International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - 6(8), April, 2014

Pages: 71-78

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF


Author: Viral Ishvarlal Champaneri, Rajesh Kathrotia, G. K. Hathi, J. M. Harsoda

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:This review presents and discusses an overview of the emerging non-pharmacological treatment options and strategies for managing pain.When medications are not satisfactory due to various causes e.g. compliance, side effects, cost effectiveness non-pharmacological management of pain comes in to picture. Although these interventions effectively manage pain they are overlooked and underused. If medical person is familiar with these therapies he or she can identify and educate patients who may benefit from it. They are providing effective analgesia, well accepted, simple measures and adjunct to pharmacological therapies. Non-pharmacological pain management utilizes ways to alter thoughts and focus concentration to better manage and reduce pain. These include physical modalities, mind-body therapies, behavioural modification, manual therapies, natural therapies, neurostimulation, static magnets, cannabinoids.

Keywords: Pain, Algiatry, Alternative Therapies, Non-Pharmacological Management.

Full Text:


Decline in the living quality, functional status, daily life activities, working capacity, social interaction, work force have been observed in the painful situations1,2,3,4 due to which in addition to the pharmacological treatment options for pain management, today, non-pharmacological treatment options and complementary medical attempts have started to be used.5, 6 Many patients still suffer from pain despite of progress in technology and knowledge regarding effective pain management. Medical drugs treat the somatic (emotional and physiological) aspect of pain while non-pharmacological interventions aim to treat affective, cognitive, behavioural and socio-cultural dimensions of the pain.7 Non-Pharmacological management of pain These therapies decrease the stress, anxiety, pain behaviour, feeling of weakness, needed dosage of analgesic drugs thereby decrease the side effects and improve functional level, individual control feeling.8They affect the pain transmission by Gate Control Theory of Malzek or by the release of natural opioids like endorphins and encephalin.4,5,7 Non-pharmacological management of pain is described below in nine groups such as physical modalities, mind-body therapies, behavioural modification, manual therapies, natural therapies, neurostimulation, bio-field therapies, static magnets and cannabinoids. Physical modalities Beds Prescribing different mattresses by physicians like fluidized, air, and foam overlays can improve patient comfort as bedding itself often can be wrinkled or irritating. Pillow can improve coughing effort, stabilize a joint, prevent deformity, help a splint and provide psychological support if brought from home.


Its application helps to reduce striated muscle spasm, relax smooth muscles andmoves the reflex arcs that inhibit the pain by means of heat receptors and reduces pain by vasodilatation effect.9 It can be provided by warm blankets, electric heating pads, moist hot packs.


Its application reduces muscle spasm and has longer lasting effect than application of heat. By vasoconstriction effect it causes reduction in inflammation, oedema and bleeding. It can be applied by ice-packs, ice- cubesand cool wash clothes.


Massage is manipulation applied on the soft tissue with tapotement, friction, percussion, vibration. It activates large diameter fibres (Aβ), inhibits pain messages carried by smaller fibres (Aδand C fibers), increase endorphins, and causes decreased sensitivity to pain, relieves the mind, muscles and increase the pain threshold.9


Exercise increases the movement, increasing the blood flow, preventing spasm and contractures of the muscles, muscle atrophy, deterioration of bones and joints and relieving the pain following orthopaedic injuries.10


Positioning provided by pillows, special beds and weight lifting, position changes increases blood flow, prevents muscle contraction and spasm and reduces acute pain.11It is the most common nonpharmacological method used in post-operative patients.12

Restriction of movement/ resting

It can be used for fractures and back injuries patients who need certain bed rest and patients which are in traction.

Mind Body Therapies Relaxation

Relaxation techniques cause an increase in slow brain waves in EEG by decreasing O2 consumption, blood pressure, respiration amount and pulse rate and prevent the sensitivity developed against the pain.9 Appropriate for any type of pain which works by reducing muscle tension and anxiety. It can be provided by focusing on respiration and PMR (progressive muscular relaxation) techniques.

Guided Imagery

This is done by taking attention away from pain by guiding through an imaginary mental image of tastes, sounds, sights, smells and feelings especially for children as imagination is spontaneous and natural for them.13


Patient is made to focus on stimulant that makes him happy e.g. pattern, sound, colour, light etc.for a short period of time.9 Pain can be effectively managed by guiding patient to dreaming for more than 4 days.13


It gets the attention away from the pain, decreases its severityand increases tolerance. Small babies can be distracted by use of colourful moving objects, singing songs while preschooler can be distracted by telling stories or looking at the books or videos. Watching TV, listening to music, reading books, dreaming are the other methods.14


Praying relieves depression and anxiety that is caused by chronic pain in older people.9,15


Meditation is focusing on the moment and the present achieved by focusing on individual’s own respiration, a word or picture. It is effective in relieving pain as it helps relaxation.16It can last for few minutes to 30 minutes.16,178 weeks meditation is useful for relieving the pain of chronic lumbago.18


Yoga is useful against musculoskeletal pain because of physical stretching, moves and increasing strength.19Applying yoga for 16 weeks has cured the chronic lumbago, reduced functional insufficiency and use of pain killers due to it.20


Hypnosis is the deep physical relaxation state similar to sleep during which subconscious can be reached. It is used for analgesia in chronic pains such as cancer pain and effective in head and neck pain, phantom pain.7,21It has decreased pain and anxiety level in paediatric cancer patients.22

Behavioural Modification

These therapies aim to increase the functional level of the patient, firstly reduce and then completely stop painkiller usage. They teach the patient to avoid the maladaptive behaviour such as remaining motionless, grimacing, moaning and reinforcement of well adaptive behaviour like physical activities.23

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

These therapies are a part of multimodal approach in pain management, which helps the patient to improve self-esteem and to develop management behaviour against pain. Study stated that they should be applied earlier and before the patient experiences the pain.24


It is aimed to control of physiological reactions such as muscle tension, body temperature, heart rate, brain activity and other vital parameters for symptomatic improvement by mental and physical exercises, visualization and deep breaths.25Effective in treatment of many types of chronic pain.26,27

Manual Therapies


It is proliferation injection therapy, in which nonpharmacologicaland non-active irritant solution is injected in the region of tendons or ligaments to strengthen connective tissue and alleviating musculoskeletal pain. Examples of such solutions are hyperosmolar dextrose, sodium morrhuate, phenol and glycerine. Indicated in low back pain, knee osteoarthritis, achillestendinopathy, shoulder dislocation, neck strain, costochondritis, plantar fasciitis, lateral epicondylitis, pain from whiplash injury and fibromyalgia.28,29


It is neck pulling movement causes joint realignment and gentle manipulation used in treatment of the disorders in connective tissues and musculoskeletal system. It relieves the pain with application made on spine and joints which have positive effect on neural system and natural defence mechanisms.16Contraindications of this therapy are rheumatoid arthritis, tumours, infections and severe cervical disc hernia.9,30,31


Pressure applied to reflex points on our feet corresponding to all parts of our body, organs and system causes the stress to be relieved and reduction in pain perception.8 Pressure is applied by five techniques - compressing move, putting move, rubbing move, thumb move, fingure move which is generally deep but not painful. Used for migraine pain, back pain, muscle pain, end stage cancer pain, side effects of chemotherapy.32,33,34,35,36

Natural Therapies

Herbal Treatment

Herbal medicine is the chemical materials obtained from inside, root, leave, seed and flower parts of the herbs.9 It is commonly used to treat lumbago and back pains.16,37

Aroma Therapy

The use of scented oils can be relaxing and reduce pain. Study stated that the aroma oils reached the lymph system by means of blood circulation and provided recovery by means of intercellular fluids.30Lavender oil is used in treating migraine pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, lumbago. Eucalyptus, black pepper, ginger, daisy, licorice, rosemary andmurrh oils are used in relieving pain.24

Hydro Therapy (Balneotherapy)

Hydro therapy is using water for treatment by thermal spring and potable water resources. When it is used with temperature effect,it is known as hydrothermal therapy. Hydrothermal therapy stimulate the immune system, circulation, provides hormones that are suppressing the stress, increases the blood flow, relax the muscles and reduces the sensitivity developed against the pain.9 Effective while treating back pain and chronic lumbago.37,38


Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

It is based on a time-varying magnetic field that generates an electric current inside the skull, where it can be focused and restricted to small brain areas by appropriate stimulation coil geometry and size. Primary motor cortex corresponding to the painful area stimulated by rTMS treated the chronic pain due to trigeminal neuralgia, thalamic pain, brainstem lesion, brachial plexus injury, spinal cord lesion, post stroke, peripheral neuroma operation, caudaequina lesion, central supratentorial lesion.39,40Stimulation of Left Primary motor cortex corresponding to hand area treated pain due to trauma, spinal disc degeneration, arthritis, skull base fracture andcrohndisease.41When right secondary somatosensory cortex area is stimulated visceral pain due to chronic pancreatitis42 while stimulation of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex treated finbomyalgiaand chronic migraine respectively.43,44

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

It is based on the application of a weak direct current to the scalp that flows between anode and cathode electrodes.Primary motor cortexcorresponding to the painful area stimulated with 2 mA current for 5 sessions of 20 minutes treated chronic pain due to Spinal cord injury.45 Acupuncture

Its works by Gate Control Theory of Malzek i.e. effect of sensory stimulant (e.g.chronic lumbago) can be suppressed with another stimulant (pricking a needle) within neural system. It causes production of endorphin, serotonin and acetylcholine within CNS.46 Effective in cure of patella-femoral pain, rheumatoid arthritis pain,post traumatic somatic painand idiopathic head pain.17


Physical pressure is applied on selected points of body by fingers, hands, palms, wrists and knees in order to provide internal flow of energy. It reduces back pain, headache, osteoarthritis, musculoskeletal pain, neck pain, nausea, vomiting and sleeping problem.47It is non-invasive and safe. Both acupuncture and acupressure are component of traditional Chinese medicine.

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

It is electricalstimulation to the skin to manage the pain. Gate Control Theory is used to define how TENS affects the pain.48Thick and rapid transmitting nerve fibres are stimulated artificially with TENS and the pain transmission is tried to be stopped or reduced by electro analgesia method.49 TENS has reduced the narcotic drugs usage and pain level.14Most common use of TENS is for managing acute, chronic andpost operative pain with or without pharmacological agents. Study stated that post-operative pain management with TENS has reduced the needed analgesic drug dosage and pain level.50

Bio-field Therapies

Bio-field is defined as energy that surrounds and penetrates the human body. These therapies aim to do modification of the patient`s bio-field and thereby stimulating the auto healing response. These therapies include Reiki, Healing touch,Therapeutic touch (TT). A systemic review stated that strong evidence for reducing pain intensity in pain population, moderate evidence for reducing pain intensity in hospitalized and cancer populations and a need for high-quality studies in this area.51


Efficacy of the cannabinoids like canabidiol/delta- 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) buccal spray has been proved for the treatment of neuropathic pain as in multiple sclerosis in a metaanalysis.53


As a result, with the combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies the pain can be managed in a more effective manner. These techniques must be encouraged as a part of the comprehensive pain management efforts. They should be included to the care plan whenpatient is appropriate and willing, together with medical and pharmacological treatments. We need more study results that support the efficiency of these methods.


Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.



1. Kim JE, Dodd M, West C. The PRO-SELF Pain control program improves patient’s knowledge of cancer pain management. Oncology Nursing Forum2004;31(6):1137- 1143.

2. McMillan SC, Tittle M,Hagan S, Laughlin J. Management of pain and painrelated symptoms in hospitalized veterans with cancer.Cancer Nursing2000;23(5):327-336.

3. Allard P, Maunsell E, Labbe J. and Dorval M. Educational interventions to improve cancer pain control: a systematic review.Journal of Palliative Medicine2001; 4(2):191-203.

4. Uçan ÖandOvayolu N. Nonpharmacologicalmethodsused for the controlof cancer pain. Journal of Health Services Euphrates 2007; 2(4): 123-131.

5. Menefee L A and Monti D. Nonpharmacologic and complementary approaches to cancer pain management. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association2005; 105(11):15-20.

6. Yavuz M. Nonpharmacologicalmethodsusedin pain, In:The Natureand Control ofPain, 1st edition. European MedicalPublishingLtd.Sti. SciencePublications, 2006.

7. Black JM andMatassarin Jacobs E. Pain, In: Medical-Surgical Nursing: Clinical Management for Continuity of Care. J.M. Black, E.M. Jacobs and J. Luckmann (Edts.).W.B. Saunders Co., 1997: 342-365.

8. Yildirium, D K, Fad?lo?lu, ÇandUyarM.Complementary therapiesin palliative cancer care. A?r?2006; 18(1): 26-32.

9. KaragözG.Back-Neck,low back painandrelievingpain inpatients withsurgeryprogramnöro?ürurjitheuseof complementary and alternative therapies. ?stanbulUniversityInstituteof Health Sciences. IstanbulMaster's Thesis2006.

10. Musclow, SL, Sawhney Mand Watt-Watson J. The emerging role of advanced nursing practice in acute pain management throughout Canada. Clinical Nurse Specialist2002; 16(2):63-67.

11. Ahmed RGandOvayoluN.Related toPain ManagementNurses'Knowledge, Attitudes andAssessingClinical Decision Making. Gaziantep University,Institute of Health Sciences, Master's Thesis 2008.

12. Carroll al. Pain Assessment and Management in Critically ill Postoperative and Trauma Patients: A Multisite Study. American Journal of CriticalCare1999 March; 8(2).

13. Lewandowski W, Good MandDraucker CB. Changes in the Meaning of pain with the use of Guided Imagery. Pain ManagNurs. 2005 Jun; 6(2): 58-67. 

14. Armstrong S. and Çelebio?lu A. Postoperative Pain Management and Alternative Uygulamalar. International Journal of HumanSciences2004;1(1): 1-7.

15. Meisenhelder JB and Chandler EN. Prayer and health outcomes in church members. Altern. Ther. Health Med. 2000Jul; 6(4): 56-60.

16. Gray DP. Complementary and alternative therapies. S.M., Lewis; L. Heitkemper, and S.R. Dirksen, (Eds). Medical Surgical Nursing.St. Louis: MosbyInc, 2004; 94-109.

17. Snyder M. and Wieland J. Complementary and alternative therapies: What is their place in the management of chronic pain? NursClin North Am. 2003 Sep; 38(3): 495-508.

18. Carson JW, Keefe FJ, Lynch TR, Carson KM, Goli V, Fras AMand et al. Loving-kindness meditation for chronic low back pain: results from a pilot trial. J.Holist. Nurs.2005 Sep; 23(3): 287-304.

19. Dillard JN and Knapp S. Complementary and alternative pain therapy in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2005 May; 23(2): 529-549.

20. Williams KA, PetronisJ,Smith D, Goodrich D,Wu J, Ravi N, Doyle EJ,Juckett G,Kolar MM, Gross R and Steinberg L. Effect of Iyengar yoga therapy for chronic low back pain. Pain. 2005 May; 115(1-2):107–17.

21. Jensen Mand Patterson D. Hypnotic treatment of chronic pain. J. Behav. Med.2006 Feb; 29(1): 95-124.

22. Liossi C, White P andHatira P. Randomized clinical trial of local anaesthetic versus a combination of local anaesthetic with selfhypnosis in the management of paediatric procedure-related pain. Health Psychology2006 May; 25(3): 307-315.

23. Brietbart W, Payne D andPassik S.D.Psychological and psychiatric interventions in pain control. Doyle D, Hanks NC, Calman K (eds). Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine 3rded. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004: 424-438.

24. Delaune SC andLadner PK (Eds.).Fundamental of Nursing: Standard And Practice (2nd Edition).Newyork, Thomson Delmar Learning, 2002: 916-941.

25. EidelsonSG. Advanced Technologies to Treat Neck and Back Pain, A Patient's Guide; Eidelson's book, 2005.

26. Moseikin IA. Use of biofeedback in combined treatment of low spine pain. ZhNevrolPsikhiatrIm S SKorsakova2003; 103: 32-6.

27. Teyhen DS, Miltenberger CE, Deiters HM, Del Toro YM, Pulliam JN and Childs JD. The use of ultrasound imaging of the abdominal drawing-in manoeuvres in subjects with low back pain. J. Orthop Sports PhysTher. 2005 Jun; 35(6): 346-355.

28. Rabago D, Slattengren A, ZgierskaA."Prolotherapy in Primary Care Practice". Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice2010;37 (1): 65–80.

29. "Prolotherapy". University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre.2012.

30. Turan N, OzturkAandKumarN.Hemsirelikte. A NewArea of Responsibility: ComplementaryTherapy.Maltepe Universityof Scienceand Art ofNursingDergisi2010; 3(1): 93-98.

31. Deng G andCassileth BR. Integrative oncology: complementary therapies for pain, anxiety, and mood disturbance. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians2005 May/April; 55(2):09-116.

32. Long L, Huntley A and Ernst E. Which Complementary and Alternative Therapies Benefit Which Conditions? A Survey of Opinions of 223 Professional Organizations. Complementary Therapy in Medicine2001; 9: 178-185.

33. McNeill JA, Alderdice FA andMcmurrayF.A Retrospective Cohort Study Exploring the Relationship between Antenatal Reflexology and ?ntranatal Outcomes. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice2006 May; 12(2): 119-125.

34. MollartL.Single-Blind Trial Addressing the Differential Effects of Two Reflexology Techniques Versus Rest, On Ankle and Foot Oedema in Late Pregnancy. Complementary Therapy in Nursing and Midwifery2003 November; 9(4): 203-208.

35. Quattrin R, Zanini A, Buchini S, Turello D, Annunziata MA, Vidotti C, ColombattiAandBrusaferro S. Use of Reflexology Foot Massage to Reduce Anxiety in Hospitalized Cancer Patients in Chemotherapy Treatment: Methodology and Outcomes. Journal of Nursing Management2006 March; 14(2): 96-105.

36. Wringht S, Courtney U, Donnelly C, Kenny T, Lavin C. Clients’ perceptions of the benefits of reflexology on their quality of life. Complementary Therapy in Nursing and Midwifery2002 May; 8(2): 69-76.

37. Hartel U, VolgerE.Use and acceptance of classical natural and alternative medicine in Germany--findings of a representative population-based survey. ForschKomplementarmedKlassNaturheilkd20 04 Dec; 11(6): 327-334.

38. Balogh Z, Ordogh J, Gasz A, Nemet L and Bender T.Effectiveness of balneotherapy in chronic low back pain -- a randomized singleblind controlled follow-up study ForschKomplementarmedKlassNaturheilkd20 05 Aug; 12(4): 196-201.

39. Lefaucheur JP, Drouot X, Nguyen JP. Interventional neurophysiology for pain control: duration of pain relief following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex. NeurophysiolClin2001; 31:247–52.

40. Lefaucheur JP, Drouot X, Keravel Y, Nguyen JP. Pain relief induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of precentral cortex. Neuroreport2001; 12: 2963–65.

41. Johnson S, Summers J, Pridmore S. Changes to somatosensory detection and pain thresholds following high frequency repetitive TNMS of the motor cortex in individuals suffering from chronic pain. Pain2006; 123: 187–92. 42. Fregni F, DaSilva D, Potvin K, et al. Treatment of chronic visceral pain with brain stimulation. Ann Neurol.2005; 58: 971–72.

43. Brighina F, Giglia G, Scalia S, Francolini M, Palermo A, Fierro B. Facilitatory effects of 1 Hz rTMS in motor cortex of patients affected by migraine with aura. Exp Brain Res2005; 161: 34–38.

44. Sampson SM, Rome JD, Rummans TA. Slowfrequency rTMS reduces fibromyalgia pain. Pain Med 2006; 7:115–18.

45. Fregni F, Boggio PS, Lima MC, et al. A shamcontrolled, phase II trial of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of central pain in traumatic spinal cord injury. Pain2006; 122: 197–209.

46. Van Tulder MW, Furlan AD andGagnier JJ. Complementary and alternative therapies for low back pain. Best Pract Res ClinRheumatol2005 Aug; 19(4): 639-654.

47. Hakverdio?lu G. andTürkG. Acupressure. Journal of Hacettepe University School of Nursing2006; 43-47.

48. Sluka KA and Walsh D. Transcutaneous Electrical Nevre Stimulation: Basic Science Mechanism and Clinical Effectiveness. The Journal of Pain 2003 Apr; 4(3):109-121.

49. Mucuk Sand Baser M. Tactile stimulation methods used to alleviate the pain of child birth. Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences. Anatolia2009; 12(3): 61-66.

50. Bjordal MJ,Johnson IMandLjunggreen AE. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) Can Reduce Postoperative Analgesic Consumption: A Meta-Analysis With Assessment Of Optimal Treatment Parameters For Postoperative Pain. The European Journal of Pain 2003; 7(2): 181-188

.51. Jain S, Mills PJ. Bio field therapies: helpful or full of hype? A best evidence synthesis.Int J Behav Med. 2011 March;18(1):79-82.

52. Pittler MH, Brown EM, Ernst E. Static magnets for reducing pain: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.CMAJ2007; 177(7):736–742.

53. Iskedjian M, Bereza B, Gordon A, Piwko C, Einarson TR. Meta-analysis of cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Jan; 23(1):17-24.


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in

Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

Copyright © 2023 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions