International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 06 Issue 14, July, 2014

Pages: 01-06

Date of Publication: 22-Jul-2014


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EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON MEMORY IN RATS

Author: Damel Lakshmi, Kayalvizhi, Chandrasekhar, Priyadarshini

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Objective: To study the effect of sleep deprivation on memory in rats. Methods: The experiment was done at Department of Physiology, Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute, Enathur, Kanchipuram. Ethical clearance was obtained from CPCSEA. 12 male Wistar albino rats were used in the study, control group (6) and study group (6). Sleep deprivation was performed by using single platform method (Flower pot method). Study group was exposed to 5 hours of sleep deprivation for 5 days. Behavior, learning and memory was assessed using T maze and radial arm maze. Results: Rats subjected to sleep deprivation showed alteration in behavior and memory impairment. In T maze, there was significant increase in time spent in left arm, number of fecal bolus count with significant decrease in number of rearing, grooming and number of urination were decreased when compared with control group. In Radial arm maze impairment in memory was observed when compared with the control group. Conclusion: Rats showed memory impairment after subjected to sleep deprivation, which was assessed by standardized T maze and Radial arm maze.

Keywords: Single platform method, T Maze, Radial arm Maze.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
Sleep is a naturally or artificially induced state of sensory and motor activity1 . Sleep occupies approximately one-third of a person’s life19 . Normal adult have 8 – 9 hours of sleep in a day. Sleep has two phases; Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM). Sleep includes 5-6 cycles / day. Each cycle has NREM sleep for 70 minutes and REM sleep for 20 minutes12. NREM sleep is generated by pre optic region of hypothalamus and its adjacent basal forebrain. REM sleep is generated by pons and adjacent portions of midbrain10. Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) maintains the circadian cycle in the mammalian body. One of the most prominent circadian rhythm is the cycle of sleep and wakefulness. All physiologic and behavioral functions are generated by a circadian pacemaker of SCN located in the anterior hypothalamus11. Sleep plays a major role in wound healing, basal metabolic rate, energy conservation, development of brain, learning and memory processing, cognitive functions, dreaming22 . Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep. It is considered as an extreme case of sleep reduction, in that the organism is simply awake for a prolonged period of time2 . Deprived sleep may occur due to various reasons like physiological stress, a poor sleep environment and an inconsistent sleep schedule. Common physiological effects of deprived sleep are headache, malaise, increased blood pressure, increased stress hormone levels, irritability, confusion, memory lapses, and depression21 . Recalling of learned events at conscious or sub conscious level is called memory, which includes non-declarative (procedural) memory and declarative memory constituting short term (working) memory and long term memory9 . Memory consolidation is a slow process which converts learned events into a more permanent or enhanced form by uniting the medial temporal lobes and neocortical areas7 . Paradoxical sleep (PS) has a major role in the development of nervous system and neural plasticity; it is also assumed that immediate or short term memory storage takes place during PS4 . Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family, which plays important roles in the survival, maintenance, and growth of neurons. It supports the growth of many neurons, complexity of dentrites in the cerebral cortex. It also enhances synaptic transmission and long term potentiation which is considered to be a potent cellular mechanism in learning and memory. The purpose of this experiment is to study the effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation on memory in rats.

MATERIALS AND METHOD
The experiment was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Meenakshi Medical College hospital and Research Institute, Enathur, Kanchipuram. Proper ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional Animal Ethical Committee. 12 male Wistar albino rats weighing 800 to 900g were used for the study. The animals were grouped into 2 groups with 6 animals in each; Control group (6) and study group (6). The animals were adapted to the laboratory environment 7 days prior to the initiation of the experiment and 12 hours dark/light cycle was maintained (4). Study group rats were subjected to sleep deprivation by single platform method. Control group rats were left free in home cage with free access to food and water in the same environment were sleep deprivation is performed during the period of experiment. Single platform method: This apparatus consists of a small platform (6.5 cm in diameter and 10 cm high) inside the chamber (22 x 22 x 35 cm) (Fig:1). The platform was submerged in water until 1-2 cm below its surface (Jouvet et. al. 1964)16 . Rats were placed over the small platform for 5 hours for 5 days between 9.00 am to 2.00 pm for sleep deprivation. After 5 days of sleep deprivation the rats were allowed to explore in T maze and radial arm maze. T maze: It is used to assess rodent behavior with reference and working memory. A wooden T maze apparatus was made which has a stem (50x16 cm), right arm and left arm (50x10 cm). The side walls are raised to 30 cm height4 (Fig: 2). Rats were exposed to T maze for 10 minutes then observed for side preference.

Radial arm maze: It is used to evaluate working memory. It consists of eight equally spaced arms from octagonal central platform. Each arm measures 50x12 cm extends from octagonal shaped central hub of 30 cm diameter. The platform is elevated 40 cm above the floor. Small food wells (3cm in diameter) were placed at the end of each arm (Fig:3). Rats were exposed for 10 min to observe how rats were using the spatial cues and working memory for choice of arm. Rearing, grooming, urination and fecal bolus count were also observed to assess the level of stress due to sleep deprivation method.

RESULTS
The scores were tabulated, mean and standard deviation was calculated using student t-test (Table 1.1) Significant increase (P< 0.05) in the time spent in left arm of T maze was observed in sleep deprived rats when compared with control group rats. In T maze rearing, grooming and fecal bolus count were also increased and urination was decreased in sleep deprived rats than control group (Table 1.2). In Radial arm maze, impairment in the memory level was observed by significant increase (P< 0.05) in the error scores of sleep deprived rats than control rats (Table 2).

DISCUSSION
In our study, we have found that 5 hours of sleep deprivation for 5 days produces various behavioral alterations linked with memory impairments. Sleep is a common feature of many sleep disorders in humans. For this reason effect of behavioral and memory performances were seen in animal models of interest2 . Sleep deprivation can have negative consequences on both the body and the mind interfering with physical energy and cognition. Memory loss is often associated with old age, but even young people may experience the cognitive impairment if they have sleep reduction. This study also correlates well with the report given by Health News Team (2011) which shows that adenosine reduction after sleep deprivation that could be due to the increased levels of nucleosides which might lead to decrease in memory loss and attention deficits. In our study, we have identified that sleep deprivation is a potent stressor inducing behavioral changes which is also similar to the findings of Shyamala et. al., (2012) reported that REM sleep deprivation enhanced the plasma corticosterone level. Increased level of lipid peroxidation was also reported with free radical induced neuronal damage, in thalamus and hypothalamus. The sleep deprivation performed by using flower pot method showed a significant increase in error scores of radial arm maze when compared with control group rats which indicates impairment in memory level which is also similar to the findings Shenghui Li, 2009, who reported that 48 hours of REM sleep deprived rats showed impairment in retention of acquired spatial reference memory in Morris water maze than control group. The impairment continuously existed even after 24 and 48 hours of release from sleep deprivation could be due to decrease in the levels of acetylcholine and synaptic connections in hippocampus, which mainly impairs spatial reference memory. This shows REM sleep is mainly required for memory consolidation (Chumin Zhu et. al., 2008). The increase in error scores in Radial arm maze also correlates well with the findings of Saha et. al.,2010, who explained that the alteration of memory and behavior could be due to decrease in level of melatonin which leads to increase in free radicals, a probable effect of sleep deprivation. Simultaneously, there was an increase in the time spent in left arm of T maze of sleep deprived rats showing inability to recognize the spatial cues which might be due to inactivation of Zif268 gene during sleep deprivation which inhibits consolidation of memory. (Carmel et. al., 2003). He also reported that sleep deprivation impaired performance on hippocampus – dependent spatial learning task, reduced neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons. He also explains that consolidation of memory was reduced due to inhibition of CA1 pyramidal neurons and dendate gyrus granule cell because of long term potentiation of synaptic strength inhibition.

CONCLUSION
Thus rats on exposed to sleep deprivation showed impairment in memory. Failure to acquire adequate sleep produces various changes in the development of memory due to several cellular and molecular level alterations inhibiting hippocampal functioning. But still the exact mechanism causing the alterations in memory remains unclear. Hence further studies involving molecular parameters might help in understanding the mechanism of memory impairment following sleep deprivation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are very much thankful to all the authors whom we have referred for this study.

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9. Chumin Zhu, Progressive paradoxical sleep deprivation impairs partial memory following learning tasks in rats

10. Robert M J Deacon and J Nicholas P Rawlins Tmaze alternation in the rodent, 27 June 2006; doi:10.1038/nprot.2006.2

11. Researchers Discover How Lack of Sleep May Cause Memory Loss By Health News Team• May 18th, 2011 • Category: Memory Problems, True Health News

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Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19


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