International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, ResearchBib, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, BOAI, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, e-Print, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg, SciPeople.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Readers around the world

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 07 Issue 07, April, 2015

Pages: 28-31

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

Imprint Cytology: A Reliable Alternative to Frozen Section

Author: Prashant Sharma, Arshi Syed J.

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background: There are instances when either we do not perform pre-operative biopsy due to the fear of spread of malignancy, or needle aspiration cytology is inconclusive. During surgical exploration for a benign pathology if surgeons find suspicious lesions, per-operative cytological diagnosis becomes important to rule out malignancy. The frozen section facility is available only at few large volume centres. So there is always a need for an easy and cheap alternative to frozen section that can help surgeons at low volume centres as well. Aim: Aim of the study was to assess the reliability of imprint cytology in per-operative (immediate) diagnosis of malignancy. Material and methods: The present study was a prospective analysis of 69 specimens from suspected or diagnosed cancer patients that were sent for per-operative (or urgent) imprint cytology (IC) from July 2012 to Feb. 2014, at surgical oncology unit of our institute. All the specimens were then subjected to paraffin section (PS) and final reports were compared. Results: Out of 69 specimens 61 were found to be malignant, and five were found to be benign by both IC and PS. In all such situations IC helped us a lot in decision making regarding change in treatment plan further. The sensitivity and specificity of imprint
cytology were 96.8 % and 83.3% respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) of IC was 98.3 %.
Conclusions:
The imprint cytology is a cheap and reliable method for per-operative diagnosis of malignancy. It can be used for per-operative confirmation of parathyroid glands before auto-implantation.

Keywords: Frozen section, Imprint cytology, Per-operative cytology, Touch cytology

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

For past many years it has become a trend to have definitive diagnosis before surgery, as it helps in surgical planning, planning of neo-adjuvant therapy and in patient counselling. This practice has decreased the numbers of surgical explorations. Surgeons feel difficulty in planning out the extent of resection of lesion whenever initial tissue diagnosis is not available. Still there are instances when we do not perform pre-operative biopsy or cytology due to the fear of capsular rupture, needle tract seedling or spread of malignancy. Sometimes fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or needle biopsy is inconclusive and we have to take surgical (excision) biopsy, and then plan the definitive procedure after biopsy report, thus making it a 2 stage procedure. Many times during surgical exploration for a benign pathology if surgeons find suspicious lesions, per-operative cytological diagnosis becomes important to rule out malignancy, as this may change the intra-operative surgical plan further. Since a long time frozen section (FS) and imprint cytology (IC) are considered as two methods of per-operative cytological diagnosis. After popularity of frozen section in practice, pathologists have given up interest towards imprint cytology. The frozen section facility is available only at few centres in India as compared to large number of hospitals and patients. So there is always a need for an easy and cheap alternative to frozen section that can help surgeons at low volume centres as well. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of imprint cytology in per-operative (immediate) diagnosis of malignancy.

Material and methods

The present study was a prospective analysis of 69 specimens from suspected or diagnosed cancer patients that were sent for per-operative (or urgent) imprint cytology from July 2012 to Feb. 2014, at surgical oncology unit of our institute. In all these situations it was important to confirm (or to rule out) malignancy, as this would make a major difference in treatment plan or extent of resection or in initiating a specific treatment. At our hospital we did not have facility for frozen section. Many times we felt difficulty in decision making where per-operative cytological diagnosis was needed. So we started doing imprint cytology as an alternative to frozen section based on previous literature, along with systematic recording of data. Slides were either made in operation theatre or fresh adequate tissue samples were taken and wrapped in saline soaked cotton gauss pieces and, sent to pathology laboratory for urgent imprint cytology. The imprint cytology slides were then prepared in pathology lab by standard technique, fixed and stained. The reporting was done by a senior pathologist who was expert in cytological diagnosis of malignancy. All the specimens were then subjected to paraffin section (PS) and final reports were compared.

Results

The results are shown in table 1. From various surgical explorations (or excision biopsies) suspicious 12 metastatic nodules, six breast lumps, two encapsulated ovarian masses and 14 lymph nodes (including celiac, pelvic or para-aortic lymph nodes) were examined and all found to be positive by IC and PS as well. In all such situations IC helped us a lot in per-operative decision making. The sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology were 96.8 % and 83.3% respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) of IC was 98.3 %. The average time taken in reporting was 23 minutes. The only false positive result of IC was a specimen of lower uterine fibroid protruding out of cervix with surface erosions. It was giving appearance of defined cervical cancerous mass clinically (including imaging), but showing only dysplasia in cervical biopsy. We did radical hysterectomy and send specimen for imprint cytology to rule out malignancy in cervical mass before pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). The IC reported it as malignant and we did bilateral PLND. Later on in final PS report it was found to be a uterine fibroid with surface dysplasia, all nodes negative. Now let me discuss with you the two false negative cases. There was a confirmed case of carcinoma cervix, confined to cervix only in imaging, opened for radical hysterectomy. On exploration there was a significantly large, hard, round right pelvic lymph node (LN), which was sent for imprint cytology. The IC reported it as granulomatous disease and we proceeded to radical hysterectomy. The LN was finally found to harbour metastatic cancer. The second false negative report was from a per-operative biopsy of stomach suspicious of linitus plastica. Multiple endoscopic biopsies were negative for malignancy, but clinically patient was not improving and CT (computed tomography) scan was constantly showing a diffuse wall thickening. Surgery with per-operative cytology was planned. The tumour was inoperable on exploration, as it was infiltrating into porta and transverse mesocolon. A small full thickness stomach wall biopsy was taken and sent for IC, which was negative for malignancy. We took a large full thickness biopsy and based on clinical judgement closed the abdomen. Finally both showed carcinoma stomach. In a known case of laryngeal malignancy, ‘wide field laryngectomy’ surgery was planned. During surgery all four parathyroid glands were isolated and cut. One fourth part of each was sent for confirmation by IC. In the report three were normal parathyroids (auto-implanted) and one was found to be metastatic LN (discarded), which were confirmed by final PS. The sub typing of malignancy (although it was not a predecided criterion to report) was given in 22 IC reports, but it was changed finally in nine patients. This makes IC unreliable for diagnosis of specific subtype (PPV 59 % only).

Discussion

Imprint cytology (IC) and frozen section (FS) are renowned techniques of per-operative cytology and the diagnostic accuracy of both is comparable. Liu et al have investigated the utility of intraoperative touch preparation with comparison of frozen section in 122 cases. The rate of correct diagnosis for touch preparation was 88.5% as compared to 86.1% for frozen section. The rate of incorrect diagnosis for touch preparation was 4.1% as compared to 2.5% for frozen.[1] Scucchi et al compared 2,250 intraoperative cytology with frozen section with the final diagnosis achieved on paraffin sections. The diagnostic accuracy of each technique alone was 94.9%. For frozen section the sensitivity was 89.9% and specificity 97.9% as compared to the touch cytology, which had a sensitivity of 94.9%, and specificity of 96.8%.[2] Guarda et al carried out a comparative study of the two techniques and found the accuracy of cytology and frozen section 98.4% and 99.2% respectively.[3]

The greatest advantage of IC examination is of not having artifacts, resulting in superb nuclear and cytological details.[1] IC provides better and crisp cellular morphological details and even some tissue architecture.[4] Very small fragments of tissue provide sufficient cells for IC, but difficult to process and report on FS. The diagnosis of very small lesions is therefore facilitated and tissue is saved for permanent section.[5] Certain tissues that cannot be studied by frozen section i.e. bone, necrotic tissue and fat etc. give accurate results on touch preparations.[1] IC was found to be more valuable in the field of neuro-pathology, lymph node and most of the epithelial tumours.[3] Parathyroid glands are correctly identified by IC, slightly more sensitive than FS.[5] Used intraoperatively, the imprint method can provide valuable information when frozen-section interpretation is equivocal. IC is particularly valuable in the diagnosis of certain neoplastic lesions which can simulate inflammatory lesions on FS eg. Well differentiated Pancreatic cancer, metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma in LN (can be mistaken for reactive sinus histiocytosis on FS). Certain benign inflammatory lesions can simulate malignancy on FS e.g. Organizing pneumonia (anaplastic carcinoma), intense sinus histiocytosis (can simulate metastatic carcinoma) that can be diagnosed with IC.[5] Well-differentiated tumours and tumours with a dense fibrous stroma cannot be diagnosed by imprint cytology method.[5] On the other hand Frozen Sections provided more tissue architectural details. It is well recognized, however, that the freezing and sectioning techniques of frozen section results in unavoidable distortions and artifacts, rendering diagnosis difficult in many instances.[1] The diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions by combined procedures was 100%. There were no false positive or false negative cases.[4] To increase diagnostic accuracy many people recommend the combined use of imprints and frozen sections.[5] For diagnosing specific subtypes of malignancy, the diagnostic accuracy of each method alone was 96.6% with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 100% and the combined sensitivity 90%. The benefit of frozen section is that the tissue architecture closely approximates permanent histology sections.[4] By virtue of our experience from this study, we would like to emphasize upon these few points:-

1. Imprint cytology is a reliable method to rule out malignancy in a short time. It may help surgeons to make changes in the previously made treatment plan. The confirmation of malignancy can help an oncologist to start therapy earlier without waiting for the results of final biopsy

. 2. This method can be used to find out adequacy of biopsy specimen. Many times we are not sure while taking core biopsies (may be sonography or CT guided) that correct specimen is retrieved or not. Immediate imprint cytology from biopsy specimen will tell us that the tissue contains viable tumour, necrosed tissue or normal tissue. If the biopsy is not representative of disease we can take more samples immediately, hence to save time, patients’ comfort and cost.

3. The imprint cytology can differentiate between a normal parathyroid gland and a lymph node with or without metastasis. This may help head and neck surgeons in per-operative confirmation of normal parathyroid glands before using them for auto-implantation. Now days, it is highly emphasised not to implant parathyroid glands without histological confirmation.

4. The imprint cytology is not a reliable investigation for sub-typing of cancer. It cannot differentiate between the grades of differentiation from well to poorly differentiated cancers. Its reliability on differentiating lung cancer into various subtypes like small cell, squamous cell or adenocarcinoma is not acceptable. Also it can’t differentiate among various grades of dysplasia and early invasive cancer. This limitation should always be kept in mind. 5. Frozen section needs a good cryostat and other specialized materials along with experienced pathologist and technician. The cost of the setup ranges from Rupees 4 lac to 20 lac. There are problems regarding maintaining low temperature in the range of minus 15 to 20 0 centigrade (sometimes even lower) with the cheaper cryostats along with issues regarding wastage of precious sample and poor quality of slides with cheaper devices. To make frozen section cost effective a centre should have at least 5 specimens for frozen section per day. This is the basic reason why frozen section is not available in majority of the hospitals even in big cities.

Conclusion

Imprint cytology is a cheap and reliable method for peroperative diagnosis of malignancy, and can be used in place of frozen section, where such facility is not available. It can be used for per-operative confirmation of parathyroid glands before auto-implantation. Acknowledgement Authors acknowledge the support of head of the departments of general surgery, pathology and anaesthesia. Authors also acknowledge the support of nursing staff and technical staff who were involved in the process of sampling, preparation, transportation, staining and other works. Authors also acknowledge all the patients who gave consent and supported for this study. Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors/ editors/publishers of all those articles and journals from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

References:

1. Ahmareen Khalid and Anwar Ul. Touch Impression Cytology Versus Frozen Section as Intraoperative Consultation Diagnosis. International Journal of Pathology; 2004; 2(2):63-70.

2. Liu Y, Silverman JF, Sturgis CD, Brown HG, Dabbs DJ, Raab SS.: Utility of intraoperative consultation touch preparations. Diagn Cytopathol 2002 May;26(5):329-33.

3. Scucchi LF, Stefano DD, Cosentino L and Vecchione A: Value of cytology as an adjunctive intra operative diagnostic method. An audit of 2250 consecutive cases. Actacytological, September –October 1997;Volume 41.No.5:p1489-96.

4. Guarda LA: Intraoperative cytologic diagnosis: Evaluation of 370 consecutive intraoperative cytologies.Diagn Cytopathol.1990;Volume 6 (no.5):p304-7.

5. KC Suen, WS Wood, A A Syed, NF Quenville, and PB Clement. Role of imprint cytology in intraoperative diagnosis: value and limitations. J Clin Pathol. 1978 April; 31(4): 328-337.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

SCOPUS (2014, 2019, 2020, 2021 (Till June) currently under re-evaluation)

COPE guidelines for Reviewers


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2021 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions