International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
logo
slider
slider
slider
slider
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - 14(18), September, 2022

Pages: 29-34

Date of Publication: 24-Sep-2022


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\"

Author: Prajjwal Gupta, Chaya Rani, Kanishka Chauhan, Harsh Sisodia

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:In the case of chronic illnesses, fast-dissolving drug delivery systems were developed as an oral medication administration alternative to traditional dose forms. For masking the taste of unpleasant drugs and enhancing patient compliance, fast-dissolving films are now recommended over traditional tablets and capsules. Fast dissolving films consist of a very thin oral strip that dissolves in less than one minute when placed on the tongue. Customers have responded positively to dissolvable oral thin films in the form of breath strips, which have been on the market for a few years and are used to administer vitamins, vaccines and other medicinal products. In fact, the review goes through the various production methods for film preparation. The current review summarizes the majority of recent patents on fast-dissolving films. A brief analysis of the several factors considered to analyze such films has been carried out. These fast-dissolving films are better to other oral traditional dose forms in terms of delivering drugs and attaining faster therapeutic blood levels in the case of chronic diseases.

Keywords: Dissolution, Disintegration, Fast dissolving film, Polymer, Surfactants, Types of films

Full Text:

Introduction 1-4

The oral route is the most common route of drug administration delivery until now because it has several benefits over other routes of drug administration. However, the oral drug delivery system still needs to be improved due to various drawbacks related to specific patient groups, such as geriatric, paediatric, and dysplasia patients who suffer from a variety of medical conditions and have difficulty speaking. To improve these drawbacks fast dissolving tablets or orally dissolving film immersed as alternative oral dosage forms. The FDT technology allows tablets to dissolve or disintegrate without the use of extra water in the mouth. The Food and Drug Administration [FDA] defines the FDT formulation as "a solid dosage form containing medicinal compounds that disintegrate fast, generally within seconds, when put on the tongue." The orally fast-dissolving film is a novel drug delivery method for oral administration. It was produced using the technique of a transdermal patch.It consists a very thin oral strip which is placed on the tongue or any oral mucosal tissue, immediately hydrates by soaking saliva, it adheres at the site of application then it fastly disintegrates and dissolves to release the drug into the oral cavity.

Special features of oral dissolving film5,6

  1. A very thin film

  2. Un-obstructive

  3. Fast disintegration and dissolving

  4. Excellent mucoadhesive

  5. Should not leave residue in the mouth

  6. Give a pleasant mouth feel

  7. Available in various sizes and shapes

  8. Quick release

Ideal properties of fast-dissolving films 7

  • It should have a pleasant flavour and a pleasant tongue feel.

  • To resist post-manufacturing handling, it should be less friable and have excellent mechanical strength.

  • The drug's stability and solubility in water and saliva should be good.

  • It should leave the least amount of residue in the mouth.

  • It should dissolve rapidly in the mouth, releasing the drug instantly.

  • It should be compatible with the other ingredients.

Advantages 7,8

  1. Dosing convenience

  2. Water is not Required

  3. No fear of choking

  4. Taste masking

  5. Increased stability

  6. Patient compliance has improved.

  7. Rapid onset of action

  8. Handling and transportation ease

  9. Improved bioavailability for certain active pharmaceutical ingredients

Disadvantages 9,10

  • As it's hygroscopic, it must be stored in a dry environment.

  • It also shows the granule's fragile nature.

  • They need specific packaging in order for the products to be stable and safe.

  • A high dosage of drug cannot be incorporated into an oral film.

  • Drugs that are unstable at the pH of the buccal cavity cannot be given.

  • Oral route cannot be used to deliver drugs that irritate the mucosa.

  • Only drug with a low dose requirement can be administered.

  • Taste masking-most medicines have a bitter flavour, which requires the use of a taste masking agent.

Applications of Oral Films in Drug Delivery 11

  • Oral mucosal transport via buccal, sublingual, and mucosal routes using OTFs might become the efficient delivery technique for therapies that need rapid absorption, such as those for pain, allergies, sleep problems, and central nervous system illnesses.

  • Topical applications: Using dissolvable films to deliver active ingredients such as analgesics or antimicrobial agents for wound care and other applications may be possible.

  • Gastro retentive dosage systems: Water-soluble and poorly soluble molecules of varying molecular weights are packed in a film format for dissolvable films, which are being evaluated in dosage forms. The films' dissolution might be triggered by the gastrointestinal tract's pH or enzyme secretions, and might be employed to treat gastrointestinal problems.

  • Diagnostic devices: Dissolvable films can be loaded with sensitive reagents to allow controlled release when exposed to biological fluids, or they may be used to form isolation barriers for separating different reagents within a diagnostic device to permit a timed reaction.

Classification of fast-dissolving technology 12

Fast dissolve technologies may be divided into three categories for ease of explanation.

  • Lyophilized systems

  • Compressed tablet-based systems

  • Fast dissolving film

Fast dissolving film 13-15

Oral films are one of the most recent advancements in the development of oral disintegrating dosage forms. They are thin, elegant films made of edible water-soluble polymers that come in a variety of sizes and forms, such as square, rectangle, and disc. The stripes might be soft or hard, opaque or translucent. They are meant to disintegrate quickly on the tongue without the need of water. Fast-dissolving films [FDFs] have a significant disintegration-specific surface area.
The films reduce the risk of choking, are easy to handle and administer, and keep a simple and conventional packaging that is simple to manufacture, solving the drawbacks of oral rapid dissolving tablets. Low drug loading capacity and limited taste masking options are two key drawbacks of these dosage forms.
A thin film with a thickness of 1-10 mm and a surface area of 1-20 cm2 of any shape is referred to as a fast-dissolving film. Drugs can be incorporated up to 15 mg in a single dosage. Due to a particular matrix consisting of water-soluble polymers, it dissolves rapidly in saliva and has a low tack for easy handling and application. The system's wet tack and muco-adhesiveness capabilities, on the other hand, are designed to attach the film to the application site when wet. Films are chosen for their flexibility and strength to aid in the manufacturing process, as well as processes such as rewinding, die cutting, and packaging.
The fast-disintegrating film is placed on the patient tongue are mucosal tissue, which gets instantly wetted by saliva. The film rapidly hydrates and sticks to the application site. It then disintegrates and dissolves rapidly, releasing the drug for oral mucosal absorption or stomach absorption when swallowed.

Formulation of fast-dissolving oral films 16

The many types of excipients that are utilised in oral films are listed below chemically inert and approved excipients should be utilised in the formulation of oral films. Depending on the characteristics of the film-forming substance, the development of dosage forms might bring a number of significant challenges. Foaming during film formation as a result of material heating or solvent evaporation, flaking during slitting, and cracking during cutting are all common issues.

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient 15,16

The drug is incorporated in the film in concentrations ranging from 1 to 30% w/w. Fast-acting films can be used to administer a variety of drugs. Oral strips are thin, flexible films with a surface area of up to 8 cm2 that dissolve in seconds, thus molecules with a high dose and low solubility are not recommended. Antihistamines, anti-diarrheal, anti-depressants, vasodilators, anti-asthmatics, antiemetics, and other medications can be administered as fast-dissolving oral films. Dimenhydrinate can also be used to mask the taste of ODFs. Common examples of drugs incorporated into ODFs are rizatriptan benzoate, salbutamol sulphate, rofecoxib, verapamil, ondansetron, dexamethasone, cetirizine, pilocarpine, tianeptine sodium, indomethacin, etc.

Film forming polymer17

They impart the desired properties into the film, mainly hydrophilic polymers used in the preparation, as the film dissolves rapidly in the oral cavity. The type and amount of polymer employed, for example, pullulan, sodium alginate, pectin, hydroxy propyl cellulose, and hydroxy methyl cellulose, affect the film's toughness.

Film formers fall into the category of water-soluble polymers. In medical and nutraceutical applications, the use of film-forming polymers in dissolvable films has gained a lot of attention. The water-soluble polymers enable the films to disintegrate rapidly, have a pleasant tongue feel, and have acceptable mechanical properties.

By increasing the molecular weight of polymer film bases, the rate of polymer disintegration is reduced. HPMC E-3 and K-3, Methylcellulose A-3, A-6, and A-15, Pullulan, carboxymethylcellulose Cekol 30, Polyvinyl pyrrolidone PVP K-90, Pectin, Gelatine, Sodium Alginate, Hydroxy propyl cellulose, Polyvinyl alcohol, Maltodextrins, and Eudragit are just a few of the water-soluble polymers used as film formers.

Plasticizer 18,19

The plasticizer is an important component that increases the film's flexibility and minimises its brittleness.If the plasticizer is applied inappropriately, it might cause film cracking, fracturing, and peeling. The plasticizer should be added to the formulation in a 0-20 percent concentration range to affect the mechanical characteristics of the film, such as tensile strength and percent elongation. Plasticizers include PEG, glycerol, diethyl phthalate, triethyl citrate, and tributyl citrate.

Surfactant 19

Surfactants are used to solubilize poorly soluble drugs and also to solubilise or wet and disperse the film and release the active ingredients easily. Examples include poloxamer 407, sodium lauryl sulphate, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, tweens and spans.

Sweetening agent 20,21

The mouth-dissolving films need to have good taste for patient acceptance and compliance as the films are to be taken without water and they are not swallowed but are required to disintegrate and dissolve in the oral cavity.
Sweeteners used include
a] Natural water-soluble sweetener: xylose, ribose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, sativoside etc.
b] Artificial water-soluble sweetener: sodium or calcium saccharin salts, acesulfame -K etc.
c] Dipeptide-based sweetener: aspartame

Saliva stimulating agent 22

These agents are used to increase saliva production in the mouth, which helps the mouth-dissolving films dissolve faster. Examples include malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid and ascorbic acid. Citric acid is one of the most preferred ingredients.

Flavouring agents23,24

These are added for patient acceptance and compliance. The flavours selected are determined by the patients; age, the type of drug, and the taste of the drug to be masked. Synthetic flavour oils, oleoresin, and extracts produced from various sections of plants such as fruits, leaves, and flowers can all be used as flavouring agents. One can use a single flavour or a mixture of flavours. Essential oil or water-soluble extract of menthol, strong mints like sweet mint, spearmint, peppermint, wintergreen, clove, cinnamon, sour fruit flavours like orange, lemon, or sweet confectionary flavours like vanillin, chocolate, or fruit essences like apple, pineapple, cherry, and raspberry all be used as flavouring.

Colouring agent 25

Colours approved by FD & C is used for improving the appearance of film in case the drug is insoluble or for aesthetic appeal. Pigments like titanium dioxide can be used for colouring. The concentration of the colouring agent should not exceed 1% w/w.

Composition of oral thin film

Method of Manufacture of Mouth Dissolving Film

1. Casting and drying

A. Solvent casting

B. Semisolid casting.

2. Freeze-dried wafer

3. Extrusion

A. Hot melt extrusion.

B. Solid Dispersion Extrusion

C. Rolling method.

Solvent casting method26

This method is preferred for fast-dissolving buccal films, in which the water-soluble ingredient is dissolved to form a clear viscous solution, and the drug, along with another excipient, is dissolved in a suitable solvent, then both solutions are mixed and stirred before being cast in a Petri plate and dried.

Semisolid casting 27

In this process, a solution of water-soluble film-producing polymer is initially produced. The resulting solution is combined with an ammonium or sodium hydroxide-prepared solution of an acid-insoluble polymer [e.g., cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate phthalate]. The appropriate amount of plasticizer is applied, resulting in a gel mass. Finally, the gel mass is cast in the film or ribbon using a heat-controlled drum. The film is between 0.015 and 0.05 inches thick. A 1:4 ratio of acid-insoluble polymer to film-forming polymer should be used.

Freeze-dried wafer 28

It's also known as Lyophilisation or Cryodesiccation because it involves dehydrating water and lowering surrounding pressure to allow water in a substance to sublime straight from the solid to the gaseous phase. Lyophilization produces an extremely porous preparation with a high specific surface area that dissolves quickly and has increased absorption and bioavailability.

Hot melt extrusion29

In this procedure, the API is combined with the carrier, and a stable granular mass is produced and dried. So that the granules stay in the extruder for 3-4 minutes, the screw speed should be about 15 rpm. 80°C [zone 1], 115°C [zone 2], 100°C [zone 3], and 65°C [zone 4] are the recommended processing temperatures [zone 4]. The extrudate [T= 65°C] is squeezed into a cylindrical calendar to form a film. In this solvent-free method, low molecular weight and low viscosity polymers are chosen.

Solid Dispersion Extrusion

Solid dispersion is prepared by immiscible components and drugs. Finally, the solid dispersion is shaped into film by means of dies.

Rolling method30

In this approach, a drug solution or suspension is made with rheological considerations in mind. As a solvent, water or a combination of water and alcohol is employed. The carrier is rolled with a drug-containing suspension or solution. The films are cured on rollers before being cut into the desired shapes and sizes.

Evaluation parameters of fast-dissolving films

Physical Appearance

The mouth-dissolving films were checked visually for uniformity, clarity and tackiness.

Weight and thickness

Cut the films into 2cm X 2cm squares and weigh them using an electric scale. The average weight and standard deviation were obtained after three films were individually weighted. The thickness of the films was measured with a micrometre in three locations, with an average of three readings from three films and a standard deviation recorded.

Surface pH23

The pH was determined by putting the electrode of a pH metre in contact with the surface after placing the film on a glass petri-plate and moistening it with 0.5ml of phosphate buffer. The standard deviation was calculated using an average of three measurements from three films.

Drug content31

Each formulation must have three film units put in a separate 100 ml volumetric flask, 100 ml of solvent added, and the flasks constantly swirled for 24 hours. The solution must be filtered, diluted properly, and then measured at a particular wavelength in a UV spectrophotometer. As a final reading, the average of drug content of the three films must be used.

Folding Endurance31

Using a sharp blade, cut three films of each composition to the required size. Folding endurance should be assessed by folding the film in the same spot over and over until it breaks. The value of folding endurance is determined by the number of time the film can be folded at the same location without breaking.

Tensile Strength

Tensile strength is the maximum stress applied to a point at which the strip specimen break. It is calculated by the formula,

Tensile strength = Load at failure × 100 / Strip thickness × strip width

Disintegration Test32

The visual technique should be used to determine the in-vitro disintegration time of film strip. The film strip should be swirled every 10 seconds in a glass Petri dish with 10-25 ml of distilled water at 37°C. The moment at which the film begins to shatter or disintegrate was recorded as the disintegration time. The time it took for the disintegration to occur was measured.

In-vitro dissolution studies

To assess drug release, the simulated salivary fluid should be used as the dissolving media. The dissolution profile of rapid-release films was measured in a beaker with 30 ml of simulated salivary fluid [pH 6.8] as a dissolving medium and kept at 37 0.5°C. At 100 rpm, the medium was agitated. At 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10-minute intervals, aliquots [5 ml] of the dissolving media were removed and replaced with fresh medium. At specified nm, samples were spectrophotometrically analysed. All of the samples were subjected to three trials, with the average value taken. At various time intervals, the percentage of the drug dissolved was recorded and plotted against time.

Stability studies 33

The fast-dissolving films' stability should be tested under a variety of environmental circumstances. For stability experiments, the film was wrapped in aluminium foil and kept for 90 days at 2-8°C [45 percent RH], 25-30°C [60 percent RH], and 45-50°C [75 percent RH] in a stability chamber. During the stability investigation, the patches were characterised for drug content and other characteristics.

Discussion

In this review article, we have discussed the detailed study on fast dissolving film & their unique features, Ideal properties, advantages, disadvantages, applications, types of films, formulations of fast-dissolving oral films, active pharmaceutical ingredients used in the preparation of oral films, methods for the manufacturing of oral films & evaluation parameters of fast dissolving films. 

Conclusion

Recently As a dosage form for mouth fresheners, fast-dissolving films have gained appeal. Meanwhile, pharmaceutical companies have noticed the technology's promise for delivering medical goods and have created many OTC items utilising it. The fast-dissolving thin film has received little attention in the literature, but it appears to be an appropriate dose form for usage in young children, particularly geriatric and paediatric patients. They combine the increased stability of a solid dosage form with the ease of use of a liquid dosage form. The availability of goods on the market is limited due to a lack of consistent techniques for preparation and analysis.

Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to the authors/editors/publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

Source of funding: None

Conflict of Interest: none

Authors’ Contribution:

Prajjwal Gupta: His contribution to this review article is that he compiles the total study based on fast-dissolving films & their parameters.

Chaya Rani: Her contribution to this review article is that she does the literature review on evaluation parameters of fast-dissolving films.

Kanishka Chauhan: Her contribution to this review article is that she does the literature review on the introduction & classification of fast-dissolving films.

Harsh Sisodia: His contribution to this review article is that he does the literature review on methods of preparation of oral films.

References:

1. Sastry SV, Nyshadham JR, Fix JA. Recent technological advances in oral drug delivery – a review. Pharm. Sci. Technol. Today. 2000 Apr 1;3(4):138–45.

2. Garima Y, Anupriya K, Shilpi B. Fast dissolving tablets recent advantages: A Review. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 2012 Jan 1;3(3): 728 -736

3. Arya A, Chandra A, Sharma V, Pathak K. Fast Dissolving Oral Films: an innovative Drug Delivery System and Dosage Form. Int. J. Chem.Tech. Res. 2010 Jan 1; 2:576–83.

4. Irfan M, Rabel S, Bukhtar Q, Qadir MI, Jabeen F, Khan A. Orally disintegrating films: A modern expansion in drug delivery system. Saudi. Pharm. J. 2016 Sep;24(5):537–46.

5. Mishra R, Avani A. Formulation and Characterization of Rapidly Dissolving Films of Cetirizine hydrochloride using Pullulan as a Film Forming Agent. Indian J. Pharm. Educ. Res. 2011;45(1):71–77.

6. Jaiswal H. Oral Strip Technology: A review. Indian j. pharm. biol. res. 2014 Jun 25;2(2):130-143

7. Manasa Deepa R, Puja C, Kharel R, Valluru R, Sridhar K. A review on oral fast dissolving films a novel drug delivery system. Asian j. res. chem pharm. sci.2016 Apr 26;4(4), 165 - 175.

8. Thakur N, Bansal M, Sharma N, Yadav G, Khare P. Overview “A Novel Approach of Fast Dissolving Films and Their Patients.” Advan. Biol. Res., 2013;7 (2): 50-58.

9. Thakare M, Narwade V, Rave V, Chakote V. Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Oral Film of Losartan Potassium. Int. J. Sci. Res., 2018;9(4):831-837.

10. Jyoti A, Singh G, Seema S, Rana AC. Fast dissolving films: A novel approach to oral drug delivery. Int. res. J. Pharm. 2011 Dec 1; 2:69–74.

11. Bala R, Pawar P, Khanna S, Arora S. Orally dissolving strips: A new approach to oral drug delivery system. Int. J. Pharm. Investig. 2013;3(2):67–76.

12. Shobana M. Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Oral Film of Sitagliptin Phosphate by Solvent Casting Method [Internet] [masters]. Cherraan’s College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore; 2018 [cited 2021 Apr 16].

13. Venkateswarlu K. Preparation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Buccal Thin Films of Bufotenin.J. In Silico In Vitro Pharmacol. [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2022 Jul 29];02(04)12: 1-5.

14. Chonkar AD, Bhagawati ST, Udupa N. An Overview on Fast Dissolving Oral Films. Asian Jour. Pharm. and Technol. 2015;5(3):129-137.

15. Usha T, Kiran R, Sunil K, Reddy K, Katta M, Thyagaraja K. A detailed review on fast dissolving oral films. Indo Am. j. pharm., 2018 Jun 1;8(06),1315-1326.

16. Deepak S, Kaur D, Verma S, Singh D, Singh M, Singh G, et al. FastDissolving Oral Films Technology: A Recent Trend for An Innovative Oral Drug Delivery System. Int. J. Drug Deliv. Technol. 2015 Oct12; 7:60–75.

17. Pawar R, Sharma R, Sharma P, Darwhekar G. A Review on MouthDissolving Film. J. Drug Deliv. Ther. 2019 Nov15; 9:206– 210.

18. Dixit RP, Puthli SP. Oral strip technology: overview and future potential. J. Control. Release. 2009 Oct 15;139[2]:94–107.

19. Prasanna P. Ghodake, Kailas M. Karande, Riyaz Ali Osmani, Mouth Dissolving Films: Innovative Vehicle for Oral Drug Delivery. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 2013 Oct19; 2(10):41-47.

20. Vijay Sharma. role of taste and taste masking of bitter drugs in pharmaceutical industries an overview. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2010 Jul 8; 2:14-18.

21. Sohi H, Sultana Y, Khar RK. Taste masking technologies in oral pharmaceuticals: recent developments and approaches. Drug Dev.Ind. Pharm. 2004 May;30[5]:429–48.

22. Nagar P, Chauhan I, Yasir M. Insights into polymers: Film formers in mouth dissolving films. Drug Invent. Today. 2011 Jan 1; 3:280–289.

23. Mahajan A, Chhabra N, Aggarwal G. Formulation and Characterization of Fast Dissolving Buccal Films: A Review. Der. Pharmacia. Lettre. 2011Jan 1; 3:152–165.

24. Satbir S, Tarun V, Reshu V, Pankaj K, GeetaM. Fast dissolving drug delivery systems: formulation, preparation techniques and evaluation. Univers. J. Pharm. Res.2018; 3[4]: 60-69.

25. Mididoddi PK, Repka MA. Characterization of hot-melt extruded drug delivery systems for onychomycosis. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 2007 Apr 1;66[1]:95–105.

26. Bala R, Khanna S, Pawar P. Design Optimization and In Vitro Vivo Evaluation of Orally Dissolving Strips of Clobazam. J. Drug Deliv. 2014 Sep 28;2014: e392783.

27. Prasanna K, Prasanna Kumar D, Brahmaiah B, Nama S, Nagalakshmi A. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving films of rizatriptan formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving films of rizatriptan formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving films of rizatriptan. Int. j. res. pharm. Biomed. sci. 2013 Jun 18; 2(3):298-305.

28. Sharma JK, Gupta DMK, Sharma V. formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving oral film of ketorolac tromethamine. Int. j. pharm.2018 Feb 28 [cited 2021 Apr 16];11[01]: 60-64

29. Linku A, Sijimol J. formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving oral film of the anti-allergic drug. Asian j. pharm. res. dev. 2018 Jul 10; 6:5–16.

30. Upret K, Kumar L, Anand SP, Chawla V. Formulation and evaluation of mouth dissolving films of paracetamol. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2014 Jan 1; 6:200–202.

31. Kim YS, Shin JH. Fast-dissolving oral film preparation comprising aripiprazole [Internet]. EP2883540A1, 2015 [cited 2021 Apr 5].

32. Venkateswarlu K. Preparation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Buccal Thin Filmsof Bufotenin. J. In Silico In Vitro Pharmacol. [Internet]. [cited2021 Apr 16];2[4].1-5.

33. Kevadiya BD, Barvaliya M, Zhang L, Anovadiya A, Brahmb hatt H, Paul P,et al. Fenofibrate Nanocrystals Embedded in Oral Strip-Films for Bioavailability Enhancement. Bioengineering. 2018 Mar;5[1]: 16:1-17.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



ABOUT US

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2023 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions