International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - 6(14), July, 2014

Pages: 38-48

Date of Publication: 22-Jul-2014

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF


Author: Sudha T. R. Banapurmath, Girija B. S. Dotrad, Nirmala Doreswamy, Shyamala

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Aim: Post partum contraception is the best evidence based intervention in prevention of pregnancy and abortion related maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. The unmet need for contraception among women in the postpartum period can be effectively fulfilled by post partum insertion of IUCD, in a single visit under the Government scheme of providing free maternity services during institutional delivery. PPIUCD is an effective, safe, reversible method of long term contraception with high reported expulsion and low perforation rate, compared to interval insertion. Objective: To evaluate the acceptability, safety, efficacy and feasibility of PPIUCD as a method of post partum contraception. Study design: This is a prospective cross sectional study conducted between October 2011 to December 2013 at Sri Chamarajendra Government Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India. 26,123 pregnant women were counseled (clients) for Post partum IUCD insertion as a method of contraception in pregnancy, early in labor and in the immediate post partum period (< 48 hours). Among the clients, 1832(7%) accepted and had PPIUCD inserted under asepsis by skilled Obstetricians. The timing of PPIUCD insertion were- 510(27.8 %) post placental, 427(23.3 %) in immediate post partum period< 48hrs, and 895(49 %) Intra caesarian insertions. The side effects were minimal, Infection and perforation were 00%, pregnancy reported were 0%, Expulsion rate was 0.32 %( o6/1832), and Removal rate was 0.76% %( 14/1832). IUCD retention rate was 98.90% (1812/1832) at 14weeks post partum. Conclusion: PPIUCD is a feasible, safe and effective method of immediate postpartum contraception that may be practiced during a single visit for institutional delivery which may be continued as a long term reversible contraception.

Keywords: Post-partum intrauterine contraceptive Device (PPIUCD), Post placental, Client, Caesarian Delivery, Expulsion, Contraception, Counseling.

Full Text:

The maternal health is one of the health indicators of the country. The antenatal, labor and postpartum period is the crucial period of optimal maternal care that influences the outcome of pregnancy. Poor spacing between pregnancies, the unmet need for post partum contraception may lead to intervention in an unwanted subsequent pregnancy. Postpartum insertion of IUCD (PPIUCD) is a method of post partum contraception that may be utilized to overcome the unmet need of contraception, in a single hospital visit during institutional delivery. The postpartum period following three months after delivery, weaning from breast feeding and resuming sexual activity among married couple, is the risk period for unintended pregnancy. This necessitates the use of some postpartum reversible contraception which is met by PPIUCD insertion. Approximately 27% of women in India practice birth to birth interval of <24 months and 34% between 24-35 months, a total of 61% women practice birth to birth to interval of < 36 months, 40% of women are not using any contraceptives for spacing. IUD-1.6%, natural method (LAM)- 5.4%, condom use-5.3%, and female sterilization34.2%, male sterilization 1.9% are the methods of contraception among the married couple in India1, 2 . Unmet need in India, in the first year after delivery is 65%6 . Postpartum LAM method is not reliable after three months following delivery2 . The introduction of GOI- JSY scheme for improvising implementation of Institutional delivery (GOI 2009) also provides adequate opportunity to generate clients for introduction of postpartum contraceptive services, thereby providing the women an access to immediate PPIUCD services. Provision of quality contraceptive services during the postpartum period by utilizing the opportunities of increased institutional deliveries is a critical intervention for ensuring maternal and child health besides population stabilization. To achieve this objective, postpartum IUCD has been introduced in the National Family Welfare Programme since March 2010 in several states. An evidence based practice of post partum IUCD insertion as post partum contraception suggests that it is a safe, easy and effective, long term method that can be provided immediately post placental, during caesarian delivery or in the immediate post partum period within 48 hours after delivery3, 5,6,9,10,11,14,18 . The postpartum period of stay at the hospital provides adequate time for motivation, counseling and convenience of easy insertion, implementation of postpartum contraceptive services during a period of high motivation, with few side effects. The woman goes home with a contraceptive method of her choice which also ensures in fulfilling her unmet need of contraception, in a single visit at the hospital5 .Several studies among women in China, Egypt, Mexico, Turkey, and Peru reveal PPIUCD as a popular, acceptable, and feasible method of contraception but they have reported high expulsion rates. This study is conducted, to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, efficacy and safety of PPIUCD as an optional method of post partum contraception among women in India, where the IUCD acceptance is very low, due to non medical reasons. This study also is intended to evaluate PPIUCD as a method of intervention in reducing maternal mortality in developing countries.

This is a prospective, cross sectional, cohort, study conducted between Oct 2011- Oct 2013 at Sri Chamarajendra Government Hospital, Hassan District, Karnataka, India to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, safety, expulsion, and retention rate of PPIUCD among 1832 women in the postpartum period.

All the pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Sri Chamarajendra government hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India. (population-1721669) were counseled during their antenatal visit regarding the benefits of birth spacing, advantages of choosing and availing postpartum contraception during their stay at hospital, child care, various methods available for post partum contraception and post partum sterilization, advantages of choosing long term temporary, reversible contraceptive methods, and PPIUCD. The method chosen for contraception was marked on their Antenatal records, andcalled as clients. Women in Early labor and in the post natal ward were counseled for PPIUCD. The insertion was done by skilled obstetricians under asepsis after informed consent (fig-2, 3). The standard infection prevention protocols were followed. The quality of PPIUCD services provided at the hospital were assessed and monitored as per the performance standards for immediate PPIUCD counseling and services, April 20113, 4.

The women after PPIUCD insertion were advised routine post partum care, and to report for follow up at 6, 10, and 14 weeks or earlier when necessary. A record of follow up was maintained at the post partum clinic. A telephonic follow up was done when a clinic visit was not feasible or to report symptoms, expulsion of IUCD or at the convenience of the client. The inclusion criteria in this study were as per Medical eligibility criteria(M.E.C)- 1and 2 that included all clients accepting for IUCD insertion in post partum period. Exclusion criteria (MEC criteria 3and 4) arechorioamnionitis, premature rupture of membranes of >18 hours, intractable post partum hemorrhage (atonic or traumatic) and abnormal uterine cavity.

However contraindications are few. This expands the client number for PPIUCD insertion. Limitations of PPIUCD as a method of post partum contraception are: High expulsion rate compared to interval insertion. The expulsion rate is 5-10%which means retention rate of 90-95%. Post placental and intra caesarian insertions have low expulsion rate. Expulsion rates may be reduced by appropriate fundal placement of IUCD which is acquired through skill training in PPIUCD insertion3, 5 .

The data of PPIUCD services provided, observations during follow up of clients were as shown in Observations (charts1a, b-chart 5).

Acceptability for PPIUCD among women was 7.0%. The observation are as shown in charts 1and 2

Total number of monthly PPIUCD inserted as shown in chart-1
1. Client characteristics

All the clients who accepted for PPIUCD insertion were in the reproductive age group (20-40yrs).

Follow up of clients: follow up of clients were conducted at 6, 10, and 14 weeks or earlier when necessary.During follow up, the observations were made regarding removal, expulsion and safety of PPIUCD. The Results were as followsEfficacy of PPIUCD as a contraceptive Efficacy of PPIUCD as contraceptive were assessed by pregnancy rate, Expulsion rate, removal and retention rate of IUCD. Pregnancy rate :- There were no pregnancies observed among clients in the study period. Hence the failure rate was 00% that shows that PPIUCD is efficient in prevention of pregnancy among the clients who continued to retain it. Expulsion of IUCD : 06/1832(0.32%) of clients reported spontaneous, expulsion within 10 weeks of insertion which was confirmed by clinical and Ultrasound examination. These clients were offered reinsertion but all of them refused. They were counseled for alternate methods of contraception. Missing strings Missing string was termed when the string was not seen at 6 weeks, at the external os of cervix, during per speculum vaginal examination of clients in the post partum clinic. Among the 289 clients followed for 14 wks post partum, missing strings during the follow up in the clinic was observed in 39 clients (13.5%). An ultrasound examination confirmed the presence of IUCD in the uterine cavity. Many clients who were examined clinically had the string curled in vagina or cervical canal. They were reassured and re-examined at 10 and 14 weeks. They continued with IUCD as a long term contraceptive. Safety of PPIUCD Safety of IUCD was assessed by the clients Reported Side effects and complications of IUCD such as infection, menstrual abnormality, perforation ,and expulsion. The complications were few and were managed symptomatically. They are shown in chart-5.


Rate of infection
None of the clients reported nor had infection (00%) in the present study. Menstrual abnormality There were no reports of menorrhagia nor any abnormal vaginal bleeding among the clients followed in the study period. Perforation of uterus No perforation of uterus by IUCD has been observed in the present study. Client reported symptoms Many clients reported to post partum clinic with lower abdominal pain and pricking sensation. They had urinary infection, constipation or non specific symptoms, and were reassured and treated accordingly. All these women continued to retain IUCD. Removal of PPIUCD 14/ 1832 clients requested for removal of IUCD due to personal and social reasons, but none got it removed for side effects such as infection, Menorrhagia and abdominal pain. Increase in awareness of advantages of PPIUCD, and reassurance by the attending health care worker later reduced the removal rate. Retention of IUCD 1812(98.90%) clients were willing to continue IUCD by 14 wks, 14 (0.76%) were not willing to get reinsertion of IUCD and preferred an alternate method of contraception. The Retention rate was 98.9%, which showed that PPIUCD was effective in meeting the unmet need of contraception in the post partum period.


Many studies have been published regarding the efficacy, safety of PPIUCD .This was a cross sectional study, at Sri Chamarajendra Government Hospital, Hassan District, Karnataka, India to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, safety and efficacy of PPIUCD. Lara Ricalde R et. al. has reported an acceptance rate of 28.9% (1,024 /3,541) 6. In this study the acceptance rate was lower, probably due to low IUCD insertion rates in low resource settings in India. Mohammed et. al. observed that Acceptance rate was the same during antenatal and postpartum counseling, 26.4 and 31.8%, respectively10.. Indian experience 0f 2 years, PPIUCD services have been established in over 50 facilities across 19 states of India, with the Government of India undertaking more than 22,000 PPIUCD insertions in the target facilities, with 5% of women delivering in these institutions accepting PPIUCD as their choice of contraception17. In the present study the acceptance rate was higher (7%). The acceptability of intracaesarian placement of IUCD was highest followed by post placental IUCD insertion.


Among clients who accepted for PPIUCD, many refused for PPIUCD insertion due to demotivation by relatives and friends. This was observed as a major barrier for implementation of PPIUCD in this study. The rate of return for follow-up visit were 221 (94%), 210 (89%) and 183 (78%) at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months, respectively. Timing of IUCD insertion after vaginal and cesarean delivery were 74% and 26%. Continuation rates of IUCD were relatively high, 87.6% and 76.3%, at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The 1-year cumulative expulsion rate with CuT 380A device was 12.3%11. . In the present study the follow up was very low. Modifications of existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures or additional appendages did not appear beneficial. Efficacy of interval insertion of IUCD was comparable with PPIUCD13. Most studies showed no differences between insertions done by hand or by instruments8, 16. The RHL review 2010, shows a total of nine trials with 7660 subjects, One trial (102 women) had compared immediate postpartum versus delayed insertion (6–8 weeks postpartum) of the levonorgestrelreleasing intrauterine system. A trial directly compared immediate versus delayed insertion reported that at 6 months the two groups were similar in terms of pregnancy prevention.21 FHI data show a significantly higher (p0.05) expulsion rate associated with insertions performed within the period of >10 minutes to 36 hours as compared to the immediate post placental period (within 10 minutes)8..we found no such relation regarding timing of insertion and expulsion rate. Complications observed were more in delayed post partum insertion than immediate post placental insertion6 . Other trials did not have uniform interventions; hence we were unable to aggregate them in this analysis. Advantages of immediate post-partum insertion include high motivation, assurance that the woman is not pregnant, and provider and client convenience6 , 1821,22,23. Lara Ricalde R et. al., observed no infection among clients. The expulsion rates were 10.4, removal rates for bleeding and pain were 4.9 and 4.8, for non medical reasons were 3.7 and 4.9 respectively for the Multiload Cu 375 and 7.7 for the CuT 380A by 10 weeks. There were no pregnancies, nor uterine perforation that is similar in this study. Xu J. et. al. observed a gross cumulative expulsion rate for the manual insertion group after 6, 12, 24, and 36 months were 8.61, 13.55, 15.78, and 16.90 %, respectively with gross expulsion rates for the ring forceps insertion group were 12.99, 17.23, 17.77, and 18.34 %, respectively. The differences between the two groups were not statistically significant12 . . In studies by Family Health International (FHI), expulsion rates varied widely between centers using similar devices. Expulsion rates ranged from 6-37/100 women at 6 months after insertion13.Sahajakittur and Kabade reported expulsion of 5.23%. No major complications and. perforation were observed in this series22. The expulsion rate in present study was very low (0.32%) in comparison with other studies, probably due to skilled training in fundal placement of IUCD. Thiersh et. al. reported that there were no pregnancies and use continuation was 77%.18 Indian experience showed that at 6 weeks postpartum, 90% of women have continued with the same IUCD. Infection rate was of 4.5% and 7% got the IUCD removed within the first 6 weeks of insertion due to bleeding and abdominal pain17.In the present study 0.76% were removed for non medical reasons, and 98.90% IUCD were retained at 14 weeks follow up.

PPIUCD is a feasible, safe and effective method of postpartum contraception among women in low resource settings, during a single visit for institutional delivery, to empower women to meet their unmet need of contraception that may be continued as a long term reversible contraception Limitation of the study In the present study 1) Sample size is small and further study with larger sample size is recommended. 2) Follow up rate is inadequate - hence there is a need to increase the follow up of clients for an analysis of data regarding safety and efficacy of PPIUCD. 3) Duration of follow up is short. Hence retention rate, safety and efficacy of IUCD as a long term reversible method of contraception could not be assessed.

There is a need for long term follow up, retention rates and short- and long-term risk of pelvic infections associated with the high incidence of reproductive tract infections in low resource settings.

PPIUCD is a feasible method of contraception in post partum period that can be retained as a long term reversible contraception.Adequate training and supervision of delivery roomhealth providers/ staff in insertion of IUDs is Feasible. Midwives / staff nurses can be trained to insert the IUD after delivery through realistic demonstrations on Zo-E models (fig-1). Repeated PPIUCD sensitization and awareness programmes, client monitoring at Primary care centres, improvised accessibility of PPIUCD services by integrating post partum contraceptive services with Institutional maternity services, are recommended to upscale the PPIUCD services in low resource settings to prevent unintended pregnancy. This may be considered as an important evidence based intervention in averting maternal mortality in low resource settings.

We sincerely thank -The Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Government of India, and Karnataka state, and Our Mentors – JPIEGO, for training and providing technical assistance to start, implement, maintain the PPIUCD services.and in training other service providers. We thank all the women who accepted and participated in the study. Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles. Journals, manuals and books from where literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed. Funding The study was conducted in a government funded hospital under the provision of free maternity services. No special funding was obtained for this study.


1. National Rural Health Mission Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India. JSY. Available at 06;.pdf.Accessed;19September;2012

2. India Reproductive health surveyNFHS, 2003,2010- Family planning Fact sheets of India

3. A global hand book for providers and PPIUCD training materials, JPIEGO.

4. The Population Council and the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH). The Copper T 380A IUCD: A Manual for Clinicians. 2nd ed. Seattle, Washington: PATH, 1989. Consensus 2011, provisional population totals; office of the Registrar General and census commissioner, India Ministry of home affairs, 31st March2011

5. Post Partum IUCD Reference Manual,November 2010:Family planning division,ministry of Health and Family welfare.

6. Grimes.D,SchulzK,VlietH,Stanwood.N;,Imme diatepost partum insertion of IUCD;TheCochranesystemicdatabase of systemic Reviews;2003;1,Art no.CD003036, DOI:1002/14651858.CD003036. PMID: 11406064 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7. Performance standards for immediate PPIUCD counseling and services,April,20113;(NRHM,GOI);The USAID/WHO manual family planning.

8. Lara Ricalde R, Menocal Tobías G, Ramos Pérez C, Velázquez Ramírez N;-Random comparative study between intrauterine device Multiload Cu375 and TCu 380a inserted in the postpartum period,Departamento de planificación familiar del InstitutoNaciónal de Perinatología. Lomas Virreyes, México. pub med.

9. Morrison C, Waszak C, Katz K, Diabate F, Mate EM; Clinical out-comes of two early postpartum IUCD insertion programs in Africa. Contraception 1996;53:17-21.

10. Mohamed SA, Kamel MA, Shaaban OM, Salem HT;Acceptability for the use of postpartum intrauterine contraceptive devices: Assiutexperience.,Medprinc pract.2003,julsep;12(3):170-5

11. Celen S, Möröy P, Sucak A, Aktulay A, Dani?man N; Clinical outcomes of early postplacental insertion of intrauterine contraceptive devices.;Contraception,2004 Apr:69(4):279-82.

12. Xu J, Yang X, Gu X, Xu S, Zhou X, Chen Y, Xiao Z, Zhuang L Comparison between two techniques used in immediate postplacental insertion of TCu 380A intrauterine device: 36- month follow-up.; ReproductiveContraception.1999; 10(3):156- 62

13. Ero?lu K, Akkuzu G, Vural G, Dilbaz B, Akin A, Ta?kin L, HaberalAComparison of efficacy and complications of IUD insertion in immediate postplacental/early postpartum period with interval period: 1 year follow-up.; Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(2):CD003036. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1):CD003036.

14. Cole LP, Edelman DA, Potts DM, Wheeler RG, Laufe LE. Postpartum insertion of modified intrauterine devices;J Reprod Med. 1984 Sep;29(9):677-82

15. O'Hanley K, Huber DH;Postpartum IUDS: keys for success;.;Contraception. 1992 Apr;45(4):351-61.

16. Erika Levi, Evelyn Cantillo,Veronica Ades, Erika Banks, AmitasrigowriMurthy; Immediate postplacental IUD insertion at cesarean delivery: a prospective cohort study;Contraception;VVolume 86, Issue 2 , August ,Pages 102-105,

17. B.Sood et. al.,Jhpiego/India, New Delhi, IndiaR. Asif, E. Charurat, S. Das, S. Kumar, C.McKaig,,M.Rath,,S.Saha,R.Sethi,V. Srivastava,V.Yadav ;Revitalization of postpartum IUCD (PPIUCD) services: experience from India, Contraception;Volume 86, Issue 2, August 2012, Pages 184–185,

18. Thiery M, Van Kets H, Van Der Pas H. Immediate postplacental IUD insertion: the expulsion problems. Contraception 1985;31;331-349

19. Hayes JL, Cwiak C, Goedken P, Zieman M;A pilot clinical trial of ultrasound-guided postplacental insertion of a levonorgestrel intrauterine device. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.

20. Global Health Observatory; Unmet need for family planning. Geneva: World Health aternal_health/situation_trends_family_planni ng/en.

21. Muthal-Rathore A. Immediate postpartum insertion for intrauterine devices: RHL commentary (last revised: 1 September 2010). The WHO Reproductive Health Library; Geneva: World Health Organization

22. Sahaja Kittur, Y. M. Kabadi; Enhancing contraceptive usage by post-placental intrauterine contraceptive devices (PPIUCD) insertion with evaluation of safety, efficacy, and expulsion;. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 1(1): 26-32

23. Xu JX, Reusche C, Burdan A. Immediate postplacental insertion of the intrauterine device: a review of Chinese and the world's experiences. Adv Contracept 1994; 10:71-82.


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in

Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

Copyright © 2023 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions