International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 07 Issue 10, May, 2015

Pages: 61-65

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001

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Author: Shiny George, Biju Baby Joseph, Mrs. Kavitha Paul

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:Background: Myopia is one of the leading causes of vision loss around the world .Various studies from different parts of the world show a dramatic increase in refractive error, especially myopia among school and college students. Higher levels of education like medical education have been repeatedly associated with greater myopia prevalence. Objective: To study the prevalence and the underlying factors of myopia in BDS students of a Dental College in Kerala. Research methodology: Eighty nine BDS students (2012 - 2012 batches) were examined. Students were selected from each class by systematic random sampling technique, their visual acuity was checked using Snellen's Chart and Diopters were obtained. Details of factors were obtained using a questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of myopia was observed as 40.4%. First and second year students had a greater percentage of myopia with 46.4 % and 56.7% respectively. There was a strong relationship with years after diagnosing myopia which indicates that majority of them developed it in less than 5 years (p=0.000). Siblings of most of myopics also had myopia (p=0.002). Sleeping habits showed a significant relationship with myopia (0.037). Duration of TV watching, duration of computer use, Reading hours, type of light used and playing or texting with cell phone were not significant. Conclusion: Prevalence of myopia was high among dental students (40.4%).

Keywords: Myopia, Refractive error, Visual acuity

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According to the WHO report, uncorrected refractive error is the second commonest cause of global visual impairment first being the cataract 1 . Refractive error may be defined as a state in which the optical system of the non accommodating eye fails to bring parallel rays of light to focus on the retina. Myopia is a refractive error in which eye fails to see distant objects properly. Several studies describe an increasing prevalence of myopia in recent years. The prevalence of myopia in USA is estimated to be 25% and in India to be 19% 2,3. Myopia has been associated with socioeconomic status, level and length of education, parental myopia, exposure to near work and early lifestyle risk factors4-8. The lifestyle factors which may play a role in myopia development include reading for pleasure9 , variations in lighting,10 watching television and playing video games,11 use of the computers,12 time spent indoors, and less time spent in sports.13 There has been a dramatic increase in myopia prevalence rates over the past few decades in different parts of Asia 14. There are some studies showing that the academically active professionals are the major sufferers of myopia 15and the severity of myopia has been reported to be associated with the level of educational attainment16,17 . The prevalence rate of myopia in Singapore medical students has been reported to be more than 82% 18. Similar studies have been reported from Norway and Denmark where the prevalence among medical students came out to be 50.3% and 50% respectively19,20. Increasing near work like reading, use of microscope etc have frequently been blamed for the development of myopia 21. Medical and dental curriculum demands prolonged hours of reading and related visual tasks for many years. Many studies are reported from different parts of the world about the development of myopia among medical students, but we couldnot find studies among dental students. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of myopia in dental students of a College in Kerala.


The study was conducted on 89 dental students of Azeezia College of Dental Sciences and Research. The study was conducted in three batches, admitted in the years from 2010 to 2012. After getting informed consent from each student, they were examined for their height, weight and visual acuity. Height in centimeter and weight in kilogram of each student is measured using anthropometric scale and weight machine. The body mass index was calculated using the formula as follows. Body Mass Index = Height (m2) /Weight (Kg). Snellen’s chart was used to test the visual acuity for distant vision. Power in diopters were obtained based on the information furnished by the students or from their current spectacle prescription. Newly diagnosed students were sent to ophthalmology department and their power was checked. Different habits of the students and family histories of refractive errors in their parents were obtained by a questionnare. Statistical analysis was carried out by Chi square test. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.


Eighty nine dental students were examined. The prevalence of myopia came out to be 40.4 % (36 out of 89) in dental students (fig. 1) The age of the ametropic students ranged from 18 to 25 years ( mean age 21.6 ± 1.452). Second year students had greater percentage of myopia with 56.7% of the students being myopic. Educational qualification of mother and occurrence of myopia showed a significant relationship ( p 0.04) . Educational qualification of the father was significant for 2010 batch students ( p 0.046). There was no significant relationship between occupation of parents with myopia (p 0.08 ). 17 students developed myopia 2 – 5 years back whereas 7 students developed it 6 – 10 years back and only 8 students developed it one year back(fig 4). There was a strong relation with years after diagnosing myopia (p=0.000) which indicates that majority of them developed myopia in less than 6 years. Out of 36 myopic students, 10 had positive family history (history of parental myopia ). Among these 10 myopic students with positive family history, both parents myopic for 3 students and single parent myopic for 7 students. Statistically it didnot show any significant relationship (p 0.581). Siblings of most of the myopics also had myopia which shows a statistically significant relation (p 0.002)(fig 5). 50 % (18 students) of the myopics were reading for 2-3 hours/day , 44 %(16 ) for 4-5 hours /day 5.6%( 2) for >5 hours/day. 58.3 % of the students watched television for more than 1 hour to 5 hours per day. 27.8 % watched for less than 1 hour/day. Among the myopics , 7 students used to watch TV for more than 2 hours and 19 students for 1-2 hours and only 10 students for less than 1 hour. Statistically it didnot show any significant relationship (p 0.234). Similarly, our study didn’t show a significant relationship between the duration of computer use and myopia (p=0.382). 16 students (44 %) of the students were using computer for -2 to-5 diopters) and high myopia (power > -5 diopters). Among the 36 myopic students, 21 had low myopia, 13 had moderate myopia and 2 had high myopia of both the eyes. Out of 36 students suffering from myopia , 6 students were in 2010-11batch (19.4%), 17 students in 2011-12batch ( 56.7 %) and 13 students were in 2012-13 batch (46.4 %) (fig 2 and 3). The percentage of students with myopia is more in the 2011 and 2012 admission which indicates a definite increase in no. of students in the recent years .


Refractive errors are extremely common in the young Population with high academic activity. 15 There are many studies from different parts of the world showing the increased occurrence of myopia among the medical students18-20. Increased near work as in reading and related visual tasks and long duration of medical curriculum are blamed for this increase in the occurrence of Myopia development in Medical students. Some authors, in a sample of medical students in Singapore, discovered that 82% were myopic 18. As the dental curriculum is also vast and also demands the same things even though not as much as the medical , we attempted to study the prevalence in the dental students in a college in Kerala and also their associated life style factors. Our study revealed a prevalence rate of 40.4% which shows that there is an alarming increase  in myopia prevalence among the dental students . Batch wise analysis showed an increase in the 1st and 2nd year students, which indicates a definite increase in the prevalence in the recent years. Most of the students developed myopia in less than 6 years duration which indicates that they developed the condition in their late childhood may be because of the life style factors which play a role in the development of myopia. Sleeping habits of the students also showed a significant relationship with the development of myopia. Students who slept for less hours are tend to develop myopia may be because they are involved in reading or other visual tasks which cause eye strain even though we did not get a statistical significance with duration of reading ( p=0.084) , duration of TV watching (p 0.234), computer use (p=0.382) etc. Educational qualification of mother and occurrence of myopia showed a significant relationship ( p 0.04) . This may be because educated mothers are more worried about the academic activities of their children and forcing them to spend more hours on reading. Though the results of our study did not reveal any significant relationship between near work activity and myopia, it can be explained on the fact that basically these factors determine the age of onset of myopia. Most of the students studying in dental colleges have acquired myopia in their late childhood ages as mentioned above. Some studies like those of Kinge et al shows a significant association between myopic changes and time spent on near work among university students whereas some other studies like those of Adams and Mc Brien shows no association between the amount of near work done and the myopia progression 24-25 Therefore further investigations are required to better understand about the factors that may explain the myopic shifts not only among dental but also in medical and other university students.


Prevalence of myopia was found to be high among all the 3 year batch students ( 40.4 %) . 1st and 2nd year BDS students had a greater percentage which shows that it is increasing in the this age group .However the amount of near work involved in reading did not show any significant relationship with myopia which may be because of the fact that majority of students developed myopia in late childhood years and stabilization of the refractive status has occurred. As we are getting a high prevalence rate of myopia among dental students we are arriving at a conclusion that myopia is as high as among medical students as shown in different studies , hence further studies in a large sample warranted in this regard .


We acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also greatful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.


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Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
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List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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