International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
logo
slider
slider
slider
slider
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - vol 06 issue 07, April, 2014

Pages: 01-10

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

OPTIMUM DIETARY INCLUSION LEVEL OF BACILLUS COAGULANS FOR GROWTH AND DIGESTIBILITY IMPROVEMENT FOR CATLA CATLA (HAMILTON)

Author: Anita Bhatnagar, Shashi Raparia

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:Purpose: The present studies were conducted to evaluate the optimum inclusion levels of probiotic Bacillus coagulans, isolated from the intestine of Catla catla for improved growth performance and nutrient retention. Methods: Catla fingerlings (avg. wt. 0.2\?0.02 g) were fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with 2×104 (D1), 2×105(D2) and 2×106(D3) Bacillus coagulans cells 100g-1 of feed for 90 days @ 4 % body weight per day in two equal installments in three replicates. The control treatment (DC) was not supplemented with Bacillus coagulans. Growth and digestibility parameters and intestinal enzyme activities were monitored. Results: The growth of fish in terms of live weight gain (g), growth per day in percentage body weight and specific growth rate were significantly (P< 0.05) high in feed D2 in comparison to other dietary treatments. Also, significantly (P< 0.05) high values of Apparent protein digestibility (APD), Gross conversion efficiency (GCE) and Protein efficiency ratio (PER) lower FCR (1.64\?0.02) was observed in the dietary treatment D2. Significantly (P?0.05) high values of digestive enzyme activities (protease, amylase and cellulose), carcass protein, and low excretion of metabolites (ammonia and phosphates) were also observed in feed D2. Conclusion: Results indicated that that supplementation of 2×105 cells 100g-1of probiotics, B. coagulans could be used to enhance growth performance and nutrient retention of C. catla.

Keywords: Bacillus coagulans, Catla catla, Dietary probiotic, Growth performance, Intestinal enzymes

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Development of commercial scale intensive aqua farming with high stocking densities, high food inputs and high organic load accompanies problems of aquatic pollution and disease outbreaks, affecting fish growth, survival and production(1). To combat these problems large amount of chemotherapeutics / antibiotics are often used; the abuse of these drugs has led to the development of multiple drug resistant bacteria (2, 3). Increased concern about these resistant microorganisms has led to several alternatives including the use of beneficial non-pathogenic micro-organisms as probiotics (4). The use of commercial probiotics in fish is relatively ineffective as most commercial preparations are based on strains isolated from non fish sources that are unable to survive or remain viable at high cell density in the intestinal environment of fish during the active growth phase of fish (5). Hence, there is elegant logic in isolating the putative probiotics from the host in which the probiotics is intended to use. The criteria for selection therefore, demands that the bacteria should be of same species origin,produces antimicrobial metabolites and should adhere to intestinal mucosa (6). Bacillus have been widely used as potential probiotics (7), since they secrete a variety of antimicrobial compounds and exoenzymes (5, 8). Ringpipat et al. (9) reported that use of Bacillus spp. (strain S11) provides pathogenical protection by activating both cellular and immune defenses. Zhou et al. (10) studied the effect of Bacillus sublitis, Bacillus coagulans and Rhodopseudomonas sp. on growth performance of Tilapia, but they used these probiotic bacterial cultures as water additives. Studies were undertaken in our laboratory to isolate gut adherent potential probiotic bacterium to improve fish growth and digestibility in Catla catla (11), however, the inclusion level of probiotic in feed of specific fish species need to be searched. Therefore, this study is attempted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of different inclusion level of probiotic bacterium Bacilllus coagulans, on growth performance, digestibility and nutrition retention in C. catla.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The present study was conducted at Aquaculture Research Unit, Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (29°58’N latitude and 76°51’E longitude), Haryana, India. Fingerlings of C. catla of average weight 0.2±0.02 g were obtained from local fish farm. Fingerlings were released into aquariums (50L capacity) after acclimatizing for 10 days to prevailing laboratory condition of water temperature (25±1°C), pH (7.2- 7.8) and oxygen range between 5-6 mg/L. Studies were conducted at room temperature for 90 days. Each aquarium was filled with de-chlorinated tap water and then stocked with 20 fish (fingerlings with average BW 0.2±0.02 grams and length 1.7±0.09 cm respectively).Aquarium water was renewed daily with water adjusted to laboratory temperature ( 25° C). The probiotic bacterium isolated from the intestine of Catla catla was identified from IMMTECH Chandigarh, India as Bacillus coagulans and mass cultured for 48 hours, at 30oC in shaken bottles with nutrient Agar media (Hi-Media, India). The cultures were centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 15 minutes at 40C, washed thrice with sterile 1 % NaCl solution and the pellets were re-suspended in sterile saline water. The processed soybean (40 %) based experimental diets were prepared by absorbing suspension of probiotic bacterium and a mechanical pelletizer to produce 0.5 mm pellets. To eliminate / inactivate antinutrient factors (ANFs), soybeans were hydrothermically treated at 15 psi and 121?C for 15 min; 1% chromic oxide (Cr2O3) was added as an external indigestible marker for digestibility estimations. Four dietary treatments (DC, D1, D2 and D3) were performed with three replicates of each treatment. In treatment 1 (DC), fishes were fed on artificial diet without probiotic bacteria (i.e. control diet). In treatment 2, 3 and 4, fishes were fed on artificial diet containing mass cultured Bacillus coagulansCC1 in proportions 2x104 , 2x105 and 2x106 cells 100g-1 of feed (Table 1). All these diets were isocaloric and isoproteic with approximately 40% proteins. After spraying the feed was air dried at room temperature. The bacterial concentration was calculated as 1.69 x 104 , 1.89 x 105 and 1.73 x 106 CFU 100 g-1 of feed D1, D2 and D3 respectively ( see table- 1 for proximate composition). Finally, the feeds were stored in vacuumed plastic container at 40C. All groups of fish were fed daily at 4% BW in 2 installments at 8:00 and 16:30 hours for 90 days. Average weight of all fish in each tank was measured, and the amount of feed was adjusted accordingly every 15 days. Each group of fish was exposed to their respective diet for four hours; thereafter, the uneaten feed was siphoned out, stored, and dried separately for calculating feed consumption per day. The fecal matter voided by the fish was collected every morning by siphoning. Fecal samples were dried in a hot air oven at 60?C and subsequently analyzed for digestibility estimations. At the end of the feeding trials, water samples from each aquarium were collected at two-hour intervals over a period of 24 h for the estimation of excretory levels of total ammonia (N-NH4+ ) and reactive orthophosphate following the American Public Health Association (12),and calculated following Sumagaysay-Chavoso (13). At the termination of experiment, the fish from all the treatments were individually weighed to the nearest gram and measured to the nearest millimeter and processed for subsequent analyses. From each treatment, eight fish were randomly sampled and kept on ice to remove the intestines which were processed for the determination of enzyme activity of protease (14), amylase (15), and cellulose (16). Proximate analysis (Dry matter, ash, crude protein, crude fat, NFE and phosphorus) of experimental diets and fish carcass (initial and final) was done following (17). Chromic oxide levels in the diets as well as in the fecal samples were estimated spectrophotometrically (18). Growth and nutrient retention parameters were calculated following Steffens (19). Apparent protein digestibility (APD) of the diets was calculated according to of Cho et al. (20).Live weight gain (g), percent weight gain, specific growth rate, feed consumption per day in percentage of body weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), gross conversion efficiency (GCE), and protein efficiency ratio (GER) were calculated using standard method (19).Gross energy content of the diet and fish carcasses was calculated using the average caloric conversion factor of 0.3954, 0.1715, and 0.2364 Kj g−1 for lipid, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively (21), whereas metabolizable energy in diets and feeds was calculated using caloric conversion factors: 0.335, 0.138, and 0.188 Kj g−1 for lipid, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively (22). Statistical Analysis ANOVA followed by Duncan’s multiple range test (23) was applied to find out significant differences among dietary treatments

RESULTS

Survival rate (%) was high in all dietary treatments and slight mortality occurred only during the initial days of experiment. The growth of fish in terms of live weight gain (g), growth/day in percentage body weight and specific growth rate (SGR) were significantly (P<0.05) high in treatment D2 where fishes were fed on diet containing probiotics (Bacillus coagulans) , in proportion of 2X105 cells/100g (i.e.2000 cells g-1 ) of feed in comparison to dietary treatments DC, D1 and D3.Also, significantly (P<0.05) high values of digestibility parameters viz. Apparent protein digestibility (APD), Gross conversion efficiency (GCE) and Protein efficiency ratio (PER) and significantly (P<0.05) lower FCR (Fig. 3) was observed in the dietary treatment D2. Specific activities of digestive enzymes were significantly (P<0.05) high in all the dietary treatments in comparison to controls. The values showed an increasing trend from treatment DC to D2 (containing probiotics B. coagulans in proportion of 0, 2X104 and 2X105 cells 100 g-1 of feed respectively) thereafter, with further increase in the inclusion level of probiotic bacteria in DietD3(containing containing probiotics B. coagulansin proportion of 2X106 cells 100 g-1 of feed ) the values decreased. The data on weight gain revealed that initially up to 15 days not much variations were observed in the weight gain of group of fishes fed on varying dietary treatments. However, growth rate increased significantly (P<0.05) in the fishes fed on diet D2 (containing probiotics B. coagulans in proportion of 2X105 cells 100 g-1 =2000 cells g-1 of feed) after 30 till 90 days (Fig-1). Initial and final carcass composition with respect to proximate nutrients of test fish on basis of feeding trial is shown in Table-3. Crude Protein (%), gross energy (kJg-1) were found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher in the carcass of fish fed on diet D2. Moisture (%), Crude fat (%) was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher in dietary treatment DC (without probiotics). Nitrogen free extract (NFE) was found to be highest in diet D3 (containing probiotics Bacillus coagulans in proportion of 2X106 cells 100g -1 of feed). However, no significant (P<0.05) variations were observed in total ash (%) of carcass of fishes fed on different diets. The data on water quality characteristics pertaining to four dietary treatments is presented in table-4. In general, significantly (P<0.05) low values in total ammonia excretion and reactive phosphate production (mg Kg-1 BW d-1 ) were recorded in fish fed on diet D2. Peak values of ammonia excretion occurred approximately 6h after feed was given to fish and second peak at 12h after feeding while oPO4 production showed an initial high level at 2h post feeding and second peak at 8h post feeding (Fig-2A & 2B).

DISCUSSION

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimum dose of probiotic supplementation in the formulated feed for Catla catla. The optimum probiotic (B. coagulans) level which resulted in high growth in C. catla fingerlings in terms of live weight gain (g), growth percent gain, SGR and nutrient retention (PER, GCE and APD) was found to be around 2 x 105 cell/100g of feed that is 2000 CFU g-1 of feed. FCR values decreased with each increase in the dietary probiotic content up to 2x105 cell/100g of feed. Thereafter, further increase in dietary probiotic level resulted in increase in FCR and growth depression. Although, all the feeds were isonitrogenous but the concentration of probiotics in dietary treatment D2 might have been helpful for proper nutrient utilization. Whole body carcass composition and lesser nitrogen and phosphate excretion were also observed in dietary treatment D2 (B. coagulans supplemented at the rate of 2000 CFU g-1 of diet) which is attributed to proper probiotic concentration, whereas lesser carcass composition and greater nitrogen and phosphate excretion were observed in dietary treatment D3 (B. coagulans at 20000 CFU g-1 of diet) which could have also noticed to the overall low feed utilization level. The high APD values for the diet containing B. coagulans at 200 CFU g-1 of diet may be attributed to high dietary utilization and best growth. When the data for live weight gain and APD was subjected to Orthogonal polynomial curve analysis adding trend line to show the expected dose dependent response (Fig. 3& 4) it was clearly observed that optimum inclusion level was somewhere near dietary treatment D2 indicating that optimum dietary supplementation of Bacillus coagulans appears to be around 2000 CFU g-1 of diet. Orthogonal polynomial fit curves to the data on FCR in different dietary treatments depicts an inverted curve (Fig. 5), showing the better feed conversion in treatment D3. Bazaz and Keshavenath (24) also found similar results. The present study also reports such a finding where all the feeds were isocaloric & isonitrogenous but 2 x 105B. coagulans Cells/100g (=2000 CFU g-1 of diet) exhibited better growth as well as better digestibility and physiology. Ghosh et al. (25) with B. circulans as probiotics in feed for Labeo rohita fingerlings and Ringpipat et al. (9) with Bacillus sp. as probiotics in Paneus monodon also reported similar results. The specific enzyme activities were also found high in treatment D2 and lowest in control DC which may be due to better dietary protein utilization due to colonization of probiotics bacteria and its exogenous enzyme production. Most of the amino acids normally found in protein undergo transamination reaction and transaminases are localized in both cytosol and mitochondria (26) which is induced by high protein diet however, in the present studies the diets were isocaloric and even then growth rate and digestive physiology varied. The nutritional value of the diet depends upon the digestive capabilities of the fish which in turn is affected by the activity of the digestive enzymes present in the digestive tract (27). The activity of the digestive enzymes (Protease, amylase and cellulose) were high in a group fed in diet containing probiotic bacterium at rate of 2x105 cells / 100g of feed). Enzyme activity increase with increasing dietary probiotic level in comparison to control while it decreases at much higher probiotic concentration (2x106 cells/100g of feed). This shows that when probiotics supplementation exceeds the optimum level, no further improvement in growth performance and nutritive physiology of the fish was observed rather these parameters decreased. This shows that probiotics bacteria incorporated in the feed with high inclusion level might have competed amongst themselves, as a result their colonization was not proper, resulting in the decline in exogenous/ extracellular enzyme production, thus low digestibility, low growth and high feed conversion ratio. The excretion of metabolites N-NH4 and oPO4 in the holding water also increased with increase in the inclusion level of probiotic bacteria above the optimum dose. This may again be attributed to low feed utilization due to less amount of digestive enzymes. When dietary utilization is low deamination of unutilized feed protein occurs and excretion of metabolites in the holding water increases. Although it is said (28) that mode of action of probiotic is ecological also and it optimize the nitrification and denitrification rates in the water. However, when the value exceeds the optimum limit, there is effect on nutritive physiology decreasing growth performance and increasing excretion of metabolites in holding water. These results indicate that probiotic stimulate the digestion through the supply of digestive enzyme and certain essential nutrients to animals. Probiotics are known to improve enzymatic activity in the gut by producing several enzymes not produced by the host. Similar observations were also reported by (29) who observed that complex polysaccharides can be better utilized by the host in the presence of direct feed microbes. Unfortunately, the information regarding the mode of action of probiotics used in aquaculture is incomplete. However, the benefits have been reported which includes improvement in nutrition by detoxification of potentially harmful compounds in feeds denaturing of potentially digestible matter in the diet by hydrolytic enzyme including amylases and proteases and production of vitamins. Thus, the B. coagulans strain used in the present studies showed beneficial effect on the digestive processes of the fish specially, when the inclusion level is optimum. This observation draws attention to an essential inference that the probiotic concentration which was used in this feed might be helpful for optimum dietary utilization. It was also observed the P/E ratio was highest in D2 fed fishes although with highest dietary utilization. Mohanty et al. (30) reported that higher the dietary utilization, higher the P/E ratio.

CONCLUSION

The results obtained in the present study support the use of probiotic bacterium (B. coagulans FGB CC1) for better growth and proper nutrient utilization. The finding further suggest that the concentrations of probiotics applied in formulated diet D2 (2 x 105 cells/100g of feed i.e. 2000 cells g -1 ) was able to increase overall physiological performance like increase in intestinal enzymes along with growth parameters and decrease in excretion of metabolites in the holding water, thus, enhances the defense mechanisms in the fingerlings of Catla catla. However, further investigations should be applied by preparing the feeds with different concentrations of this probiotics bacterium B. coagulans formulating two best feeds according to the results achieved in this study. Findings should be confirmed before commercialization.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 Authors are thankful to the chairperson Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra, University Kurukshetra, India for providing necessary facilities to carry out this work. Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed

References:

REFERENCES

1. Austin B, Austin DA. Bacterial Fish Pathogen: Disease of Farmed and Wild Fish. 3rd ed. (Revised). Goldalming: Springer-Praxix; 1999.

2. Alderman DJ, Hasting TS. Antibiotic use in aquaculture: development of antibiotic resistance potential for consumer health risk. Int J Food Sci Technol 1998; 33:139-55.

3. Bisht A, Singh UP, Pandey NN. Bacillus subtilis as potential probiotic for enhancing growth in fingerlings of common carp (Cyprinuscarpio L.). Indian J Fish 2012; 59(3):103-8.

4. Guarner F, Malagelada JR. Gut flora in health and disease. The Lacent 2003; 360:512-9.

5. Moriarty DJW. Microbial Biotechnology: a key ingredient for sustainable aquaculture, Infofish Int 1996; 4:29-33.

6. Vine NG, Leukes WD, Kaiser H, Daya S, Baxter J, Hecht T. Competition for attachment of aquaculture candidate probiotic and pathogenic bacteria on fish intestinal mucus. J Fish Dis 2004; 27(6):319-26.

7. Ziaei-Nejad S. The effect of Bacillus sp. bacteria as a probiotic on growth, survival and digestive enzyme activity of Indian white Shrimp, Fenneropenaeusindicus, larvae and post larvae [Msc thesis]. Tehran University; 2004.

8. Moriarty DJW. Control of luminous Vibrio species in penaeid aquaculture ponds. Aquaculture 1998; 164:351-8.

9. Ringpipat S, Phianphak W, Piyatiratitivorakul S. Effects of probiotic bacterium on black tiger shrimp Penaeusmonodon survival and growth. Aquaculture 1998; 167:301-13.

10. Zhou X, Tian Z, Wang Y, Li W. Effect of treatment with probiotics as water additives on tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus) growth performance and immune response. Fish Physiol Biochem. (doi 10.1007/s10695-009- 9320-z).

11. Bhatnagar A, Raparia S, Kumari S. Influence of isolated Bacillus coagulans on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities of Catla catla. JNNST 2012; 6(3):225-35.

12. APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. 20th ed. American Public Health Association. New York; 1998.

13. Sumagaysay-Chavoso NS. Nitrogen and phosphorus digestibility and excretion of different size groups of milkfish (ChanoschanosForsskal) for formulated and natural food –based diets. Aquac Res 2003; 34(5):407–18.

14. Walter HE. Probionases : Methods with haemoglobin, casein and azocoll as substrates. In : Bergmeyer HU, editor. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Vol. V. Verlag Chemic: Weinheim; 1984. p. 270-7.

15. Sawhney SK, Singh R. Introductory Practical Biochemistry. Narosa Publishing House; 2000. p.452.

16. Sadasivam S, A Manickam. Biochemical methods. New Delhi, India: New Age International Publishers; 1996.

17. AOAC, (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Incorporation, Arlington, USA; 1995. p.684.

18. Furukawa A, Tuskahara H. On the acid digestion method for determination Chromic oxide as an indicator substance in the study of digestibility in fish. Bull jap soc sci fish 1966; 32:502–6.

19. Steffens W. Principles of fish nutrition.Chichester, NY: Horwood; 1989.

20. Cho CY, Slinger S J, Bayley H S. Bioenergetics of salmonids fishes: energy intake, expenditure and productivity. Comp Biochem Physiol B 1982; 73: 25–41.

21. Henken AM, H Lucas, PAT, Tijseen MAM Michiels. A comparison between methods used to determine the energy content of feed, fish and faecal samples. Aquaculture 1986; 58:195–201.

22. Brett JR, Groves TTD. Physiological energetics. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ, Brett JR editors. Fish Physiol vol. 8. New York: Academic Press; 1979. p.280–352.

23. Duncan DB. Multiple range and multiple Ftests. Biometrics 1955; 11: 1-42.

24. Bazaz MM, Keshavanath P. Effect of feeding levels of sardine oil on growth, muscle composition and digestive enzyme activities of Masheer Tor khudree. Aquaculture 1993; 115: 111-9.

25. Ghosh K, Sen SK, Ray AK. Supplementation of an isolated fish gut bacterium, Bacillus circulans, in formulated diets for rohu, Labeo rohita fingerlings. Bamidgeh 2003; 55 (1): 13- 21.

26. Wada H, Marino Y. Comparative studies on glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminases from the mitochondrial and soluble fractions of mammalian tissues. In: Harris RS, Wool IG, Loraine JA, editors. Vitamins and Hormones. New York: Academic Press; 1964. p.411-44.

27. Phillips AM. Nutrition, digestion and energy utilization. In: W.S. Hoar W S, Randall D J, editors. Fish Physiology. vol 1. New York: Academic Pres; 1969. p.391-432.

28. Dong H, Fredrickson JK, Kennedy DW, Zachara JM, Kukkadapu RK, Onstott TC. Mineral Transformation associated with the microbial reduction of magnetite. Chem Geol 2000; 169: 299-318.

29. Swain SK, Rangacharyulu PV, Sarakar S, Das KM. Effect of a probiotic supplement on growth, nutrient utilization and carcass composition in Mrigal fry. J Aquac 1996; 4: 29-35.

30. Mohanty SN, Swain SK, Tripathi SD. Rearing of (Catla catla Ham) spawn on formulated diets. J Aquac Trop 1996; 11:253-258.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



ABOUT US

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2022 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions


Fatal error: Uncaught Error: Function name must be a string in /home/u845032518/domains/ijcrr.com/public_html/footer-bottom.php:487 Stack trace: #0 /home/u845032518/domains/ijcrr.com/public_html/article_html.php(51): include() #1 {main} thrown in /home/u845032518/domains/ijcrr.com/public_html/footer-bottom.php on line 487