International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, ResearchBib, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Advertisement

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 06 Issue 22, November, 2014

Pages: 42-46

Date of Publication: 21-Nov-2014


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

EVALUATING THE LEVEL OF ANXIETY AMONG PRE-OPERATIVE PATIENTS BEFORE ELECTIVE SURGERY AT SELECTED HOSPITALS IN KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

Author: Priya Gangadharan, Reemas Ali Mohemed Assiri, Feddah Ahemed Ali Assiri

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background: Patients who undergo surgery usually experience an intense level of anxiety in the pre-operative period. The objective of the study was to assess various levels of anxiety and find out its association with selected demographic variables. Methods: A Descriptive study was performed with 20 inpatients scheduled for elective surgery. Age ranged from 20 to 60 years. Demographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire. The measuring instrument to assess the patient's anxiety was State- Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
Results: Among the pre operative patients , majo rity had High anxiety ( 60%), 30% of them had moderate and only 10% had low anxiety before surgery. There was no difference in state and trait anxiety among patients. Women (45%) had higher baseline state and trait anxiety than men(15%). Selected demographic variables were associated with anxiety levels and found that marital status had significant association with various levels of anxiety (p< 0.05).
Conclusion: The STAI is a useful instrument to assess the level of patients' preoperative anxiety and the need for information. Measuring anxiety before any surgery helps the patient to alleviate their worries to some extent with the support of health care professionals.

Keywords: Anxiety; Pre-operative patients; Elective surgery; Level of Anxiety

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
Many patients experience substantial anxiety before operation and this is reported to affect 60–80% of surgical patients. Anxiety also increases the requirement of anesthetic drugs to produce unconsciousness and therefore may indirectly increase the risk of awareness. This feeling remains common today despite advances in medicine and surgical techniques. It is the responsibility of healthcare professionals to ensure that any patient undergoing an elective surgical procedure is both physically and psychologically prepared. However, with increasing demands on the health service to be more efficient, little time is set aside to meet the psychological needs of the surgical patient. Anxiety may also worsen patients’ perception of pain and increase requirements for postoperative analgesia. Anxiety may decrease patients’ overall satisfaction with peri operative care. Reducing preoperative anxiety may improve surgical outcome, shorten hospital stay, and minimize lifestyle disruption.(1) Since the early days of surgery patients have been anxious about undergoing operations. This feeling remains common today despite advances in medicine and surgical techniques. It is the responsibility of healthcare professionals to ensure that any patient undergoing an elective surgical procedure is both physically and psychologically prepared.(2). Patients coming into hospital can suffer a great deal of anxiety who undergo surgery experience acute psychological distress in the pre-operative period. These fears manifest themselves as uncertainty, loss of control and decreased self-esteem, anticipation of postoperative pain, and fear of separation from family (3).

An aversive hospital environment may increase anxiety and negatively influence health outcomes also increased preoperative anxiety is associated with poor postoperative behavioral and clinical recovery. Some degree of anxiety is a natural reaction to the unpredictable and potentially threatening circumstances typical of the preoperative period, especially for the patient’s first few surgical experiences. (8) and (20). High levels of pre- operative anxiety have un favorable effects on induction and maintenance of anesthesia as well as on the recovery from anesthesia and surgery. (9) Surgery is commonly regarded as a psychologically stressful experience that requires appraisal and coping responses. Stress occurs when a situation has appraised as demanding and as having the potential to exceed coping resources. (10) Objectives: • To assess various levels of anxiety among pre-operative patients. • To find out the association between anxiety and the selected demographic variables.

Study Design:
Descriptive Design was adopted for the study. Hypotheses:

1. Patients who undergo any surgical procedure may have increased level of anxiety

2. There may be significant association between level of anxiety and selected demographic variables.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Designs and settings: The research design used for the study was Descriptive design. The setting consisted of the male and female preoperative wards of Muhyl General Hospital, Regal Alma, and Magarda Ministry Hospitals. The study was conducted from 14th March 2013 to 15th April 2013. Samples: The samples were selected by using Convenient sampling technique. Patient who had history of Psychiatric disorders and Neurological problems were excluded. The total number of samples were 20. Patients age ranged between 20 and 60 years. The proportion of the Male and female samples were 40% and 60% respectively. Majority (80%) of the samples were married and 65% of them had previous surgical history. Instruments: 1. Tool I: This tool consists of background information of patients on selected items include Age, sex, marital status and previous history of surgery. 2. Tool II: State Trait anxiety inventory (STAI) The STAI-state (STAI-S) form consists of 20 statements, and the answers to these are used to determine a patient’s current anxiety level; the STAI-trait (STAI-T) form consists of a different set of 20 statements, and the answers to these are used to determine a patient’s underlying anxiety level. Each statement in the STAI-S is rated on a four-point scale for the subject’s agreement with that statement (not at all, somewhat, moderately so, and very much so). Statements in the STAI-T are also rated on a four-point scale (almost never, sometimes, often, and almost always). This form was used for each participant on entering the study . The overall (total) score for STAI ranges from a minimum of 20 to a maximum of 80; STAI scores are commonly classified as ‘no or low anxiety’ (20–37), ‘moderate anxiety’ (38–44), and ‘high anxiety’ (45–80) (H. A. Jlala, et al ). Ethical Considerations and Human Rights The Research proposal was approved by the ethics committee of the College and hospital authorities. Patients were well informed about the purpose of this research and their rights to withdraw or refuse at any time during the study period. Also ensured them about the confidentiality of the obtained information. Statistical Analysis The data gathered through different techniques has been compiled by adopting suitable statistical methods. After categorization, the data frequencies were computed for demographic variables to decide the distribution prototype of patients into each level.. Similarly frequencies were calculated for level of anxiety among the patients. The distribution pattern is depicted through appropriate graphical methods. The results are inferred through statistical techniques like Descriptive and Inferential Statistical methods like Mean, SD and ‘Chi’-square test ( used to find out the association between anxiety and selected demographic variables like age, sex, marital status and past history of surgery). Results Table 1 presents ,the pre - operative patient’s anxiety levels and its associations with selected demographic variables such as age, sex, marital status and patients history of previous surgeries were measured and the findings drawn accordingly. The data mentioned in Table 2 shows that, a high level of anxiety was found in married patients (55%) while the single status presented a similar level of high and moderate anxiety (5%). Also the moderate anxiety among married patients were 25% but none of them had low anxiety. But 10% of unmarried patients showed low level of anxiety. Data shows statistically significant association between level of anxiety and Marital status (p = 0.011). As shown in Table 3, among the 20 pre-operative patients, majority of patients (35%) underwent surgery for Hernia , 30% had Gastro intestinal surgery while orthopedic and Hepato- biliary surgeries were 20% and 15% respectively. There was no difference in state and trait anxiety among patients. Women (45%) had higher baseline state and trait anxiety than men (15%). Regarding the level of anxiety among the patients , majority had High anxiety ( 60%), 30% of them had moderate and only 10% had low anxiety before surgery (Fig.1) The prevalence of high anxiety in the age group 20- 29 years was 20% while only 10% had low anxiety. In the age group 30-39 years, the high and moderate anxiety were equal (15%).The high and moderate anxiety among the age group of 40 -50 years were 20% and 15% respectively. None of the patient belongs to the age group of 50-59 years had moderate and level of low anxiety while 5% of them had high level of anxiety (Fig 2 ). Discussion Operations can restore health and even save life, but it is normal to feel a bit anxious about “going under the knife”, especially the day or two beforehand, which are often spent in the hospital preparing for the operation. (6) Anxiety may cause physical symptoms such as a pounding or racing heart, an irregular pulse, nausea and sleeplessness. These symptoms can sometimes end up causing more anxiety, because they may be wrongly interpreted as a sign that the illness is getting worse.(7) Preoperative anxiety is a common phenomenon among indoor surgical patients. A lot can be done to alleviate this anxiety by improving doctor-patient communication. Better doctor-patient communication which involves information sharing about the surgical procedure, patient satisfaction, attention to queries by the patient and trust in the physician was associated with lower anxiety levels. (10) Change of environment, waiting time of surgery, postoperative pain, fear of one’s life, nil per mouth, blood transfusion, fear of unknown, getting stuck with needles and awareness during surgery were the significant factors responsible for increase preoperative anxiety in women as compared to males.(12) Effective communication is the cornerstone of good healthcare yet it can be a difficult skill to master. Poor communication can have serious consequences for patients and cause irreparable damage to the nurse-patient relationship. Nurses can use communication skills to help reassure patients before surgery.(17) The present study examines the various levels of anxiety among patients before surgery and its association on some of the selected variables. The prevalence of high anxiety in the age group 20- 29 years was 20% while only 10% had low anxiety. In the age group 30-39 years, the high and moderate anxiety were equal (15%).The high and moderate anxiety among the age group of 40 -50 years were 20% and 15% respectively. The patient belong to the age group of 50- 59 years lacks moderate and low anxiety while only 5% had high anxiety. Among the pre operative patients , majority (60%) had High anxiety,30% of them had moderate and only 10% had low anxiety before surgery. There were limitations in the present study: i. More research can be conducted on specific interventions to reduce pre operative anxiety and assess its effectiveness post operatively. ii. Sample size of the present study is limited to 20. iii. In this research we administered one measurement scale ie, STAI , and it would be better if applied more instruments to determine the accurate scale.

CONCLUSION
The present research investigated various types of anxieties a patient would undergo before any surgical procedure. The study highlighted the association between anxiety and selected demographic variables. More research is required to find out the specific strategies or interventions to alleviate anxiety before surgery.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors would like to express their gratitude towards Department of Nursing,College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid university, Mohyl and Hospital management for their constant support encouragement for the successful completion of the study and utilizing the facilities. Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed. They are also thankful to the subjects of this study for their valuable participation. Authors also grateful to IJCRR editorial team and reviewers to bring quality of this manuscript.

References:

1. Pritchard M. Measuring anxiety in surgical patients using a visual analogue scale. Nurs Stan 2010 Nov 17; 25 (11): 40-4

2. Vadla D, Bozikov J, Blazekovi?-Milakovi? S, Kovaci? L. Anxiety and depression in elderly-prevalence and association with health care. LLijec Vjesn. 2013 MayJun;135(5-6):134-8.

3. Kain ZN, Mayes LC, Caldwell-Andrews AA, Karas DE, McClain BC. Preoperative anxiety, postoperative pain, and behavioral recovery in young children undergoing surgery. Pediatrics.2006 Aug;118(2):651-8.

4. Laufenberg Feldmann R, Kappis B Assessing preoperative anxiety using a questionnaire and clinical rating: A prospective observational study. Eur J Anaesthesiol.2013 Dec; 30(12):758-63.

5. Timothy M. Osborn and Noah A. Sandler. The effect of anxiety on intravenous sedation Anesth Prog 2004;51(2): 46–51

6. Jawaid M, Mushtaq A, Mukhtar S, Khan Z. Preoperative anxiety before elective surgery. Neurosciences 2007;12 (2).

7. L. Ebirim, M Tobin, Factors responsible for Pre-operative anxiety in Elective surgical patients at a university teaching hospital : A pilot study. The internet journal of Anesthesiology 2010; 29 (2).

8. Marsha L. Harbin. A comparative study of the effects of environment on preoperative anxiety and pain level and postoperative outcomes of an outpatient population. Dissertation Abstracts International 2007 ; 67-11: 6298.

9. Wang SM , Kulkarni L, Dolev J, Kain ZN. Music and preoperative anxiety: a randomized, controlled study. Anesth Analg 2002 Jun;94(6):1489-94

10. Vandana B. Nikumb, Amitav Banerjee, Gurleen Kaur, and Suprakash Chaudhury. Impact of doctor-patient communication on preoperative anxiety: Study at industrial township. Ind Psychiatry J. 2009 Jan-Jun; 18(1): 19–21.

11. Guo P, East L, Arthur A. A preoperative education intervention to reduce anxiety and improve recovery among Chinese cardiac patients: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Nurs Stud 2012 Feb; 49(2) :129-37.

12. Zubia Masood, Jahanzaib Haider, Masood Jawaid, Shams Nadeem Alam. Preoperative anxiety in female patients: The issue needs to be addressed. KUST Med J 2009; 1(2): 38-41

13. Wetsch WA, Pircher I, Lederer W, Kinzl JF, Traweger C, Heinz-Erian P, Benzer A.Preoperative stress and anxiety in day-care patients and in patients undergoing fast-track surgery. Br J Anaesth 2009 Aug;103(2):199-205.

14. Pritchard MJ. Managing anxiety in the elective surgical patient. Br J Nurs 2009 Apr;18(7):416-9.

15. Alvisa Palese, Marta Cecconi, Renzo Moreale and Miran Skrap. Pre-operative Stress, Anxiety, Depression and Coping Strategies Adopted by Patients Experiencing Their First or Recurrent Brain Neoplasm: An Explorative Study. Stress and Health. 2012 Nov;28(5) :416–425.

16. Mitchell M. Patient anxiety and modern elective surgery: a literature review. J Clin Nurs. 2003 Nov;12(6):806-15.

17. Pritchard MJ. Reducing anxiety in the elective surgical patient. Nursing times.net 2011

18. Kruzik N. Benefits of preoperative education for adult elective surgery patients. AORN J. 2009 Sep; 90(3):381-7.

19. H. A. Jlala1, J. L. French, G. L. Foxall, J. G. Hardman and N. M. Bedforth. Effect of preoperative multimedia information on perioperative anxiety in patients undergoing procedures under regional anaesthesia . Br J Anaesth 2010 Feb; 104 (3): 369–74

20. Harbin, Marsha L.A comparative study of the effects of environment on preoperative anxiety and pain levels and postoperative outcomes in an outpatient population (dissertation).Capella University; 2007


Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
Hacked By Idamane Ayang img { opacity: 0.6; }
Hacked By Idamane Ayang



Batin Tak Kuatke Ngo Ngempet Larane Mergo Aku Tresno Kowe

contact me: westaukelaran404@protonmail.com

Kelelawar Cyber Team - Pancasila Cyber Team - Jombang Hacker Crew - Padang Black Hat - Jawa Timur Cyber Team - Cidro Xploit - Ponorogo1337 - Ponorogo Black Hat - Ponorogo Cyber Team - Jawa6etar - Ponorogo Hacker Team



List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2022 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions