International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - Vol 06 Issue 22, November, 2014

Pages: 50-54

Date of Publication: 21-Nov-2014


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GROWING STOCK OF VARIOUS PURE CONIFER FOREST TYPES OF CENTRAL (GARHWAL) HIMALAYA, INDIA

Author: Suchita Dimri, Pratibha Baluni, Chandra Mohan Sharma

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:Objective: The Conifers forests cover an extensive area in Uttarakhand and provide variety of ecosystem services. The Present study was intended with an aim to assess the growing stock potential of the pure coniferous forest of Garhwal Himalaya. Methods: Five sample-plots of 0.1 ha were randomly laid out at five different sites in each forest type to estimate the Growing Stock Volume Density (GSVD) using appropriate volume tables and volume equations. Results and Conclusion: Abies pindrow forest was observed to possess the highest growing stock (988.3 m3/ha) followed by Cupressus torulosa (922.3 m3/ha). It is observed that conifers forests possess high stand volume and long rotation period hence promising as carbon sink therefore should be recommended for plantation silviculture alongwith special conservation protection to mature forests.

Keywords: Growing stock, Rotation period, Conifers, Standing volume

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
The terrestrial vegetation plays an important role within the global carbon cycle and hence the earth system, as it sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide and is thus able to mitigate global warming (Bonan, 2008). Biomass dynamics reflect the potential of vegetation to act as a carbon sink over the long term, as they integrate photosynthesis, autotrophic respiration and litter fall fluxes. The tons of forest biomass per unit volume of growing stock (GS) energize the ecosystems and can fuel economies (Kauppi et al., 2006). Forest biomass assessment for large areas across the globe are based on three main approaches: estimating using mean biomass densities (Ajtay, 1979); using field inventory of GS and biomass expansion factors (Lal and Singh, 2000) and spatial modelling approach in geographic information system using spatial databases of physiography, climatic, soil and forest distribution and models of biomass productivity (Iverson et al., 1994). Many factors act to alter forest biomass, including selective wood harvest, forest fragmentation, ground fires, shifting cultivation, browsing, grazing and accumulations of biomass in growing and recovering (or secondary) forests (Houghton, 2005) .The estimation of increment and felling of Standing volume has therefore assumed crucial, significance in estimating climate change. The growing stock(GS) volume, a key parameter in the context of forest resource management and global change issues, also referred to as stem volume or bole volume of living trees, represents the volume of the tree stems (including bark but excluding branches and stumps) for all living species per unit area (Santoro et al., 2011). The inter annual variability of carbon fluxes remains relatively unexplored (Wolf et al.,2011) mainly due to the absence of consistent spatial information on biomass (Bellassen et al., 2011). The Growing Stock Volume Density (GSVD) is a major predictor for assessing the above-ground biomass (Shvidenko et al., 2007) and is central for estimating compartment (Jenkins et al., 2003) or total above-ground biomass (Somogyi et al., 2008), which is a elementary variable for assessing the net carbon dioxide exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere. In Garhwal Himalaya conifers are main forest forming species which constitute about 1/3rd of total forested area and provide variety of ecosystem services. Conifers form a distinct group, which has become very important in world economy, because they grow fast on poor soil even under harsh climate and yield timber that is suitable for industries. Growing stock inventory is being done by the forest department but not species wise for pure forest types. The present study was therefore aimed to know the growing stock variation in the pure coniferous forest types of Garhwal Himalaya of Uttarakhand, India.The information on forest volume from forest inventory can provide us valuable information about stand biomass and carbon flux.

MATERIAL AND METHODS
Growing stock Estimation: General survey of the study area was carried out to identify and earmark different pure coniferous forest type’s viz., Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Cupressus torulosa, Picea smithiana, Pinus roxburghii, in different forest types of Garhwal. For quantitative analysis of forest vegetation, five sample plots of 0.1ha each were randomly laid out in each forest type (05 sample plots×05 forest types =25 plots). The volume of individual tree species for various sample plots was calculated on the basis of existing standard volume table or equations (FSI, 1996) given in Table 1. The volumetric estimation of the tree species have been done on the basis of standard volume tables/equations based on the Indian forest records, F.R.I., and F.S.I. publications of the respective species.

Study Area:
The state is located in North-West part of the country. Uttarakhand’s geographical area is 53,483 square km which constitutes 1.63% of the country’s total area (FSI, 2011). Garhwal Himalaya, which is situated in western part of the Central Himalaya encompasses biodiversity rich forests and is located between the latitudes 300 00.993’ to 300 03.764’ N and longitudes 790 9.724’ to 790 12.040’ E. The study area ranged from 1200-3100 m asl of altitude experiencing temperate type of climate with moderate to high snowfall from December to February. The precipitation effectiveness increases with elevation because of temperature and sunshine decline (Muller, 1982). The mean annual rainfall and snowfall in the study area ranged between 2731mm and 23 inches (at 1200 m asl) to 1745 mm and 170 inches (at 3100 m asl). The rainy season accounts for about three-quarters of the annual rainfall. Mean minimum monthly temperature ranged between 8o C (Jan) to 20.65o C (Jun) at 1200 asl and 2.68o C (Jan) to 9.30o C (Jun) at 3100 m asl. Whereas, maximum monthly temperature ranged between 20.0o C to 30.15o C at 1500 m asl and 7.45o C to 18.73o C at 3100 m asl. The soil type was basically brown- black forest soils and podozolic soils (Valdiya, 1980; Gairola, 2010).

RESULTS
The allocation of the standing volume in all five conifer forest types is shown in Table 2. Among all the conifer forest types studied Abies pindrow was observed to be possessing the maximum growing stock that is 988.3 m3 / ha followed by Cupressus torulosa that is 922.3 m3 /ha (Figure1). The maximum growing stock for Abies pindrow forest type was 1174.4m3 /ha recorded in Site IV, followed by1099.9 m3 /ha for Site V. The growing stock in Cedrus deodara forest cover type oscillated between 501.1 m3 /ha to 913.3 m3 /ha. For Cupressus torulosa forest cover type the highest GSVD 1834.6 m3 /ha was estimated in Site II. The growing stock in Picea smithiana and Pinus roxburghii forest cover type oscillated between 268.7 m3 /ha to 804.3 m3 /ha and 297.4 m3 /ha to 925.6 m3 /ha.

DISCUSSION
The estimation of stem volume and tree biomass is needed for both sustainable planning of forest resources and for studies on the energy and nutrients flows in ecosystems (Zianis et al., 2005). Walle et al., 2005 reviewed the potential role of biomass as an energy source and carbon stocks in the 21st century. The total growing stock of wood in India is estimated to be 6,098.23 million m3 compromising 4,498.66 million m3 inside forested area and 1599.57 million m3 outside recorded forest area (FSI, 2009).The total growing stock of forests of Uttarakhand is 481.006 million m3 (FSI, 2011). The growing stock values in the present study for various forest type was recorded as 998.30m3 /ha in Abies pindrow,922.2 m3 /ha in Cupressus torulosa, 755.8 m3 /ha in Cedrus deodara, 681.6 m3 /ha in Pinus roxburgii, 515.6 m3 /ha in Picea smithiana. Baduni (1996) has recorded values of growing for Abies pindrow as 239.66-389.95 m3 /ha in Pauri Garhwal whereas Gairola (2010) reported 272.87 m3 /ha for Mandal-Chopta forest. The higher volume in the present study is attributed to the more number of trees present in higher diameter classes and selection of less disturbed areas for study. Sharma et al. (2000) studied that there was the variation in growing stock of high Himalayan and Shiwalik Chir pine in different aspects and recorded maximum growing stock as 440 m3 /ha. The current need to assess changes in the forest carbon has arisen as a result of the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. Forest cover and forest structure provide additional important feedbacks on biophysical properties and processes like albedo and evapo-transpiration (Bonan, 2008). Thus, improving our knowledge about the state of the world’s forests is also important for understanding their influence on energy and water fluxes. Certain qualitative and quantitative parameters of the forest inventory such a tree diameter merchantable height of trees which are important for volume calculations cannot be measured for satellite imagery (Mahto, 2001). It is noted that satellite imageries obtained by remote sensing can only complement or improve and reduce field work but cannot replace it (Chaturvedi and Khanna, 1982).

The growing stock of a managed forest is lower than the growing stock of pristine forests due to application of thinning and clear cut management. The old and mature growth forests have high stand volume. During the ages from100 to 400 years, spruce forests have a high growing stock which will lead to higher average values in unmanaged forests (Kindermann et al., 2008). The significance of forest area is not sole indicator of forest development but growing stock and carbon storage can be considered equally important parameters (FAO, 2005). Stem volume does not determine the biomass of the foliage and roots, but it certainly has several build-in factors that affect the biomass of the tree components (e.g. water and nutrient supply, fertility, competition, moisture and length of growing season) (Makela et al., 1995).

CONCLUSIONS
Forests are the largest carbon pool on earth. They act as a major source and sinks of carbon in nature. Hence they have huge potential to form a chief component in the mitigation of global warming and adaptation to climate change. Estimation of the forest growing stock will enable us to assess the extent of loss of forest cover due to deforestation. The present study can form a basis for management, planning and decision making as forests are source of timber and NTFPs (FSI, 2011). As our study reports that Himalayan conifers have high growing stock potential it can be recommended for plantation silviculture hence playing a major role in curbing Global carbon emission.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors are thankful to University Grant Commission (UGC), New Delhi for providing financial support in form of research scholarship. Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed

CONFLICT OF INTERESTS The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
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A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
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A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
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A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
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A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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