International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - 14(18), September, 2022

Pages: 01-04

Date of Publication: 24-Sep-2022


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Coronavirus Diseases (covid -19) and Mucormycosis: A Mini-Review

Author: Chakraborty Arindam

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: Mucormycosis is an opportunistic infection emerging as a major public health problem during the COVID-19 pandemic. Predisposing factors such as Diabetes mellitus (DM) as well as use of corticosteroids in COVID-19 patients act as a key role for the surge of the disease. However, the epidemiological factors, site of the infections, demographic details, morbidity and mortality of the patients were not well documented, so we undertook the study to review the published original articles, case series, and case report on mucormycosis associated with COVID-19 with predisposing factors such as DM and the use of corticosteroids, Methods: On analysis of 30 articles from India as well as from other countries. Results: After analysis of the available data, it was found that mucormycosis is predominantly seen in males in the age of 50\?5. The common site of the infection was rhino-orbital mucormycosis followed by rhino orbital cerebral. Pre-existing DM was the most significant risk factor followed by corticosteroid treatment along with hospitals supplying oxygen to patients. The hospital environment also play a significant role for the sudden rise of the disease. Conclusion: To overcome this severe situation in the future, there is a need to maintain optimal hyperglycemia in the population, avoid overuse of corticosteroids, and proper hospital infection control (HIC) program in order to reduce the burden of fatal mucormycosis.

Keywords: Mucormycosis, COVID-19, Diabetes Mellitus, Corticosteroid, HIC, Oxygen

Full Text:

Introduction:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infections has been associated with a wide range of opportunistic infection. 1Bacterial, as well as fungal infections, were reported in patients with coronaviral diseases. Mucormycosis one such opportunistic infection which shows sudden rise in covid 19-second wave in India.2 There are several mechanisms that appears to be facilitating Mucorales spores to germinate in people with COVID-19 is an environment of low oxygen (hypoxia), diabetes high glucose (diabetes, metabolic acidosis, diabetic keto-acidosis [DKA]), high iron levels (increased ferritins) and decreased phagocytic activity of white blood cells (WBC) due to immunosuppression (SARS-CoV-2 mediated, steroid-mediated or background co-morbidities) along with several other shared risk factors including prolonged hospitalization with or without mechanical ventilators. 3

It has been found that the prevalence of mucormycosis is nearly 80 times higher in India in compare with other developed countries in COVID 19 era this might be due to the presence of highest number of diabetic patients in Indian population with this long-term use of corticosteroids were also considered as important risk factor for the sudden spike of mucormycosis in Indian population.3,4,5,6

These findings need to be re-look in the context of COVID19 pandemic hence we conduct a systemic review of published case report/ case series of mucormycosis in people with COVID19 who have DM and are treated with corticosteroids.

Methods:

A systematic literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Google Scholar was done using the term “COVID-19 and Mucormycosis, SARS COV-2 and Mucormycosis, Zygomycosis, Phycomycosis, Mucorales, COVID-19 and Diabetes mellitus. On the basis of title and available abstract, articles were included for the selected topics. For the study only those articles have included their abstracts in English. Of the published articles, 38 original articles and 12 reviewed were excluded in which studies were mainly focused on COVID 19 and mucormycosis.

Overall30original articles/case report was found in Medline, PubMed, and Google Scholar.  Of the total of 30 articles 14 were from India where overall 75 mucormycosis cases were documented.

Diabetic mellitusand corticosteroid as risk factors:

Sharmaet al. studied mucormycosis cases in COVID 19 patients where they found 21 patients were diabetic and all the patients were under Steroid treatment, on analysis of the prognosis they have found all of them were recovered from COVID 19 as well as mucormycosis.7

 Yet in another study by Moorthyetal. from Bangalore of 17 COVID 19 patients with mucormycosis found 15 patients were diabetic and also under steroid treatment. The mortality rate was 40% which were high in comparison to other studies.8

Another study in Iran by Pakdel F et al. was reported fifteen cases of rhino-orbital mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients. The median age of patients was 52 years (range 14-71) and 66% were male. The median interval time between COVID-19 disease and diagnosis of mucormycosis was seven (range: 1-37) days. Among all, 13 patients (86%) had diabetes mellitus, while 7 patients (46.6%) previously received intravenous corticosteroid therapy. Five patients (33%) underwent orbital exenteration, while seven (47%) patients died from mucormycosis. Six patients (40%) received combined anti-fungal therapy and none that received combined anti-fungal therapy died.9

Another study in USA by Dallalzadehetal. reported one confirm cases of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients with DM and Steroid were act as an important risk factor. 10

There were many other case studies/ series from India reported that Diabetic mellitus and Steroid treatment were two important risk factors of mucormycosis in COVID 19 infected patients which all are summarize in table 1.

On analysis of the pooled data from all the studies showed mucormycosis was predominantly seen in males and mean age were 50±5years, the common site of the infection was rhino-orbital mucormycosis followed by rhino orbito cerebral. Pre-existing DM was the most significant risk factors followed by corticosteroid treatment. While considering the mortality rate the pooled data shows about one in three patients were expired due to mucormycosis.

Discussion:

Mucormycosis is extremely rear in healthy populations but can be coupled with an immunocompromised condition such as malignancies, organ transplantation prolonged neutropenia, immunosuppressive and corticosteroid therapy, iron overload, AIDS, even with malnutrition and uncontrolled DM. Mucormycosis can infect in nose, sinuses, orbit, central nervous system (CNS), lung (Upper &Lower respiratory Tract), gastrointestinal tract (GITract), skin, jaw bones, joints, heart, kidney and mediastinum, but rhino-orbital- cerebral mucormycosis is the commonest variety seen in clinical practice worldwide. 11 Based on our literature study it’s revealed that it appears by the intersection of two crises: one is the use of corticosteroid in COVID 19 patients and the other of poorly controlled DM in the settings of a pandemic. In addition to this an alternation iron metabolism occurs in severe COVID 19 which lead to cause hyper ferritin emic syndrome, studies have shown that high ferritin levels lead to excess intracellular iron that generates reactive oxygen species resulting in tissue damage. Cytokines, especially IL-6, due to severe infection and DKA, stimulate ferritin synthesis and downregulate iron export resulting in intracellular iron overload, further exacerbating the process.12 The resultant tissue damage leads to the release of free iron into circulation.13 Iron overload and excess free iron seen in academic states are one of the keys and unique risk factors for MCR.14 However more details study is required to conclude whether high ferritin level is directly involved in mucormycosis or whether its act as a modulator of the diseases. 15

It has been observed that in the second wave of COVID 19 there was huge demand for‘ industrial oxygen’ to address the lack of oxygen supply chain for medical use. Hence, proper handling and sanitization of oxygen gas cylinders in hospital/home use is of utmost importance. The hospital environment also plays a vital role in mucormycosis as it found Fungal pathogens are present in bed bars and headers, taps, bedside table and other places of hospitals. This problem can be suppressed by proper hospital infection control measures adopting hand washing measures by healthcare workers and decontaminating high-contact hospital surfaces. There is another factor that may also played an important role such as reusable oxygen humidifiers in the transmission of potential nosocomial pathogens via the generation of aerosol particles, for they reach deep into the lung immediately after inhalation, care should be taken for appropriate maintenance of reusable ones. Besides, clean distilled water should be used in humidifiers during oxygen therapy in COVID-19 patients.30

People requiring oxygen support at home should ensure the use of clean distilled water in oxygen concentrators. Overuse of steam inhalation, as well as non-humidified oxygen, can lead to damage of the respiratory mucosa, allowing easy penetration of the fungal spore inCOVID-19 positive individuals. Continued use of facemasks would reduce the chances of re-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and minimize the risk of inhalation of fungal spores. However, reusing the same masks for 2–3 weeks may increase the risk of acquiring mucormycosis.

Conclusion

It is found that uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, inappropriate steroid therapy, self-medication, and a high load of fungal spores in the hospital environment were responsible for mucormycosis in the COVID-19 era. So, there are needed to make efforts to maintain hyperglycemia, proper use of corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19 and hospital sanitization in order to reduce the burden of fatal mucormycosis.

Acknowledgment: I am grateful to the Government of Uttar Pradesh for providing   the
  Infrastructure to conduct the study.

Source of funding: NIL

Conflict of Interest: Nil

Authors’ Contribution: All authors contributed equally towards the data collection, data analysis & compilations

References:

1. Kubin CJ, McConville TH, Dietz D, Zucker J, May M, Nelson B, et al. Characterization of Bacterial and Fungal Infections in Hospitalized Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Factors Associated With Health Care-Associated Infections. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2021 May 5;8(6)

2. Patel A, Agarwal R, Rudramurthy SM, Shevkani M, Xess I, Sharma R et al. Multicenter Epidemiologic Study of Coronavirus Disease-Associated Mucormycosis, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Sep;27(9):2349-2359.

3. Singh AK, Singh R, Joshi SR, Misra A. Mucormycosis in COVID-19: A systematic review of cases reported worldwide and in India. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2021 Jul-Aug;15(4):102146.

4. Skiada A., Pavleas I., Drogari-Apiranthitou M. Epidemiology and diagnosis of mucormycosis: an Update. J Fungi. 2020;6(4):265.

5. Chander J, Kaur M, Singla N, Punia RPS, Singhal SK, Attri AK et al. Mucormycosis: battle with the deadly enemy over a five-year period in India. J. Fungi. 2018;4(2):46.

6. Prakash H, Chakrabarti A. Global Epidemiology of Mucormycosis. J Fungi (Basel). 2019 Mar 21;5(1):26.

7. Sharma S., Grover M., Bhargava S, Samdani S, Kataria T. Post coronavirus disease mucormycosis: a deadly addition to the pandemic spectrum. J Laryngol Otol. 2021 May;135(5):442-447.

8. Moorthy A., Gaikwad R., Krishna S., Hegde R, Tripathi KK, Kale PG et al. SARS-CoV-2, uncontrolled diabetes and corti costeroids-an unholy trinity in invasive fungal infections of the maxillofacial region? A retrospective, multi-centric analysis. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2021 Sep; 20(3): 418–425.

9. Pakdel F, Ahmadikia K, Salehi M, Tabari A, Jafari R, Mehrparvar G et al. Mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19: A cross-sectional descriptive multicentre study from Iran. Mycoses. 2021 Oct;64(10):1238-1252.

10. Dallalzadeh LO, OzzelloDJ, Liu CY, Kikkawa DO, Korn BS. Secondary infection with rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis associated with COVID-19. Orbit. 2021 Mar 23:1-4.

11. Sugar A.M. Mucormycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;14:S126– S129.

12. Perricone C., Bartoloni E., Bursi R., Cafaro G, Guidelli GM, Shoenfeld Y et al. COVID-19 as part of the hyperferritinemia syndromes: The role of iron depletion therapy. Immunol. Res. 2020; 68:213–224.

13. Edeas M., Saleh J., Peyssonnaux C. Iron: Innocent bystander or vicious culprit in COVID-19 pathogenesis? Int. J. Infect. Dis. 2020; 97:303–305.

14. Ibrahim A.S., Spellberg B., Walsh T.J., Kontoyiannis DP. Pathogenesis of mucormycosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2012;54(Suppl. 1): S16–S22.

15. John TM, Jacob CN, Kontoyiannis DP. When Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus and Severe COVID-19 Converge: The Perfect Storm for Mucormycosis. J Fungi (Basel). 2021;7(4):298. Published 2021 Apr 15. doi:10.3390/jof7040298.

16. Mehta S., Pandey A. Rhino-orbital mucormycosis associated with COVID-19. Cureus. 2020 Sep 30;12(9) e10726.

17. Garg D., Muthu V., Sehgal I.S, Ramachandran R, Kaur H, Bhalla A et al. Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) associated mucormycosis (CAM): case report and systematic review of literature. Mycopathologia. 2021 May;186(2):289–298.

18. Satish D., Joy D., Ross A., Balasubramanya Mucormycosis coinfection associated with global COVID-19: a case series from India. Int J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2021 May;7(5):815–820.

19. Saldanha M., Reddy R., Vincent M.J. Title of the article: paranasal mucormycosis in COVID-19 patient. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2021 Apr 22:1–4.

20. Singh SP, Rana J, Singh VK, Singh R, Sachan R, Singh S et al. Rhino-orbital mucormycosis: Our experiences with clinical features and management in a tertiary care center. Rom J Ophthalmol. 2021 Oct-Dec;65(4):339-353.

21. Nehara H.R., Puri I., Singhal V, Ih S, Bishnoi BR, Sirohi P. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in COVID-19 patient with diabetes a deadly trio: case series from the north-western part of India. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2021;39(3):380–383.

22. Sarkar S., Gokhale T., Choudhury S.S., Deb AK. COVID-19 and orbital mucormycosis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2021;69:1002–1004.

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24. Mekonnen Z.K., Ashraf D.C., Jankowski T., Grob SR, Vagefi MR, Kersten RC et al. Acute invasive rhino-orbital mucormycosis in a patient with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2021;37 e40–80.

25. Monte Junior E.S.D., Santos M.E.L.D., Ribeiro I.B., Luz GO, Baba ER, Hirsch BS et al. Rare and fatal gastrointestinal mucormycosis (zygomycosis) in a COVID-19 patient: a case report. Clin Endosc. 2020 Nov;53(6):746–749.

26. Bayram N., Ozsaygili C., Sav H., Tekin Y, Gundogan M, Pangal E et al. Susceptibility of severe COVID-19 patients to rhinoorbital mucormycosis fungal infection in different clinical manifestations. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2021;65(4):515–525.

27. Alekseyev K., Didenko L., Chaudhry B. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis and COVID-19 pneumonia. J Med Cases. 2021;12:85–89.

28. Johnson A.K., Ghazarian Z., Cendrowski K.D., Persichino JG. Pulmonary aspergillosis and mucormycosis in a patient with COVID-19. Med Mycol Case Rep. 2021; 32:64–67.

29. Karimi-Galougahi M., Arastou S., Haseli S. Fulminant mucormycosis complicating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2021; 11:1029–1030.

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Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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