International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - vol 06 issue 07, April, 2014

Pages: 46-51

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THE EFFECT OF EXERTIONAL HEAT STRESS INDUCED HYPOHYDRATION ON COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN HUMAN

Author: Medha Kapoor, Laxmi Prabha Singh, Shuchi Bhagi, Shashi Bala Singh

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Aim: Investigations on the effect of hypohydration on cognitive function present with ambiguous and contradictory results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exertional heat stress induced hypohydration (Graded hypohydration: 2% and 4%) on cognitive function in Human. Methodology: Six healthy military personnel (age: 25\?4 years, height: 172\?4cm, weight : 66\?3 Kg) performed sub-maximal exercise at 45 ?C and 30% Relative Humidity (RH) in Human Climatic Chamber (HCC) till the desired levels of hypohydration were achieved (2% or 4%). Cognition was assessed using stroop color and word test and PGI battery. Result and Conclusion: Cognitive performance was found to be unaltered upon 2% or 4% hypohydration. The cognitive function was retained under hypohydration demonstrating cognitive resilience in response to moderate body fluid deficits (up to 4%).

Keywords: Exertional heat stress, hypohydration, stroop color and word test, PGI battery test, cognition

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Hypohydration, commonly known as dehydration refers to a fall in body water level below normal. Certain occupational workers such as soldiers and athletes are prone to hypohydration, as they have to undergo extensive physical activity at high temperatures [1]. More that 1% of body weight loss due to fluid loss is referred to as mild hypohydration. 4% of hypohydration is somewhat moderate and severe dehydration corresponds to fluids deficit of 5% percent or more. Investigations on the effect of hypohydration on cognitive function present with ambiguous and contradictory results. Significant alterations in cognition have been reported in response to hypohydration as low as 1-2 % [2, 3]. Hypohydration above 2% body mass has been shown to impair endurance exercise performance in hot environments [4, 5]. Moderate hypohydration has been found to be associated with cognitive performance decline at elevated temperature. However, there are many contradictory reports suggesting that hypohydration doesn't affect cognition. This ambiguity can be attributed to difference in methodology to induce hypohydration and cognitive function tests employed [2, 3]. We have attempted to evaluate the effect of exertional heat stress induced hypohydration on cognitive function in Human. Six healthy military personnel performed sub-maximal exercise at 45 ?C and 30% RH in the HCC till the desired levels of hypohydration were achieved (2% or 4%). It is acknowledged that the hypohydration in Military and sports settings can at certain occasion be much more severe than 4%, but due to the concerns of subject safety, hypohydration above 4% was not included in the experimental design. The cognitive function was assessed both before and after exercise in the HCC using stroop color and word test and PGI battery. Cognitive performance was found to be unaltered upon 2% or 4% hypohydration demonstrating cognitive resilience in response to moderate body fluid deficits (up to 4%).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Participants: Six healthy male [age 31.33 ± 2.5 years, height 170.4 ± 7.5 cm, body mass 76.85 ± 5.1 kg, body surface area 1.87± 0.1m2 ] participated in the study. Inclusion criteria consisted of a medical history free of musculoskeletal, cardiac, endocrine, and heatrelated illnesses. Prior to the study, the experimental procedure including the risks involved was explained to each participant. Written consent was then obtained. Institutional ethical committee for humans approved all protocols and procedures. Preliminary Procedures: One week of familiarization and preliminary testing were carried out one month before the experimental trials. During preliminary testing, volunteers performed cognitive function test of similar pattern to acquaint them to the nature of test which will be provided in experimental condition inside the Human Climatic Chamber (HCC) in order to reduce training and learning effects. Each familiarization session took place in a 25 C 30 % RH. Experimental design: To assess the effects of exertional heat stress induced hypohydration on human cognition, the participants were made to perform sub-maximal exercise [6] in Human Climatic Chamber (HCC) simulated at 45 ?C and 30% RH. The exercise was performed at two separate occasions to attain two different hydration states: 2% body weight reduction or 2% hypohydration and 4% body weight reduction or 4% hypohydration. The two exercise sets were separated by at least two weeks to ensure the reestablishment of normal physiological status by nullification of the effect of previous exposure. All the participants were instructed not to engage in any vigorous physical activity for at least 24 hours prior to each exercise session and consume normal balanced diet throughout and also, to refrain from alcohol and smoking. All the sessions were conducted approximately at the same time of the day for each participant. 4% hypohydration represents a state of significant body water loss and the value was chosen to facilitate a comprehensive assessment of potential implications of severe hypohydration on human body. We couldn’t evaluate the effect of a more severe hypohydration due to the volunteers’ safety considerations. To evaluate the effect of graded hypohydration on brain dysfunction, cognition, and psychopathology, the stroop color and word conflict test [7] was undertaken by volunteers at two time points: before and after the desired level oh hypohydration was attained. Stroop color and word conflict test is a mental stress test involving sensory rejection and has been used as a model of the defense reaction in humans. The test consists of three pages. The first is a word page with color names printed in black ink. The second is the color page with ‘Xs’ printed in different colors and the last page is the conflict page displaying words from the first page printed in colors from the second page yielding three scores based on the number of items completed on each of the sheets described above as the respondent reads words or names in the ink colors as quickly as possible within a time limit. The values obtained are a reflection of the cognitive flexibility, creativity, and reaction to cognitive pressures. The Stroop color and word conflict test is a quick, easy and highly reliable test for neuropsychological assessment applicable to individuals with age ranging from 15 to 90. It provides valuable diagnostic information on brain and assesses cognitive processing with accuracy. Along with this, PGI memory test was also administered. PGI memory scale [8, 9], which is standardized on Indian population, is used mostly in India. It is an Indian adaptation of the Wechsler Memory Scale. It includes 10 subtests including forward and backward digit spans, one minute delayed recall of a word list, immediate recall of sentences, retention of similar word pairs, retention of dissimilar pairs, visual retention, visual recognition, recent memory, remote memory and mental balance test. This test provides a reliable and easy means to assess memory dysfunction. Administration of the scale is simple and takes approximately 20–30 min. Standardized norms are available according to age and education. Separate norms are available for three education levels: 0–5 years of schooling, 6– 9 years of schooling and ≥10 years of schooling. Experimental procedure: The subjects were instructed to ingest 5 ml of water per kilogram body weight 2 h before reporting to the laboratory to attain a euhydrated state [10]. After reporting to the laboratory the subjects were made to rest for 60 minutes. troop color and word conflict test and battery test were carried out in Human Climatic Chamber (HCC) maintained at 25 C and 30% RH. After completion of the test which was taken as control, the oral temperature was recorded outside the chamber using YSI electrodes from which the core body temperature was deduced. Skin mean temperature was calculated using Ramanathan equation [11]. Initial nude body weight was measure using digital human weighing machine model PFPF 100K and make PERFECT. The participant then entered the HCC maintained at 45°C and 30% RH and performed sub-maximal exercise (standardized step test, 15 steps/min) [6] until targeted hypohydration level was attained. After the attainment of desired level of hypohydration, Stroop color and word conflict test and PGI battery test were carried out in chamber itself. The post exposure core body and skin mean temperature was obtained as soon as the participant came out of the chamber.

Statistical

analysis: All variables were analyzed using student t-test. At least a 95% confidence level (p<0.05) is used as a thresh hold for statistical significance.

RESULTS

Body Weight: Pre exercise and post exercise (2% HH) weights were 76.79 ± 5.2 and 75.15 ± 5.2 kg respectively with a loss of 1.64 ± 0.11kg body weight and for 4 % hypohydration pre and post exposure body weights were found to be 77.26 ± 4.8 and 74.39 ± 5.0 kg respectively with a loss of 2.87 ± 0.4 kg of body weight. Body Temperature Responses: Core body temperature was measured using oral temperature with correction factor which was found to be 37.31 ± 0.14, 37.82 ± 0.25, p<0.01 (0.008) and 38.00 ± 0.33, p<0.01 (0.008) in euhydrated state, Post 2 % hypohydration and Post 4% hypohydration status respectively. Mean skin temperature was calculated using Ramanathan formula [11] using 4 point measurement i.e. 0.3* (Tchest + Tbiceps) + 0.2* (Tcalf + Tthigh) which is found to be 35 ± 0.2, 35.55 ± 0.5, p<0.05 (0.018) and 36.38 ± 0.4, p< 0.001 (0.0003) in euhydrated state, Post 2 % hypohydration and Post 4% hypohydration status respectively. Figure 1 represents the core body and skin mean temperatures under the three conditions i.e. Control, 2% hypohydration and 4% hypohydration. Stroop color and word conflict test: Time taken to complete the test was almost same pre and post 2% and 4% hypohydration. Also, No significant change was observed in the number of correct answers given by the volunteers. Figure 2 depicts time taken to complete part 1, 2 and 3 of stroop colour word conflict test pre and post hypohydration (2% and 4%). PGI battery test: No significant difference was detected pre and post 2% and 4% hypohydration. This indicates that no change in memory status was observed. Table 1 depicts the results of PGI battery test.

DISCUSSION

To the best of our knowledge, this is first study to examine the potential accumulative effects of heat stress and graded hypohydration (2% and 4%) on human cognition. Learning effects were minimized by training each volunteer using similar patterned test a month before the experiments to familiarize them with the cognitive function test. No significant difference was observed in cognition employing stroop color and word conflict test and PGI battery test pre and post hypohydration (both 2 and 4%). This indicates that hypohydration up to 4% is not severe enough to affect cognitive function in Human. We understand that under military and sports settings, the severity of hypohydration could be much more but we couldn't subject Human volunteers to a greater degree of hypohydration because of ethical and safety concerns. Though the cognition remained unaffected pre and post hypohydration, there was an evident increase in irritability in all the volunteers and they were comparatively uncooperative while undertaking PGI battery and stroop color and word test. The present study suffered from the limitation of the sample size being very small with only 6 participants but quite a few other studies have also accounted minimal or no effect of exposure on human cognitive performance due to hypohydration [12, 13, 14]. However, more extensive study involving a large number of volunteers and standardized methodology is required to get more reliable results.

CONCLUSION

The study results indicate that moderate hypohydration up to 4% induced in response to exertional heat stress doesn't affect cognition. However, experiments conducted with a larger sample size would add a higher degree of certainty to the conclusions.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to thank Dr. Thiruthara P Baburaj, Mr. Abhishek Bhardwaj, Dr. Rajender K Gupta, Mr. Amir Chand Bajaj, Mr. Gulab Singh and Mrs. Pooja Chaudhary for their help and support. We would also like to extend our sincere thanks to Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences for funding our research work. We acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. We are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

 

References:

REFERENCES

1. Singh LP, Kapoor M, Singh SB. Heat: not black, not white. It's gray!!! J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;24(4):209-24.

2. Lieberman HR. Hydration and cognition: a critical review and recommendations for future research. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5 Suppl):555S-561S.

3. Ganio MS, Armstrong LE, Casa DJ, McDermott BP, Lee EC, Yamamoto LM, Marzano S, Lopez RM, Jimenez L, Le Bellego L, Chevillotte E, Lieberman HR. Mild dehydration impairs cognitive performance and mood of men. Br J Nutr. 2011 Nov;106(10):1535-43.

4. Cheuvront SN, Carter R 3rd, Sawka MN. Fluid balance and endurance exercise performance. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2003 Aug;2(4):202-8.

5. Sawka MN. Physiological consequences of hypohydration: exercise performance and thermoregulation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992 Jun;24(6):657-70.

6. Evaluation of physical performance on the basis of test. In: Åstrand PO, Rodahl K., editors. Textbook of Work Physiology: Physiological basis of exercise. 4 th ed. USA: McGraw-Hill; 2003. p. 280-290. 

7. Golden, C. J. (1976), Identification of brain disorders by the stroop color and word test. J. Clin. Psychol.,32: 654– 658.doi: 10.1002/1097- 4679(197607)32:33.0.CO;2-Z

8. Pershad D, Verma SK. Handbook of PGI Battery of Brain Dysfunction (PGIBBD) Agra: National Psychological Corporation; 1990.

9. Pershad D, Wig NN. The Construction and Standardization of a Clinical Test of Memory in Simple Hindi. National Psychological Corporation, Agra, 1977.

10. Montain SJ, Coyle EF. Influence of graded dehydration on hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1992 Oct;73(4):1340-50.

11. Ramanathan NL. A new weighting system for mean surface temperature of the human body. J Appl Physiol. 1964 May;19:531-3.

12. Adam GE, Carter R 3rd, Cheuvront SN, Merullo DJ, Castellani JW, Lieberman HR et al. Hydration effects on cognitive performance during military tasks in temperate and cold environments. Physiol Behav. 2008 Mar 18;93(4-5):748-56.

13. Patel AV, Mihalik JP, Notebaert AJ, Guskiewicz KM, Prentice WE. Neuropsychological performance, postural stability, and symptoms after dehydration. J Athl Train. 2007 Jan-Mar;42(1):66-75.

14. Szinnai G, Schachinger H, Arnaud MJ, Linder L, Keller U. Effect of water deprivation on cognitive-motor performance in healthy men and women. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Jul;289(1):R275-80.

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
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A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
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A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
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A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
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A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
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A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
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A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
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A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
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A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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