distribution of various causes of splenomegaly (clinical causes) Thalassemia was most common cause of splenectomy in 2-10 year age group. Portal hypertension and Trauma being the leading cause of splenectomy in 21-30 yr age groupTropical splenomegaly was found out to be most common in 31-40 yr age group. ITP being most common in 31-40 yr age group and male female ratio was 1:5. Lymphoma is common in old age as expected.In present study most common cause of splenomegaly as well as indication of splenectomy comes out to be hepatic.Portal Hypertension is very common in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and M.P. which forms our main patient group. Malaria is common but splenomegaly is rarely needed as diagnosis is earlier and antimalarial are given. Haematological malignancies like CML, is not included our study as most malignancies are referred to Gujarat Cancer Research Institute(GCRI) which is not part of this study . In SB (1) study only causes of splenomegaly are enumerated. It is not based on splenectomy specimens .Trauma is not included in this study.However if we exclude trauma and splenectomy due to other reasons then out of 168 splenectomy cases, as Table 11 showscomparison between present and SB et al study for causes of splenomegaly(clinical only): hepatic cause are the predominant one.Almost 25% cases remain undetermined and no specific cause is identified. Infectious diseases like TB, Hydatid disease, Typhoid are common but typhoid rarely needs splenectomy but it is not present in SB et al study. Hemangioma is most common primary tumour of spleen and it is included in our study


For the pathologist in training and attending alike, the spleen can be deceptively simple. It is rare as a surgical specimen and when it is encountered ,it seldom contains an abnormality. however occasionally the spleen’s troublingly complex nature is unmasked whenfindings do not correspond to a well definded category of disease of disease or the splenic parenchyma obscures diagnostic features. In our study due to large number of cases the results are fairly significant. Hepatic disease remains the top of all. Trauma is also common indication for splenectomy. Primary splenic tumours like hemangioma are rare but can be encountered. Lymphoma can also be underdiagnosed as reactive so pathologists should be alert. Hydatid disease, TB, Abscess formation are also not very uncommon. Inevitably ,it is these cases in which there is often great clinical pressure and the temptation may be great to force the findings into an existing category of node based or soft tissue based nosology. The key to timely and accurate diagnosis in such situations lays in preparations: obtaining complete clinical information about the patient, taking a systematic approach to prosection, preparing thin sections from well fixed tissue and becoming familiar with the stains and studies that define the intactness of splenic immunoarchitecture.







1. Bates I , Bedu-Addo G.Review of diagnostic criteria of hyper reactive malarial splenomegaly. Lancet.Apr 19 1997; 349(9059):1178.

2. AhmanDL, Cancer 1966,19 :461-69

3. Madeleine D. Kraus , MD Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology , vol 20 , no 2 (May),2003 : pp 84-93

4. Aranha GV , J Surg O ncol 1976, 8 :481-487

5. Weichselbaum.A. Beitrige zur Geschwulstlehre . Virchows Arch . f . path . Anat., i88i , 85,554-567.

6. Smith,C.E., and Rusk , G. Y. Endothelioma of spleen. A study of 2 cases,with review of the literature of primary malignancy of the spleen. Arch. Surg.,1923 ,7 ,371-414.


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

SCOPUS (2014, 2019, 2020, 2021 (Till June) currently under re-evaluation)

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19

RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in

Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.

Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

Copyright © 2021 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions