International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, ResearchBib, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, BOAI, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, e-Print, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg, SciPeople.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Readers around the world

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 07 Issue 07, April, 2015

Pages: 01-05

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CARDIAC FUNCTIONS IN TOBACCO SMOKERS AND NON SMOKERS AMONG ADULT MALES IN AND AROUND SULLIA

Author: Anandkumar, Shilpa Patil, Shobith Bangera, Urban D. Souza

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the common cause of Hypertension. Hence the present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of smoking on cardiac functions among healthy individuals as the previous studies done have conflicting results. Objectives: To evaluate the cardiac functions among smokers and non smokers in Sullia Methods: The present study was carried out on 100 apparently healthy male subjects included 50 smokers (study group) and 50 non \? smokers (control group) in the age group of 18 to 30 years. Cardiac parameters were compared between smokers and non-smokers. Stastistical analyses was performed using student's t-test for 2 group comparisons. Results: In this study the effect of smoking on cardiac parameters like Resting Heart Rate(RHR), Diastolic Blood Pressure(DBP) and on Mean Blood Pressure(MBP) is negligible except on Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) in which there is statistically significant decrease in blood pressure in smokers compared to non smokers. Conclusion: There was significant decrease in Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) among smokers compared to non-smokers.In the present study Blood Pressure(BP) levels in smokers was rarely recorded during or immediately after smoking when acute rises in BP occur due to nicotine induced adrenergic drive, therefore BP levels of smokers tend to be systematically underestimated. The acute rise in BP may be followed by reduction due to body's homeostatic mechanism to maintain BP which may be attributed to rebound phenomenon and the adaptation process. Futher study has to be conducted between young and old age smokers with large sample size taking into consideration the time of sampling i.e taking the readings immediately after smoking.

Keywords: RHR, DBP, SBP, MBP

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Cigarette smoking constitutes one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality to mankind. According to WHO estimation, 194 million men and 45 million women use tobacco in smoke or smokeless form in India.1 The WHO predicts that tobacco deaths in India may exceed 1.5 million annually by 2020.2 Cessation of smoking reduces risk of diseases caused by it.3 Non optimal levels of blood pressure (BP) and smoking are the first and second most common causes of death in the world, and, together, these two risk factors account for more than 20% of the global burden of premature death.4 Smoking is the most prevalent and most preventable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Smoking results in a twofold increase in the risk of coronary artery disease and is responsible for one-fifth of all cardiovascular deaths and increases the risk of heart failure threefold.5 The two most toxic constituents of cigarette smoke are nicotine and carbon monoxide; however, cigarette smoke contains about 2000 additional toxic components. Cigarette smoke exerts the most marked detrimental effects on the endothelial system and especially on the coronary endothelial system.6 Nicotine acts as an adrenergic agonist, mediating local and systemic catecholamine release and possibly the release of vasopressin.7 Thus smoking causes an acute increase in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate and has been found to be associated with malignant hypertension8 Paradoxically, several epidemiological studies have found that BP levels among cigarette smokers were the same as or lower than those of non-smokers.4 Active smokers can display BP values which vary widely according to a great number of individual, racial, lifestyle factors and also the time of sampling after smoking episode. While a smoker is actively smoking, transiently sympathetic responses, which acutely raise BP levels, usually occur due to kick induced by smoking.Reports emphasize that hypertension or hypotension can be associated with cigarette smoking in active smokers .9 In particular, increased BP10 and smoking11 are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Previous studies have indicated that smoking and increased BP interact to increase markers of cardiovascular risk, including levels of plasma fibrinogen12 and carotid intima-media thickness.13 Hence, a combination of raised BP and smoking may have a synergistic impact on cardiovascular events, especially those caused by atherosclerosis and thrombosis.14 If such an interaction exists, multifactorial interventions aimed at both lowering BP and quitting smoking will contribute more to reducing CVD than expected and hence contribute to less mortality and morbidity.Hence the present study is conducted to emphasise the adverse effects of smoking on cardiac parameters and the need to quit smokig to save mankind.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study protocol was approved by the institutional ethical committee in KVG Medical College, Sullia. The present study was carried out on 100 apparently healthy male subjects which included 50 smokers(study group) and 50 non–smokers(control group) in the age group of 18 to 30 years after obtaining informed and written consent. Smokers having minimum history of smoking tobacco for more than two year duration and still smoking at least five or more cigarettes per day was included in the present study. Age below 18 years and above 30 years,History of cardiovascular diseases, History of chronic drug intake, History of infection, Alcoholics were excluded from study. Examination proforma used for recording the clinical examination findings was designed and validated. Resting pulse rate of the subjects was recorded in sitting posture.Blood pressure of the subjects was recorded in sitting posture by using Mercury sphygmomanometer and littman stethoscope by auscultatory method. The equipment was checked and calibrated for its accuracy as per the recommendations by British hypertension society. Systolic blood pressure and Diastolic blood pressure was recorded. Mean blood pressure was calculated as 1/3 Systolic blood pressure + 2/3 Diastolic blood pressure. Average of three recordings was taken. The results were given as Mean ± Standard Deviation and range values. Comparisons were performed using students t-test for 2 group comparisons using SPSS software 19 version. The p value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistical significant.

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

For this cross sectional study 50 healthy smokers and 50 healthy controls in the age group of 18-30 years were selected. Fifty male smoking subjects and also fifty male non-smoking subjects were analyzed for the results. The results obtained were expressed as Mean ± SD, statistical technique like student t-test for two group comparisons and ANOVA (F test) for multiple group comparisons were used for analyzing data. On analyzing the physical characteristics of the 50 nonsmoking subjects the mean age (in yrs) is 20.08 ± 3.2; the mean height (in m) is 1.71 ± 0.06; the mean weight (kg) is 67.34 ± 10.7 and mean BMI is 22.78 ± 2.83 (Table 1). On analyzing the physical characteristics of the 50 smoking subjects, the mean age (in yrs) is 24.40 ± 2.1; the mean height (in m) is 1.73 ± 0.05; the mean weight (kg) is 66.50 ± 11.2 and the mean BMI IS 22.17 ± 3.37.

Resting heart rate In

Non-smokers mean resting heart rate was 80.96±4.41 and 81.84±3.04 in smokers. There was slight increase in resting heart rate in Smokers compared to Non-smokers but not statistically significant.

Systolic Blood Pressure

In Non-smokers mean Systolic Blood Pressure was 117.36±4.34 and 115.60±3.65 in smokers. There was statistically significant decrease in Systolic Blood Pressure in Smokers compared to Non-smokers.

Diastolic Blood Pressure

In Non-smokers mean Diastolic Blood Pressure were 77.56 ±3.66 and 76.96 ±3.38 in smokers. There was slight decrease in Diastolic Blood Pressure in Smokers compared to Non-smokers but not statistically significant.

Mean Blood Pressure

In Non-smokers Mean Blood Pressure was 90.82 ± 3.27 and 89.83 ± 2.86 in smokers. There was slight decrease in Mean Blood Pressure in Smokers compared to Nonsmokers but not statistically significant.

DISCUSSION

Tobacco smoking is the major preventable cause of death in many parts of the world. Tobacco related lung diseases and cardiovascular diseases cause a significant proportion of total deaths and chronic disability. In this study, a group of youngsters in the age group of 18 – 30 years with 2 and more years of smoking were selected basically to highlight the cardiac risks during the transient phase of smoking. Transient or middle phase of smoking where in an individual is exposed to smoking bout for a period of 2 to 5 years. In young age, any abnormalities may be corrected or if he quits smoking, the rest of his life, quality of health may be better and can be prevented from the long term adverse health effects. Resting heart rate: In smokers resting heart rate was slightly increased but not significant and similar findings were also found by Roberto et al 15 and Minami et al.16Heart rate measured by ambulatory monitoring is higher throughout the day when smokers are smoking compared with when not smoking.17 The extent of elevation of heart rate is independent of the blood level of nicotine absorbed from the cigarettes. The elevated heart rate is presumed to reflect persistent sympathetic nervous stimulation, which may be an important mechanism by which nicotine can contribute to cardiovascular disease and nicotine may also play a role in producing endothelial dysfunction, lipid abnormalities, and insulin resistance in smokers. Cigarette smoking acutely increases plasma levels of nor epinephrine and epinephrine and enhances 24-hour urinary excretion of these catecholamines.18 Cigarette smoking increases heart rate both acutely (up to 20 beats per minute) as well as throughout the day with regular dosing (average increase 7 beats per minute as measured during ambulatory monitoring). There is slight decrease in systolic, Diastolic and mean blood pressure among smokers in this present study. Similar findings were also found by Manfred et al, 19 Koichi et al, 20 Okubo et al, 21 Yasushi et al22 and Hongmei et al.23 The rebound phenomenon and the adaptation process were suggested as reasons smokers showed lower blood pressure than non-smokers.24 we cannot disregard the possibility that our results were affected by these factors. However, it has been suggested that after the first few puffs of smoke, blood pressure increases abruptly and only returns to presmoking levels after 1–2 hours.25 Thus it was pointed out that unless smokers had refrained from smoking on the day of examination, it was unlikely that lower blood pressure in smokers was due to withdrawal.26 Therefore, the rebound phenomenon and the adaptation process cannot explain the mechanism of the effect of smoking on blood pressure completely. Among cardiovascular parameters, blood pressure (BP) is adversely influenced by tobacco smoke with a high rate by a mechanism yet under discussion. In addition, it is not clear if smoking exposure causes a rise or reduction of blood pressure and, otherwise, also if the occurrence of hypertension in smokers is a consequence of the greatest number of hypertensive people independently from smoking, or smoking actively contributes to changes in BP.27 Initially, a vasoconstriction mechanism mediated by nicotine causes acute but transient increase in systolic BP. This phase is followed by a decrease in BP as a consequence of depressant effects played chronically by nicotine. Simultaneously, carbon monoxide is acting directly on the arterial wall causing, in the long run, structurally irreversible alterations. At this time, there is a change in BP that increases again, and often constantly, its levels.28 Such a hypothesis explains BP changes following chronic exposure. On the contrary, acute exposure to passive smoking determines a transient increase in systolic BP due to a combined effect of nicotine that acts by endothelial dysfunction and sympathetic stimulation, and carbon monoxide which exerts its toxic effects directly. Active smokers can display BP values which vary widely according to a great number of individual, racial, and lifestyle factors. Moreover, changes in BP have been documented in the same smoker while he is smoking a cigarette or not.

CONCLUSION

In this study the effect of smoking on cardiac parameters like RHR, DBP and MBP is negligible except on SBP in which there is statistically significant decrease in smokers. In this study the age group selected was 18-30 years, may be in younger people there is no much effect on cardiac parameters by smoking due to short duration of exposure and better disease combating activity. The rebound phenomenon and the adaptation process were suggested as reasons smokers showed lower blood pressure than non-smokers. Further study has to be conducted between young and old age smokers with large sample size.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the authors whose articles are cited and included in the references of this manuscript. Authors are grateful to the authors, editors, publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

References:

1. Sinha DN, Gupta PC, Pednekar MS. Tobacco use in a rural area of Bihar. Indian J Community Med 2003;28(4): 10–12

2. Murray CJ, Lopez AD.eds. The global burden of disease: a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Cambridge, Massachussets: Harvard School of Public Health, 1996.)

3. Burns DM. Nicotine Addiction. In: Kasper, Fauci B, Longo, Houser, Jameson, eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. (vol.2). 16th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005.p.2574.

4. Berglund G, Wilhelmsen L. Factors related to blood pressure in a general population sample of Swedish men. Acta Med Scand. 1975;198:291–8.

5. Lakier JB. Smoking and cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 1992;93:8–12S.

6. Czernin J, Waldherr C. Cigarette smoking and coronary blood flow. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2003;45:395–404.

7. Cryer PE, Haymond MW, Santiago JV, Shah SD. Norepinephrine and epinephrine release and adrenergic mediation of smoking-associated hemodynamic and metabolic events. N Engl J Med. 1976;295:573–7.

8. Tuomilehto J, Elo J, Nissmen A. Smoking among patients with malignant hypertension. BMJ. 1982;1:1086.

9. Hughes k, Leong WP, Sothy SP, Lun KC, Yeo PPB. “Relationships between cigarette smoking, blood pressure and serum lipids in the Singapore general population,” International Journal of Epidemiology. 1993;22( 4) 637–43.

10. MacMahon S, Peto R, Cutler J, Collins R, Sorlie P, Neaton J et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1, Prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet. 1990;335:765–74.

11. Ariesen MJ, Claus SP, Rinkel GJ, Algra A. Risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage in the general population: a systematic review. Stroke. 2003; 34:2060–5.

12. Tuut M, Hense HW. Smoking, other risk factors and fibrinogen levels: evidence of effect modification. Ann Epidemiol. 2001;11:232–8.

13. Howard G, Wagenknecht LE, Burke GL, Diez-Roux A, Evans GW, McGovern P et al. Cigarette smoking and progression of atherosclerosis: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. JAMA. 1998;279:119–24.

14. Labarthe DR. Epidemiology and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Global Challenge. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publication Inc; 1998.

15. Roberto F, Annalisa Z, Paola L, Gianluigi M, Gianmarco V, Alessandro V. Cigarette Smoking and Blood Pressure in a Worker Population: A Cross-Sectional Study. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. February 1996; 3(1): 55–9.

16. Junichi M, Toshihiko I, Hiroaki M. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Habitual Smokers. Hypertension 1999;33:586–90.

17. Benowitz NL, Kuyt F, Jacob P. Influence of nicotine on cardiovascular and hormonal effects of cigarette smoking. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1984;36:74–81.

18. Benowitz NL, Gourlay SG. Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: implications for nicotine replacement therapy. J Am Coll Card 1997; 29:1422–31.

19. Manfred S, Eliezer J, Yair L. Blood pressure in smokers and nonsmokers: Epidemiologic findings American Heart Journal. 1986 May; 111( 5): 932–40.

20. Koichi H, Hiroaki T, Munehiro S, Suminori K, Jun S, Kikuo A. Relationship of cigarette smoking to blood pressure and serum lipids. Atherosclerosis. 1990 October; 84( 2-3): 189–93.

21. Okubo Y , Miyamoto T, Suwazono Y , Kobayashi E and Nogawa K. An association between smoking habits and blood pressure in normotensive Japanese men. Journal of Human Hypertension .2002; 16: 91–6.

22. Yasushi O, Yasushi S, Etsuko K, Koji Nogawa . An association between smoking habits and blood pressure in normotensive Japanese men: a 5-year follow-up study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2004 February 7; 73(2):167–74.

23. Hongmei L, Weijun T, Aili W, Zhe L, Yonghong Z. Effects of cigarette smoking on blood pressure stratified by BMI in Mongolian population, China. Blood Pressure. April 2010;19(2):92–7.

24. Higgins MW, Kjelsberg M. Characteristics of smokers and nonsmokers in Tecumseh, Michigan. II. The distribution of selected physical measurements and physiologic variables and the prevalence of certain diseases in smokers and nonsmokers. Am J Epidemiol 1967; 86: 60–77.

25. Hansen KW, Pedersen MM, Christiansen JS, Mogensen CE. Night blood pressure and cigarette smoking: disparate association in healthy subjects and diabetic patients. Blood Press 1994;3: 381–8.

26. Omvik P. How smoking affects blood pressure. Blood Press 1996;5:71–7. 27. Trap-Jensen J. “Effects of smoking on the heart and peripheral circulation.” American Heart Journal.1988; 115(1):263–7.

28. Leone A. “Biochemical markers of cardiovascular damage from tobacco smoke.” Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2005; 11(17): 2199–208.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

SCOPUS (2014, 2019, 2020, 2021 (Till June) currently under re-evaluation)

COPE guidelines for Reviewers


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2021 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions