International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - 14(19), October, 2022

Pages: 01-08

Date of Publication: 05-Oct-2022

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

Alteration of Hematological and Biochemical Parameters to Predict Severity in SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Author: Shrewastwa Mukesh Kumar, Acharya Viyatprajna, Aggrawal Kavita

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: SARS- CoV-2 global pandemic has fired the world into a notable health catastrophe, with over 187,348,181 cases and 4,044,898 deaths as of July 10 2021. Many studies have been conducted to determine the clinical, biological, and radiological characteristics of COVID-19 for better identification of infected people at an early stage and stop disease development to an advanced state. Objectives: The aim & objective of our study was to take advantage of the biochemical and hematological parameters in pre-dicting the prognosis and mortality in disease severity COVID-19 patients. Methods: This single-center retrospective, observational study was supervised to have all the admitted patients (n = 90) possessing COVID-19 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive, and assessed those for prognosis and disease outcome by taking advantage of several biochemical and hematological markers. Results: Out of 90 patients, 53(58.89%) had mild to moderate disease that were included in the non-severe group; 37(41.11%) had severe to critical disease, of which 17 died and 20 survived. Advanced age, presence of comorbidities and infection were risk factors for advancement to severe disease. The existence of statistically significant abnormalities in the following parameters were strongly related with the advancement to severe disease: white blood cells (WBC, p=0.002), neutrophils (p=0.001), lymphocytes (p=0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP, P< 0.001), D-dimer (P< 0.001), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, p< 0.001), Ferritin (P< 0.001), creatinine (p=0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P=0.012), procalcitonin (P< 0.001) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, P=0.001) during both admission and hospitalization. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, biochemical parameters and hematological indices are a good guide for predicting the severity and disease outcome of coronavirus disease.

Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), C-reactive protein(CRP), Lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), Fibrin degradation product (FDP or D-dimer), White blood cells (WBC), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)

Full Text:


Caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), otherwise known as the COVID-19 pandemic is the largest pandemic of the century. It is an up surging disease that is spreading promptly worldwide and alarms the bio security of all countries1,2, with the number of cases outstripping 187,348,181 and death of more than 4,044,898 people. The two most overwhelmed countries are the United States of America and India, with a death toll of 622,821 in the USA and 408,072 in India as of July 10, 2021.The infection rate was 24,035 cases per million populations.

The COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease. In Nepal, the first case was approved as Covid-19 positive test on 23 January 2020 when a 31-year-old student had returned to Kathmandu from Wuhan on 9 January.3It was also the first noted case of COVID-19 in South Asia.4 Nepal's first case of local transmission was approved on 4th April in Kailali District. The number of cases confirmed in the different regions of our country was 652,002 including 9,400 deaths in July 12, 2021.

This alarming viral transmission and mortality have prompted the publication of many studies to determine clinical, biological, radiological, and genetic predictors for the progression to severe and fatal forms of the coronavirus disease.5Acknowledgement of these predictors would make it possible to differentiate the risk and conduct the intervention studies to triage the patients.

Clinical (comorbidities, acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS]), Demographic (advanced age, male sex) and radiological predictors have been broadly comprehensive in many studies.5–7Biological (lymphopenia, hyperferritinemia, serum C-reactive protein [CRP] levels) predictors 5, 8 have been described but remain mainly unreported/ under-reported in western region of Nepal. A simple and potent index to evaluate the severity and decide the prognosis of new crown pneumonia is urgently needed at this stage of coronavirus disease.

Lymphocytes take part in a pivotal role in maintaining the body’s immune homeostasis and inflammatory response. The knowledge regarding the mechanisms involving in changes in these blood biochemical indexes is contemplated to give an effective approach for the treatment of COVID-19. In addition, the promotion, protection and maintenance of lymphocyte counts may promote the treatment and prevention strategy regarding development of new crown pneumonia in COVID-19 patients.

We retrospectively analyzed the patients admitted to Nepalgunj Medical College & teaching hospital, Kolhapur who had been cured of COVID-19 and discharged from the hospital between January 1, 2020, and August 30, 2020 because all the literature published regarding COVID-19 patients are mainly concentrated on hospitalized patients, with many patients still being under hospitalization or under treatment. We propose the prediction reliability and accuracy of this study are higher because the clinical end point has been accomplished in these patients.

The main objective of our study was to report the haematological and biochemical abnormalities in Nepalese patients with COVID-19 and to determine the prediction efficacy of parameters that can help to distinguish those likely to develop severe COVID-19. We expect that the findings of this study can give helpful information for early decision-making and treatment for severe COVID-19 patients.

Study design and methods

A retrospective, observational and single-centre study was approved by institutional review committees of Nepalgunj medical college & teaching hospital, Kolhapur of ethical clearance letter number:743/077-078 and was planned to be conducted at Nepalgunj medical college & teaching hospital, Kolhapur which was started from 1 January, 2020 till 30 August 2020 and including all patients who were diagnosed as COVID-19 positive via on a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Kit Maccura Biotechnology) assay using a nasopharyngeal swab specimen.

A total of 90 patients were recruited which were divided into two groups: 37 severe patients and 53 non-severe patients that were randomly taken without age and gender matched. Severely ill patients were defined as those admitted to the ICU with one of the following signs: respiratory rate more than 30 breaths/min, oxygen saturation less than 93% at room air, ARDS, or requirement of mechanical ventilation.9 Non-severe patients were those with mild or moderate forms of COVID-19 according to World Health Organization criteria.9 This study reports the clinical presentation, demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, and outcomes of incident cases of COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) from 1 January, 2020 till 30 August 2020.The time frame was chosen to have a minimum follow-up of 15 days for all patients. The nadir and peak haematological and biochemical parameters were taken by following patients from admission to their last blood test.

Statistical analysis

Normally distributed continuous variables were expressed as means ± standard deviation [SD] whereas variables not normally distributed were expressed as medians (interquartile range [IQR]); categorical variables were presented as counts (%). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess the normality of distribution of continuous variables. Baseline demographic, clinical, and biological characteristics were compared among severe and non-severe patients. We used the Student’s t-test (parametric distribution) or Mann-Whitney’s U test (nonparametric distribution) for continuous variables and the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables to compare differences between the two groups.  Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 20.0 (IBM SPSS) and p-value below 0.05 was considered statistically significant for two-tailed.


Out of 90 PCR positiveCOVID-19 patients, 53 (58.89%) were admitted to general wardwhereas37 (41.11%) patients were severe due to corona diseases who required treatment in the ICU. During treatment of severe covid-19 patients in ICU, 20 survived and 17 died. Gender-wise, males had a higher preponderance for the disease.

The age and comorbidities of the patients were statistically significant associated with disease severity (P<0.05) and the age of maximum number of patients belonging to severe group was old age. Marginally greater than half of the patients (47 [52.22%]) had comorbidities, with hypertension (34 [37.78%]) being the most common, followed by diabetes (29 [32.22%]) and kidney disease (16 [17.79%]).

The most common symptoms were weakness (74 [82.22%]), followed by fever (71 [78.89%]) and headache (64[71.11%]). The further symptoms (cough, pharyngalgia, Expectoration, dyspnea, myalgia, dizziness, chills and diarrhoea) were observed in our series less frequently (Table 1)).

17 deaths (45.94%) occurred in the severe group, out of which 12 (32.43%) patients underwent invasive mechanical ventilation and 5 (13.51%) had sudden cardiorespiratory arrest under non-invasive ventilation. The causes of death were principally due to development to severe ARDS alone (4 [10.8%]) or associated with acute kidney injury (10 cases [27.02%]), septic shock (2 [5.4%]), and cirrhotic decompensation (1 [2.70%]). Other complications that the severe patients developed were thromboembolic events (4 [10.81%]), arrhythmia (7 [18.9%]) and pneumothorax (4 [10.81%]).

In univariate analysis, severe patients had statistically significant association with age (P<0.05). With increasing age, the percentage of covid-19 with severe symptoms were increased and more comorbidities, dominated by hypertension (16 [43.20%] versus 18 [34%], P<0.001), diabetes (13 [35.1%] versus 16 [30.2%], P<0.003) and kidney disease (8 [21.6%] versus 8 [15.1%], P<0.001).High levels of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, CRP, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), procalcitoninand aspartate aminotransferase (AST), both on admission and during hospitalization, were statistically significant strongly associated with development to severe forms (Tables 2, 3 and 4) whereas decrease in count of lymphocyte number (lymphopenia) was statistically significant associated with advancement to severe forms.

In binary logistic regression step 1, higher levels of LDH were independently associated with severe covid-19 group (odds ratio (OR) per SD 0.971 [95% CI: 0.959-0.983]; P<0.01) in comparison to non-severe group and in step2, higher levels of LDH were independently associated with severe covid-19 group (odd ratio (OR) per SD 0.962 [95% CI: 0.959-0.983]; P<0.01) after adjusting procalcitonin in comparison to non-severe group.(Table 5)


The third type of coronavirus, known as SARS-CoV-2, identified in the last two decades after SARS-CoV1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, detected in 2003 and 2012, respectively.10, 11 8,096 people were infected by SARS-CoV-1 infection which caused the death of 774 people in 2002–2003.MERS-COV was culpable for a localized epidemic in the Middle East in 2012 which case-fatality rate was 38%.

We reported the clinicobiological profile of COVID-19 disease in the Midwestern region of Nepal having a sample of 90 patients. The demographic characteristics in our study showed that progressive age is a factor that predisposes patients to COVID-19 and develops advancement to severe disease and death which was supported by many studies.12,13,14

Zhou et al. demonstrated in their study that age greater than 50 years was strongly related to the existence of ARDS and age greater than 65 years was linked with mortality.13 But, progressive age was also noted as key independent predictor of mortality in SARS and MERS.15,16 The age associated comorbidities noted in our study population are severity and prognostic factors as showed by many studies, like Zhou et al. and Wu et al. whereas hypertension and diabetes were significantly related to the existence of ARDS in a multivariate analysis and with the existence of mortality in a univariate analysis.12,13,14 The reason for the relation between Covid-19 virus infections associated mortality and age would be impaired cellular immune function and a longer duration of inflammation in elderly people.12

In our study, gender was not statistically significant associated factor influencing the severity of COVID-19 which is not in congruence with the work of Irani authors.17 But, some study showed that male gender was as a factor influencing the increasing severity of COVID-19.18

The clinical signs manifested by our patients, as well as their frequencies and rates, were close to previousstudies.5,14 It is clear that COVID-19 disease is statistically significantly associated with morbidity, especially in patients with chronic diseases, somewhat one-fifth of them require supportive care in medical ICUs 19, which are particularly limited in most developing countries such as those in Africa. In addition, in spite of the implementation of optimal supportive interventions, the inpatient mortality rate goes on above 1.4%, come to 6.4% in the population aged over 60 years old.20, 21

The biological profiles of our study participants are similar to that has been reported in the literature, with the existence of lymphopenia in severe patients upon admission and further an aggravation of lymphopenia during their stay. Many hypotheses have been constructed to explain the molecular mechanism for pathogenesis of lymphopenia in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

 A Chinese study described the characteristics of the haemogram and lymphocyte subpopulations in 166 non-severe patients’ and286 severe patients. Severe patients had a significantly raised neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and upraised markers of inflammation (CRP, ferritin, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and interleukin-10). In addition, there was disparity in the lymphocyte immune response in severe patients, who possessed higher CD4 lymphopenia, higher CD4-naïve cells and CD4 suppressor T cells, and less CD4 memory cells and regulatory T cells, in comparison to non-severe patients.22 Rodriguez et al. have proposed that COVID-19 virus have effect on lymphocytes, principally T cells, perhaps diminishing CD4 and CD8 cells.18 The viral particles proliferate via the respiratory mucosa, first by utilizing the ACE2 receptor at membrane of ciliated bronchial epithelial cells and then infecting other cells. This phenomenon causes a cytokine storm in the body and provokes a series of immune responses, which induce changes in peripheral WBCs and immune cells such as lymphocytes.23 This concept has been determined by Henry et al. in their meta-analysis: the number of lymphocytes, principally CD4 lymphocytes, may provide as a biological predictor of severity and mortality; in the case of COVID-19, they also described the hypothesis that survival can be based on the ability to build up lymphocytes that are killed by the virus.24 The same authors also described statistically significant rise in ferritin and CRP levels in patients with suspected severe COVID-19 which are in line with our study.

The rise in CRP levels in blood reflects the extent of the systemic inflammatory syndrome observed in severe forms of the disease, which is followed with a huge release of inflammatory cytokines creating a "cytokine storm" culpable for acute tissue damage with the onset of severe ARDS and subsequent multi-systemic failure.24 The statistically significant rise of LDH levels in blood found in our study which is consistent with the findings of Liu who correlated LDH, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and CRP abnormalities with severe COVID pneumonia.14,25 The raised ferritin levels in blood are likely due to secondary phagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and severe cytokine release syndrome.26, 27 In our study, raised D-dimer level in blood was also significantly associated to severity group of COVID-19 patients and was the cause of coagulopathy with thromboembolic complications in 4.44% of our patients. Anaemia and thrombocytopenia were not statistically significant in my study.

Myocardial damage, as mentioned biologically by elevated troponin and creatine phosphokinase levels in blood suggestive of viral myocarditis, which has been reported by others, was not reported in our study of severe patients’ group.28,29 However, the stay was affected by the significantly distinct difference of the median nadir of WBC, lymphocytes, and Neutrophils, as well as the median peak of neutrophil, WBC, CRP, ferritin, procalcitonin, LDH, D-dimer, ALT, AST, creatinine, and urea levels. This determines the manifestation of complications of the severe form of COVID-19 including the following: bacterial super infection, severe ARDS secondary to the cytokine storm, thromboembolic disease, and organ dysfunction (which is believed to be multifactorial [comorbidities, the cytokine storm of COVID-19, the rejuvenation environment]), leading to death. This is in affirmation with other authors. 5–31

In binary logistic regression step 1, 1unit increased in levels of LDH was independently associated with increased severity by 0.971 times in severe covid-19 group (P<0.01) in comparison to non-severe group and in step 2, 1 unit increased in levels of LDH was independently associated with increased severity by 0.962 times in severe covid-19 group P<0.01) after adjusting procalcitonin in comparison to non-severe group

Our study reinforces these data by describing the experience in our least developed country, which commenced confinement measures at an early stage of the crisis, hence influence the progress of this pathology. We expect that the findings of this study can give helpful information for early decision-making and treatment for severe COVID-19 patients

 The limitations of our study were as follows: the single-centre retrospective study design, which increases the chance of selection bias and impacts the generalizability of data; the absence of evaluation of immunological parameters (CD4, CD8, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10) studied by the other studies which could help us to properly analyse the inflammatory characteristics of our patients; the small sample size; and missing data from some pauci-symptomatic patients and patients who died at a given time. This limits the in-depth statistical analysis needed to stratify the maximum risks associated with the pathology.


Majority of the studies being done on Chinese population, there may be a bias due to ethnicity, epigenetic and environmental factors. By observing the changes in biochemical and haematological parameters, repeat CT scans and invasive procedures can be obviated in hospitalized patients to monitor prognosis.


We acknowledge the support of the Department of Biochem­istry and Medicine, Nepalgunj Medical College, Kohalpur, Nepal in this study.

Conflict of interest: None

Author contribution: Shrewastwa MK - Study planning, execution, statistical analyses and article writing; Acharya V- Article writing, review and overall supervision; Agrawal Kavita -Article review.

Source of Funding: Self-funded


1. Matuizzi C, Lippi G. Which lessons shall we learn from the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak? Ann Transl Med. 2020; 8: 48. PMID: 32154288

2. Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, Chen YM, Wang W, Song ZG, et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature. 2020; 579: 265–269. 020-2008-3 PMID: 32015508

3. Shrestha R, Shrestha S, Khanal P; Kc B. “Nepal’s first case of COVID-19 and public health response”. J Travel Med. 2020 May 18:27 (3): ISSN 1195- 1982. PMC 7107523. PMID 32104884.

4. “Nepal Reports South Asia’s First Confirmed Case Of Deadly Coronavirus”. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 21 May 2020.

5. Placais L, Richer Q.COVID-19: clinical, biological and radiological characteristics in adults, infants and pregnant women. An up-to-date review at the heart of the pandemic. Rev Med Internet. 2020; 41: 308–318. revmed.2020.04.004 PMID: 32334862.

6. Elchazli RM, Torah EA, Elgaml A, EI-Mowafy M, EI-Misery M, Amin MN, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic value of hematological and immunological markers in COVID-19 infection: A meta-analysis of 6320 patients. 2020; 15(8). https://doi. org/10.1371/ journal.pone.0238160.

7. Iftimie S, Lopez-Azcona AF, Vicente-Miralles M, RiuF, Joven J, Camps J, et al. Risk factors associated with mortality in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A prospective, longitudinal, Unicenter study in Reus, Spain. 2020. https://doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0234452.

8. Rossi PG, Marino M, Formisano D, Venturelli F, Vicentini M, Grilli R, et al. Characteristics and outcomes of a cohort of COVID-19 patients in the Province of Reggio Emilia, Italy. 2020.

9. Peng F, Tu L, Yan Y, Hu P, Wang R, Hu Q, et al. Management and treatment of Covid-19: the Chinese experience. Can J Cardiol.2020. Available from https://doi.10.1016/j.cjca.2020.04.0

10 PMID: 32439306 10. Ksiazek TG, Erdman D, Goldsmith CS, Zaki SR, Peret T, Emery S, et al. A novel coronavirus associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 1953–1966.https:// PMID: 12690092

11. Zaki AM, Van Boheemen S, Bestebroer TM, Osterhaus ADME, Fouchier RAM. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. N Engl J Med. 2012; 367: 1814–1820. PMID: 23075143

12. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult in-patients with COVID-19in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020; 395: 1054–1062. PMID: 32171076

13. Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, Xia J, Zhou X, Xu S, et al. Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern Med. 2020. PMID: 32167524

14. Kantri A, Ziati J, Khalis M, Haoudar A, Ei Aidaoui K, Daoudi, et al. Hematological and biochemical abnormalities associated with severe forms of COVID-19: A retrospective single-center study from Morocco. PLOSONE.2021. journal.pone.0246295

15. Choi KW, Chau TN, Tsang O, Tso E, Chiu MC, Tog WL et al. Outcomes and prognostic factors in 267 patients with the severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. Ann Intern Med. 2003; 139: 715–723. 200311040-00005 PMID: 14597455

16. Hong KH, Choi JP, Hong SH, Lee J , Kwon JS, Kim SM, et al. Predictors of mortality in the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).Thorax. 2018; 73:286–289. thoraxjnl-2016-209313 PMID: 28724637

17. Javanian M, Bayani M, Shokri M, Babazadeh A, Yeganeh B, Mohseni S, et al. Clinical and laboratory findings from patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Babol North of Iran: a retrospective cohort study. Rom J Intern Med. 2020. Available from: PMID: 32396143

18. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020; 395: 507–513. 6736(20)30211-7 PMID: 32007143

19. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Cardona-Ospina JA, Gutierrez-Ocampo E, Villamizar-Pena R, Holguin-Rivera Y, Escalera-Antezana JP, et al. Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020; 34:101623. PMID: 32179124

20. Shim E, Tariq A, Choi W, Lee Y, Chowell G. Transmission potential and severity of COVID-19 in South Korea. Int J Infect Dis. 2020; 93: 339–344. PMID: 32198088

21. Verity R, Okell LC, Dorigatti I, Winskill P, Whittaker C, Imai N, et al. Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: amodel-based analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; 20: 669–677. 30243-7 PMID: 32240634

22. Qin C, Zhou L, Hu Z, Zhang S, Yang S, TaoY, et al. Dysregulation of immune response in patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis. 2020. Available from: https://doi. org/10.1093/cid/ciaa248 PMID: 32161940

23. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, MacGregor K, Kanagarajah S, Patel D, Schlagenhauf P. Going global—travel and the 2019 novel coronavirus. Trav Med Infect Dis. 2020; 33: 101578. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101578 PMID: 32044389

24. Henry BM, Santos de Oliveira MH, Benoit S, Plebani M, Lippi G. Hematologic, biochemical and immune biomarker abnormalities associated with severe illness and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19): a meta-analysis. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2020. Available from: 0369 PMID: 32286245

25. Liu Y, Yang Y, Zhang C, Huang F, Wang F, Yuan J, et al. Clinical and biochemical indexes from 2019-nCoV infected patients linked to viral loads and lung injury. Sci China Life Sci. 2020; 63: 364–374. PMID: 32048163

26. Velavan TP, Meyer CG. Mild versus severe COVID-19: laboratory markers. Int J Infect Dis. 2020; 95:304–307. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.04.061 PMID: 32344011

27. Mehta P, McAuley DF, Brown M, Sanchez E, Tattersall RS, Manson JJ. COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet. 2020; 395: 1033–1034. https://doi. org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0 PMID: 32192578

28. Lippi G, Lavie CJ, Sanchis-Gomar F. Cardiac troponin I in patients with coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19): Evidence from a meta-analysis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2020. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.pcad.2020.03.001 PMID: 32169400

29. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020; 323: 1061–1069. PMID: 32031570

30. Zhang C, Shi L, Wang FS. Liver injury in COVID-19: management and challenges. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020; 5: 428–430. PMID: 32145190

31. Yan L, Zhang HT, Goncalves J, Xiao Y, Wang M, Guo Y, et al. An interpretable mortality prediction model for COVID-19 patients.Nature Machine Intelligence. 2020; 2: 283–288


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in

Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

Copyright © 2024 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions