International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 06 Issue 22, November, 2014

Pages: 39-41

Date of Publication: 21-Nov-2014


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MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF HUMAN CADAVERIC LUNGS

Author: Hina Sharma, K. Prabhakaran, L. K. Jain

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: Human lung, both right as well as left shows lot of variations in their length, breadth, thickness from person to person. Even the fissures and lobes in both the lungs show a variety of variations as shown by previous workers1-7. Apart from studying the variations of fissures and lobes in this study we have measured the length, breadth and thickness of both right and left Lungs and we have also measured the length and depth of transverse and oblique fissures of both the lungs right and left. Such measurements have not been done previously. Aims and objectives: To study the normal length, breadth and thickness of both, right and left lungs and also to study the variations in the length, breadth and thickness, of both right and left lungs and finally to study the normal fissures, lobes and their variations, of both right and left lungs. Materials and Methods: 13 Right and 14 left lungs obtained from embalmed cadavers, used for dissection in the Anatomy department, as a part of 1st year MBBS curriculum, of Geetanjali medical college and Hospital, Udaipur, formed the material for the current study.
Results: The left lung shows maximum variations of fissures in that they show an extra transverse fissure which is normally absent in the left lung. Out of 14 left lungs 5 of them that is 35.71%. Out of 14 left lungs 2 of them that is, 14.28% showed absence of oblique fissures. In case of right lungs out 13 only one of them that is, 7.69% showed absence of transverse fissures. Average measurements (length, breadth, thickness) of Right and left lungs have been measured.

Keywords: Lungs, Fissures, Variations

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
Human lung, both right as well as left shows lot of variations in their length, breadth, thickness from person to person. Even the fissures and lobes in both the lungs show a variety of variations as shown by previous workers1-7 Apart from studying the variations of fissures and lobes in this study we have measured the length, breadth and thickness of both right and left Lungs and we have also measured the length and depth of transverse and oblique fissures of both the lungs right and left. Such measurements have not been done previously. Since surgeries on lung like lobectomy and other procedures like bronchoscopy, requires a thorough knowledge of normal measurements of lungs, their fissures and their variations , which prevents undue complications during surgery, this study was undertaken. Also a thorough knowledge of the variations helps us to understand the development of lungs including their molecular regulations better. Aims and objectives: 1. To study the normal length, breadth and thickness of both, right and left lungs. 2. To study the variations in the length, breadth and thickness, of both right left lungs. 3. To study the normal fissures, lobes and their variations, of both right and left lungs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
13 Right and 14 left lungs obtained from embalmed cadavers, used for dissection in the Anatomy department, as a part of 1st year MBBS curriculum, of Geetanjali medical college and Hospital, Udaipur, formed the material for the current study Each lung was washed with water and carefully measured using a thread and flexible measuring tape (Fig1). Length, breadth, thickness of both right and left lungs were measured and recorded. So also the length of fissures (both horizontal and oblique fissures in case of right lung and oblique fissure in case of left lung), their depth were measured and recorded. Any unusual or rare variations were photographed using a digital camera (Fig 2). So obtained measurements were subjected to statistical analysis to obtain the mean values which would be of importance for cardiothoracic surgeons and pulmonologists.

Variations in the length, breadth and thickness:
 The mean length (vertical) of right lung was 21.60 - + 4.13, the longest of them all measured 29.4cm and shortest measured 15cm (table no.1)

The mean breadth (transverse) of right lung was 8.96 - + 1.24, the broadest of them all measured 11.4cm and narrowest measured 7.3cm (table no.1) The mean thickness (Antero-posterior) of right lung was 15.3 - + 2.71, the thickest of them all measured 22.2cm and thinnest measured 10.6cm (table no.1) The mean length (vertical) of left lung was 21.28 - + 3.36, the longest of them all measured 25.9cm and shortest measured 15cm (table no.1) The mean breadth (transverse) of left lung was 7.20 - + 1.46, the broadest of them all measured 10cm and narrowest measured 5cm (table no.1) The mean thickness (Antero-posterior) of left lung was 11.50 - + 2.68, the thickest of them all measured 16.8cm and thinnest measured 7.5cm (table no.1)

Variations in the fissures and lobes:
5 left lungs showed transverse fissures (Fig 2), their details are given in table no.2 2 left lungs showed absence of oblique fissures. 1 right lung showed absence of transverse fissures. Measurements of fissures of both left and right lungs are given in table no.2 and table no.3


DISCUSSION
We have seen that the left lung shows maximum variations of fissures in that they show an extra transverse fissure which is normally absent in the left lung. Out of 14 left lungs, 5 of them that is 35.71% of left lung showed transverse fissures where as a previous study has shown only 8% 2 . Out of 14 left lungs, 2 of them that is 14.28%, showed absence of oblique fissures where as a previous study has shown only 3.6%1 .Yet another study showed only 10.7% 4 . In case of right lungs out 13, only one of them, that is 7.69% showed absence of transverse fissure where as previous studies have shown 18.7%1 and 7.1% 4 . Apart from studying the variations of fissures and lobes in this study we have measured the length, breadth and thickness of both right and left Lungs (table no. 1) and We have also measured the length and depth of transverse and oblique fissures of both the lungs right and left ( table no. 2 and 3). Such measurements have not been done previously. Knowledge of normal measurements of lungs, their fissures and their variations helps cardiothoracic surgeons to avoid undue complications during surgery. Also it helps radiologist to make accurate diagnosis in case of lung pathologies.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Average measurements (length, breadth, thickness) of Right and left lungs have been measured. Left lung and right lung show variations in their length, breadth and thickness. They also show variations in appearance (presence/absence) and measurements of fissures. Left lung shows maximum variations in both transverse and oblique fissures. Knowledge of normal measurements of lungs their fissures and their variations helps cardiothoracic surgeons to avoid undue complications during surgery. Also it helps radiologist to make accurate diagnosis in case of lung pathologies.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The Authors are also grateful to Authors/Editors/publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

References:

1. Murlimanju BV, Prabhu LV, Shilpa K, Pai MM, Kumar CG, Rai A, Prashanth KU. Pulmonary fissures and lobes: a cadaveric study with emphasis on surgical and radiological implications. Clin Ter. 2012; 163(1):9-13.

2. Hemanová Z, Ctvrtlík F, He?man M. Incomplete and accessory fissures of the lung evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography. Eur J Radiol. 2014 Mar;83(3):595-9

3. Sreenivasulu K, Anilkumar P, Gaiqwad MR. Morphological anatomy of accessory fissures in lungs. Indian J Tuberc. 2012 Jan;59(1):28-31.

4. Prakash, Bhardwaj AK, Shashirekha M, Suma HY, Krishna GG, Singh G. Lung morphology: a cadaver study in Indian population. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2010;115(3):235-40.

5. Ugalde P, Camargo Jde J, Deslauriers J. Lobes, fissures, and bronchopulmonary segments. Thorac Surg Clin. 2007 Nov;17(4):587-99.

6. Meenakshi S, Manjunath KY, Balasubramanyam V. Morphological variations of the lung fissures and lobes. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2004 Jul-Sep;46(3):179-82.

7. Aldur MM, Denk CC, Celik HH, Tasçioglu AB. An accessory fissure in the lower lobe of the right lung. Morphologie. 1997 Mar;81(252):5-7.

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A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
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A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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