International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - 7(10), May, 2015

Pages: 55-60

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF


Author: Anamika Vyas, Megha Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar, Mrityunjay Kumar, Sudhir Kumar Mehra

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:Background: Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as one of the major pathogen in both hospital and community settings. MRSA strains are frequently resistant to different class of antibiotics. Multi drug antimicrobial resistance among MRSA is a matter of concern for clinicians. Therefore, an accurate detection of MRSA in microbiology laboratory is essential for patient management and epidemiological purpose including hospital infection control. Aim: The present study was undertaken to compare various phenotypic methods (oxacillin disc diffusion, cefoxitin disc diffusion, oxacillin screen agar) for detection of MRSA using E test MIC oxacillin as gold standard method. We also aimed to study the resistance pattern of the MRSA isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 staphylococcus aureus strain which were isolated from different clinical specimens were included in this study. All isolates were tested for methicillin resistance by oxacillin disc diffusion, cefoxitin disc diffusion and oxacillin screen agar test considering E test MIC for oxacillin as gold standard. All the isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility testing by kirby bauer disc diffusion method against a predefined panel of antimicrobials and intepretation was done according to CLSI guidelines. Result: Among the 50 staphylococcus auresus isolates 23 (46%) isolate were identified as MRSA by E test MIC method. Cefoxitin disc diffusion test showed 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity while oxacillin disc diffusion test and oxacillin screen agar test showed 100% sensitivity and 74% specificity. The resistance percentage of MRSA isolate to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and gentamycin was 70%, 96%, 57%, 52% and 43% respectively. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline. Conclusion: Our study revealed that cefoxitin disc diffusion test had high sensitivity and high specificity as compared to other phenotypic methods used routinely to detect MRSA. This method is technically less demanding even can be used along with antibiotic sensitivity testing, cost effective and can be the best option to detect MRSA in clinical settings with constraint facilities. Vancomycin is still the drug of choice for treatment of MRSA, However regular monitoring of vancomycin sensitivity should be done as reduced susceptibility to vancomycin has been reported from all over the globe and is a matter of concern for clinicians.

Keywords: MRSA, Cefoxitin disc diffusion, Oxacillin disc diffusion

Full Text:


Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was first discovered in U.K. in 1961 soon after the introduction of methicillin into the clinical practice. Since then MRSA have spread throughout hospitals and other chronic health care facilities worldwide, to the extent that it is now the most commonly isolated antimicrobial resistant pathogen in many countries.1,2 The incidence of MRSA in India ranges from 30-70%.3,4 Traditionally, most strains of MRSA were isolated from hospitalized patients, However MRSA have now appeared in the community world wide in patients with or without risk factor for MRSA infections suggesting a changing epidemiology.5 The importance of MRSA as a nosocomial as well as community acquired pathogen is well documented.6,7 Methicillin resistance in S. aureus is based on production of an additional penicillin binding protein, PBP2 or PBP2a, which is encoded by mecA gene.8 mecA gene is an additional gene found in methicillin resistant S.aureus with no allelic equivalent in methicillin susceptible S. aureus. The major problem in routine screening of MRSA is the heterogeneous population of MRSA. This heterogeneous expression of methicillin resistance in sub population of MRSA can occasionally result in minimum inhibitory concentration that appears to be borderline and consequently the isolate may be interpreted as susceptible.9 Errors in the detection of methicillin resistance can have serious adverse clinical consequences as false susceptibility may result in treatment failure and increased nosocomial and community spread of this deadly microbe if infection control practices are not followed meticulously, on other hand false resistance may not only increase health care cost following unnecessary isolation precautions and over use of glycopeptides but also leads for emergence of clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Another major concern about MRSA is that these isolates are frequently resistant to many different classes of antibiotics.10 thus limiting the treatment options to fewer and expensive antibiotics like vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline. Hence, an accurate identification of MRSA by microbiology lab is essential for institution of effective antimicrobial therapy, infection control measures, epidemiological purpose, and for provision of cost effective health care facilities. Detection of the mecA gene by PCR is the gold standard for identifying MRSA. . However this is a costly and time consuming method and use of this assay is restricted to reference centre and is not routinely carried out in all laboratories.12 Several studies have reported different phenotypic methods developed for detection of MRSA which are widely used in clinical microbiology laboratories.11,12 but the optimum method for the detection remains controversial. Most of the laboratories uses oxacillin disc diffusion method as a routine test for MRSA detection. Cefoxitin,a cephamycin, is potent inducer of mecA regulatory system than oxacillin therefore it is considered better than oxacillin for detection of heterogeneous MRSA. In the present study, we evaluated methicillin resistance in S.aureus isolates by three different phenotypic methods namely oxacillin disc diffusion method, cefoxitin disc diffusion method, oxacillin screen agar method considering E test MIC (oxacillin) as a gold standard . The sensitivity and specificity of each test was determined with the aim to find out a cost effective and easily applicable method or combination there of, for detection of MRSA in a routine diagnostic laboratory. We also aimed to study the resistance pattern of MRSA isolates.


Study design: This prospective study included 50 staphylococcus aureus strains which were isolated from various clinical specimens submitted to microbiology department of Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur. The specimens included were pus, swabs from surgical wounds, pleural fluid, ascitic fluid, CSF ,Urine, sputum, endotracheal aspirate and blood etc. No duplicate clinical isolates from the same patient and no environmental isolates were included in the study.

Isolation and identification of staphylococci from clinical specimen: All the clinical specimens were first inoculated on Blood agar and McConkey agar plates (Hi media Mumbai,India). Plates were incubated at 37 degree centigrade for 18-24 hrs. S.aureus was identified and differentiated from related organisms on the basis of colony morphology, gram stain, catalase test, slide and tube coagulase test and mannitol fermentation.13

Antibiotic susceptibility testing by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method: Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed for all the S.aureus isolates against a predetermined panel of antibiotics by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar plates and the results were interpreted according to the guidelines of the CLSI.14 The antibiotics which were tested included Penicillin(10u), Gentamycin (30µg), Erythromycin(15µg), Clindamycin (2µg), Cotrimoxazole (1.25/23.70µg), Ciprofloxacin (5µg), Levofloxacin (5µg), Vancomycin (30µg), Linezolid(30µg), Tigecycline(15µg), Tetracycline(30µg), Rifampicin (5µg), Chloremphenicol(30µg). S.aureus ATCC25923 was used as a control strain.

Detection of Methicillin resistance by pheno-typic methods: All the S. aureus isolates were tested for methicillin resistance by oxacillin disc diffusion test, cefoxitin disc diffusion test and oxacillin screen agar test. MIC for oxacillin was determined with the E test – strips (Hi-Media Mumbai), which was used as a gold standard method in the present study. The oxacillin disc diffusion test: The oxacillin disc (1µg) diffusion test was carried out on Muller-Hinton agar plates which were supplemented with 2% NaCl to detect MRSA according to the CLSI guideline.14 For each strain a bacterial suspension adjusted to 0.5 McFarland was used. The plates were incubated at 35°C and the results were recorded after 24 hrs. of incubation. The isolates were considered as resistant when the diameter of inhibition was ≤ 10mm, as intermediate resistant when diameter was 11-12mm and as sensitive when the diameter was ≥ 13mm.14

The cefoxitin disc diffusion test: All the isolates were subjected to cefoxitin disc diffusion test using a 30µgm disc. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension of the isolate was made and lawn culture was done on MHA plates. Plates were incubated at 37°C for 18 hrs. and zone diameter was measured. An inhibition zone diameter of ≤ 21mm was reported as methicillin resistant and a diameter of ≥ 22mm was considered as methicillin sensitive.14 The oxacillin screen agar test: The test was performed by inoculating a direct colony suspension (0.5 McFarland standard) with a swab spotting an area of 10- 15mm in diameter on MHA Plate containg 4% NaCl and 6 µgm/ml oxacillin. Plates were incubated at 35°C for 24 hrs. The plates were observed carefully in transmitted light for any growth. Any growth after 24 hrs was interpreted as oxacillin resistant.15

Determination of MIC by E-Test: MIC for oxacillin was determined with the E-Strip (Hi-media,Mumbai, India) using 0.5 McFarland inoculum according to manufacturers instruction. MHA plates supplemented with 2% NaCl were used. By using cotton swab a lawn culture of standardized bacterial suspension was done on MHA plate. Oxacillin E-strip was then placed on plate and plate was kept in incubation at 35° for 24 hrs. After incubation formation of elliptical zone of inhibition growth occurs. MIC was read where the ellipse intersect the MIC scale on the strip. According to the CLSI standards, S. aureus isolate with oxacillin MIC of ≤ 2µg/ml and ≥ 4µg/ml are defined as methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MHA plates without antimicrobial were used as control of bacteria growth. S. aureus ATCC 25923 was used as control strain. E-Test MIC was our gold standard method in present study and sensitivity and specificity of other methods were compared with it.


Among the 50 S.aureus isolates 23 (46%) were identified as MRSA by E-Test MIC method. Of 23 MRSA isolates, 16 (69%) strains were isolated from pus, 2 (9%) from urine, blood, and fluids each and 1 (4%) from sputum. Methicillin resistance was detected by oxacillin disc diffusion, cefoxitin disc diffusion and oxacillin screen agar test in 30, 25, 30 isolates respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and the positive and negative predictive values of various phenotypic methods in comparision to E-Test MIC (gold standard), for the detection of MRSA, are Summarized in (Table-1)

The result of antibiotic resistant rates of MRSA isolates to various antibiotics are shown in table-2. In our study all the strains were sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid,tigecycline, rifampicin and chloremphenicol.


Despite the introduction of effective antimicrobial agents and improvements in infection control measures specially hand hygiene, staphylococcus aureus has persisted as important hospital and community pathogen causing superficial skin and soft tissue infections to serious systemic infection leading to illness and death of a person. This problem is further compounded by development of methicillin resistance. Resistance to this antibiotic implies resistance to all β-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins and monobactams, the most important group of antibiotics to treat staphylococcal infection. Infection with MRSA strains has not only caused therapeutic problems in hospital but also put a tremendous pressure on resources controlling their spread. Thus it is important that clinical microbiology laboratories identify the organism accurately. This will help in determining the appropriate antimicrobial therapy ,shortens the hospital stay, lower hospital cost (by preventing unnecessary use of glycopeptides and isolation precautions), prevent cross transmission in wards and thus in turn will decreases morbidity and mortality. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of the mecA gene is presently considered as the gold standard for detecting methicillin resistance in S.aureus. Inspite of growing consensus in the literature for this method, it is not yet available in all clinical laboratories due to financial and technical constraints, therefore phenotypic methods, although dependent on many environmental and conditional factors still remains a method of choice in resource constraint laboratories. Our study revealed that, overall rate of methicillin resistance with S.aureus was 46%. Similar isolation rates were found in studies from different parts of India, ranging from 45.36 to 59.3%.16,17,18 In contrast 26.4% and 19.5% prevalence rates has also been reported in some studies.19,20 which is comparatively less then that reported in present study. This discrepancy could be due to difference in the study design i.e. Population under study and geographical distribution ,variation in antibiotic usage and infection control practices in different hospitals as well as due to differential clonal expansion and drug pressure in community. MRSA isolates were predominantly isolated from the pus (69%), similar findings were reported by Anupurba et al.17 and Sasirekha et al.21 In present study E-Test MIC determination for oxacillin was used as a gold standard for MRSA detection. The advantage of E-Test method is that it is easy to perform as a disk diffusion test and approaches the accuracy of PCR for mecA gene. There are many studies comparing E-Test MIC with broth dilution and PCR methods which has yielded satisfactory results.22 In present study cefoxitin disc diffusion was found to be highly sensitive 100% and specific 92.59% while sensitivity of oxacillin disc diffusion was 100% and specificity was 74.07%. Similar results were quoted by several other studies.12,16,23,24 Cefoxitin is a better inducer of the expression of the mecA gene, so the heterogeneous population that variably express the mecA gene is better detected by disc diffusion with cefoxitin then with oxacillin, which is a weak inducer of PBP2a production. Several workers have reported that the result of cefoxitin disc diffusion test co-relates better with the presence of mecA gene than the result of oxacillin disc diffusion test.12,25 There are a number of studies stating that cefoxitin disc diffusion method is a reliable method for detection of MRSA and the result were found to be in concordance with PCR mecA gene detection method.24,26,27. Our study also strengthens the fact that cefoxitin is superior to oxacillin as indicator of MRSA for the detection of methicillin resistance. In our study, oxacillin disc diffusion method was only 74.07% specific. The high false positivity of oxacillin disc diffusion method in present study could be due to hyper production of β-lactamase which may lead to phenotypic expression of oxacillin resistance resulting in a clinical isolate which is oxacillin resistant but do not possess the usual genetic mechanism for such resistance. Probably such strains under antibiotic pressure may eventually turn into fully resistant strain. The oxacillin screen agar medium showed 100%.sensitivity and 74.07% specificity. Similar finding of high sensitivity and low specificity using oxacillin screen agar medium was reported by other workers also.12 Difficulty in MRSA detection by oxacillin screen agar base occur if the organism have their MIC near break points i.e. (borderline resistance strain) . The test also performed less well in studies where hetero resistant strains were included in study group, as it is subjected to many environmental conditions such as temperature, pH, salt concentration, incubation time.26 Swenson et al.15 also noted that sensitivity is decreased when hetero resistant strains were tested and specificity decreased with strains having borderline MIC.

Some of the studies have shown different sensitivity and specificity for these three phenotypic tests for detection of MRSA. Baddour et al.31 reported that the sensitivity and specificity of the cefoxitin and oxacillin disk diffusion test were 84.6%, 84.6%, 87.5% and 79.2% respectively. They found that the oxacillin agar screening was 92.3% sensitive and 45.8% specific. In another study by Jain et al.32 the sensitivity and specificity of the cefoxitin and oxacillin disk diffusion test were 94.44%, 100%, 95.83% and 58.33% respectively. Matos et al.33showed the cefoxitin and oxacillin disk diffusion test and oxacillin agar screening was 100% specific but only the cefoxitin and oxacillin disk diffusion test had 100% sensitivity. They reported that the oxacillin agar screening had the lowest sensitivity (82.2%). In general, in the most conducted studies, cefoxitin disk diffusion test has shown the highest specificity compared to oxacillin disk diffusion and agar screening. In a laboratory where it is not possible to carry out molecular method as a routine, cefoxitin disk diffusion test is a good surrogate marker for detecting methicillin resistance. It is far superior to most of the currently recommended phenotypic method like oxacillin disc diffusion and oxacillin screen agar method. No special medium or incubation temperature is required for cefoxitin as is required for oxacillin and results are easy to read in both transmitted and reflected light. It is now an acceptable method for detection of MRSA by many reference groups including CLSI. Considerable variations were found in the reported resistance profile among MRSA isolates from different countries and from different hospitals with in a country. Keeping in view this fact we determined the resistance pattern of MRSA isolates against a pre-determined panel of antimicrobials. Among MRSA isolates high degree of resistance was encountered for ciprofloxacin (96%), levofloxacin (57%), erythromycin (70%), cotrimoxzole (53%). This is similar to the finding of studies carried out by Sasirekha et al21 and Udo et al30 which also found high level of resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. The present study revealed high percentage of sensitivity to gentamycin (57%). Similar finding was also reported in a study carried out by Sasirekha This is in contrast to the studies done by Quereshi et al28 and Kandle et al.29 They reported 97.8% and 91% resistance to gentamycin. The reason which could justify these finding is that gentamycin is not used frequently to treat staphylococcus infection in our set up thus decreasing selection pressure for drug resistance, at the same time macrolides and quinolones are broad spectrum antibiotics, frequently used in the treatment of common staphylococcal infection. This change in antibiotic usage pattern would have led to the development of gentamycin sensitive and macrolide, quinolones resistant isolates. In our study no strain was found resistant to vancomycin, linezolid which was similar to other studies.4,11,14,16,17 Sensitivity to tigecycline was also 100%. This may be due to the fact that due to high cost these drugs were not used frequently in our setup thus decreasing the selection pressure for drug resistance. However MRSA strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin have been reported recently from various parts of country.


It is concluded from the present study that cefoxitin disc diffusion method had a high sensitivity and specificity compared to other phenotypic methods for detection of MRSA. Cefoxitin disc diffusion method can be the preferred option to detect MRSA in clinical settings with resource constraint facilities as it is easy to perform, do not require special technique, media preparation and finally more cost effective than PCR and latex agglutination test for PBP2a detection. Vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline are effective drugs for treatment of MRSA. We suggest that these drugs should be considered as reserve drugs and should not be used as empirical therapy in treatment of staphylococcus aureus and other gram positive infections. Regular monitoring of vancomycin sensitivity should be carried out to find out early emergence of VISA or VRSA strains in clinical setup. It was noted that MRSA isolates showed resistance to most of the antibiotics. This finding calls, for urgent attention where by strict antibiotic policy should be enforced to curtail irrational use of antibiotics. Constant surveillance of antimicrobial profile of MRSA isolates should be carried out which will help the clinicians for selection of appropriate antimicrobial therapy.


Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors/editors/publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.


1. Diekema DJ, BootsMiller DJ, Vaughn TE, Woolson RF, Yankey JW. Antimicrobial resistance trends and outbreak frequency in United States hospitals. Clin. Infect. Dis.2004; 38:78-85.

2. Goosens H. European Status of resistance in nosocomial infections. Chemotherapy.2004; 51:177-181.

3. Verma S, Joshi S, Chitnis V, Hemwani N, Chitnis D. Growing problems of Methicillin Resistance Staphylococci-Indian Scenario Indian J. Med Sci 2000;54(12):535-40.

4. Rajaduraipandi K, Mani KR, Panneerselvam K, Mani M, Bhaskar M and Manikandan P. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A multicentre study. Indian J. Med. Microbiol 2006;24(1):34-8.

5. Chambers HF. The changing epidemiology of staphylococcus aureus Emerg. Infec. Dis.2001;7:178-182.

6. Brown DF, Edward DI, Hawkey PM, Morrison D, Ridgway GL, Towner KJ, Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis and susceptibility testing of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). J. Antimicrob chemother 2005; 56(6):1000-18

7. Rabhar M, Yaghoobi M, Fattahi A.Comparision of different laboratory methods for detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.Pak J med Sci. 2006;22(4):442-5.

8. Brown D.F. Detection of methicillin/oxacillin Resistance in staphylococci. J Antimicrob chemother. 2001;48 suppl 1:65-70.

9. Swenson JM, Patel JB, Jorgensen JK. Special phenotypic methods for detecting antibacterial resistance, chapter 74. In:Murray PR, Baron ES, Jorgensen JH, Landry ML Pfaller MA, editors. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 9th ed. Washington DC:ASM Press 2007 P.1175-76.

10. Tiemersma EW, Bronzwaer SL, Lyytikainen O, Degener JE, Schrijnemakers P, Bruinsma N, Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in Europe, 1999-2002. Emerg. Inf. Dis. 2004; 10(9):34-7.

11. Tiwari HK, Sapkota D, Das AK, Sen MR. Assesment of different methods to detect Methicillin Resistnt Staphylococus aureus. Southeast Asian J.Trop Med Public Health 2009;40:801-06

12. Velasco D, Mar Tomas MD, Cartelle M, Beciero A, Perez A, Molina F et al Evaluation of different methods for detecting methicillin (oxcillin) resistance in staphylococcus aureus. J. Antimicrob Chemother 2005; 55(3):379-82.

13. Baird D, Staphylococcus : Cluster forming gram positive cocci. In:Mackie and McCartney Practical Medical Microbiology, Colle J.G, Fraser A.G., Marmion BP., Simmons A, (14th Ed) Churchill Livingstone, 1996, PP:245-261.

14. Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Performance standard for Antimicrobial susceptibility testing ; twentieth Informational supplement CLSI documentM100-S20.Wayne, PA:CLSI;2009

15. Swenson J.M., Williams, P.P., Killgore, G., O’Hara C.M. and Tenover FC . Performance of eight methods, including two new rapid methods, for detection of oxacillin resistance in a challenge set of staphylococcus aureus organisms J. Clin Microbial.2001; 39: 3785-3788.

16. Oberoi L, Kaur R. and Aggarwal A. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India . IJABPT 2012;3(1):200-05.

17. Anupurba S, Sen MR, Nath G, Sharma BM, Gulati AK, Mohapatra T.M. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in tertiary referral hospital in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Indin J. Med Microbial 2003;21(1):49-51.

18. Tiwari H.K, Sen M.R. emergence of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) from a tertiary care hospital from northern part of India. BMC Infect Dis 2006;6:156.

19. Kumari N, Mohapatra TM, Singh YI. Prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a tertiary - care hospital in Eastern Nepal. J. Nepal Med Assoc 2008; 47(170):53-56.

20. Tahnkiwale SS, Roy S, Jalgaonkar SV Methicillin reistance among isolates of staphylococcus aureus: Antibiotic sensitivity pattern and phage typing. Ind J Med Sci 2002;56:330- 334.

21. Sasirekha B, Usha M.S., Amruta A.J., Ankit S, Brinda N, Dviya R. Evaluation and Comparision of different phenotypic tests to detect Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and their Biofilm Production. Int J.PharmTech Res.2012 ; 4(2) : 532-541.

22. Ercis S, Sancak B, Hascelik G. A comparision of PCR detection of mec A with oxacillin disk susceptibility testing in different media and sceptor automated system for both staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci isolates. Indian J Med Microbial 2008;26(1):21-24.

23. Tiwari HK, Sapkota D, Das AK and Sen MR. Assesment of different methods to detect Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Southeast Asian J. Trop Med Public Health 2009;40(4):801-06.

24. Mathews A.A., Thomas M., Appalaraju B., Jayalakshmi J., Evaluation and Comparision of tests to detect methicillin Resistant S. aureus. Ind J. Pathol Microbial 2010;53(1):79- 82

25. Cauwelier B, Gordts B, Descheemaecker P, Van Landuyt H, Evaluation of a disk diffusion method with cefoxitin (30µg) for detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Eur. J. Clin Microbial. Infect Dis.2004; 23(5):389-392.

26. Anand K.B., Agarwal P., Kumar S., Kapila K., Comparison of cefoxitin disc dffusion test, oxacillin screen agar, and PCR for mecA gene for detection of MRSA. Ind. J. Med. Microbiol. 200; 27(1):27-29.

27. Rahbar M., Safadel N., Evalution of cefoxitin disk diffusion test for routine detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Iran J. Patholol.2006;1(4):145-148.

28. Qureshi A.H., Rafi S., Qureshi S.M., Ali A.M., The current susceptibility patterns of MRSA to conventional antistaphylococcal antimicrobials at Rawalpindi. Pak. J. Med. Sci. 2004; 20:361-364.

29. Kandle S.K., Ghatole M.P., Takpare A.Y., Hittinhalli V.B., Yemul V.L., Bacteriophage typing and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of staphylococcus aureus from clinical specimen in and around Solapur (South Maharashtra). J. commun. dis. 2003; 35:17-23.

30. Udo E.E., Sweih A.N., Mokaddas e., Johny M., Dhar R., Gomaa H.H., Obaid I.A., Rotimi V.O., Antibacterial resistance and their genetic location in MRSA isolated in Kuwait hospitals, 1994-2004. BMC Infect. Dis.;2006, 6(1):168.

31.Baddour MM, Abuelkheir MM, Fatani AJ. Comparison of mecA polymerase chain reaction with phenotypic methods for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Curr. Microbiol.2007; 55: 73-479.

32. Jain A, Agarwal A, Verma RK . Cefoxitin disc diffusion test for detection of meticillin-resistant Staphylococci. J. Med. Microbiol.2008; 57:957-961.

33. Matos PD, Schuenck RP, Cavalcante FS, Caboclo RM, Santos KR . Accuracy of phenotypic methicillin susceptibility methods in the detection of Staphylococcus aureus isolates carrying different SCCmec types. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo. Cruz.2010; 105:931-934.


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in

Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

Copyright © 2024 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions