International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - 14(13), July, 2022

Pages: 01-09

Date of Publication: 05-Jul-2022

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Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antidiabetic and Phytochemical Investigation of Root Extracts of Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae)

Author: Atif Shahzad, Samina Afzal, Imran Ahmad

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: The plants are an alternative source for the management of a number of human disorders due to the presence of biologically active constituents Aims: Current study aims to investigate underexplored therapeutic potentials of roots of Tecoma stans through phytochemical and biological assays. Methods: The dried roots were extracted successively with methanol and dichloromethane by simple maceration and labeled with codes TSM and TSD respectively. Results: The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, andphenols in the extracts. TSM fraction revealed the highest total phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid contents159.79 mg GAE/g, 65.38to 13.04 mg QE/g and95.2 to 56.61 mg AT/g of extract respectively. As compared to TSD extract, TSM extract showed significant antioxidant activity using two models DPPH (79.8 %) and ABTS (71.06 %). Cytotoxic activity of methanol extracts against PC3 and HeLa cancer cell line exhibited 61.23% (IC50 22.89 µg/mL) and 74.03 % (17.78 µg/mL) inhibition of cancer cells respectively at concentration of 30 µg/mL. Extracts revealed antidiabetic activity through \a-amylase and \a-glucosidase inhibition with maximum inhibition 63.26% and 75.66% respectively was detected at the concentration of 1000 mg / mL by TSM extract. Conclusion: Methanolic extracts of roots of Tecoma stanscontainshigher amount plant secondary metabolites and revealed antioxidant, cytotoxic and \a-amylase as well as \a- glucosidase inhibition activities.

Keywords: Secondary metabolites, Antioxidant activity, MTT assay, Tecoma stans, Antidiabetic, Brine shrimp lethality assay

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Plants are an essential part of the earth. Since ancient time, human beings have been using plants as medicine. These medicinal properties of plants are due to the presence of biologically active constituents. It has been scientifically reported that these constituents obtained from plant extracts have various biological activities. The main purpose of these constituents in plants is to protect them from various harms but studies indicate that many of them can also be used against various disorders and diseases in humans. The most important of these biologically active constituents are secondary metabolites for example flavonoids, glycosides, steroids alkaloids, terpenes, and tannins. These secondary metabolites can be extracted by using different solvents and used in the preparation of useful drugs. The importance of chemical as well as pharmacological evaluation of plant-derived bioactive compounds used to treat many human illnesses has been increasingly recognized in the past few decades, but still, there are numerous useful medicinal plants and herbs waiting to be explored and evaluated for their effective medicinal application.1,2,3,4

Tecoma stans is distributed worldwide mostly grown in tropical and subtropical countries. It belongs to the family Bignoniaceae and is commonly known as the yellow bell. Phytochemical studies on the plant have shown the presence of secondary and primary plant metabolites such as alkaloids, phenolics, sugars, sterols and triterpenoids. Almost every part of the plant is of therapeutic value for example flowers showed antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory activity and antioxidant activity.5,6,7,8 Survey indicates that very few reports are available on its roots part so there was a need to explore the root regarding its phytochemical and pharmacological analysis. Therefore, the present work aimed to study the qualitative photochemical screening and quantitative analysis of total phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid contents of methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Tecoma stans roots as it is indicated that alkaloids, flavonoids and other polyphenols of Tecoma stans are main compounds thought to be responsible for positive results of many therapeutic activities. Plant extracts were also evaluated for antioxidant activity, alpha-amylase, alpha glycosidase inhibitory. Roots were also investigated for their cytotoxic potential using lethality assay as well as MTT assay against two important cancer cell lines (PC3 and HeLa).

 Material and Methods

 Plant Material

The whole Tecoma stans plant was collected. The plant was identified by plant taxonomist Dr. Zafrulla Ullah Zafar (Associate Professor), institute of pure and applied biology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan and a voucher specimen holding no. Kew – 318412 was deposited in the same institute.

Plant Extract Preparation.

The collected roots of the Tecoma stans were first freed from soil and then shade dried. The dried roots were grounded to coarse powder and subjected to simple maceration process. The weighed amount of coarse powder in an extraction bottle was soaked with known volume of dichloromethane (DCM) for 24 hrs. with intermittent shaking. Then the filtration was performed after 24 hrs. of addition of solvent (DCM). This process was repeated in triplicates using the same solvent. Then extraction of the marc was completed by using methanol in the same way. Both extracts were concentrated in a rotary evaporator at 35C to obtain crude extracts. Dichloromethane and methanol extracts were labeled as TSD and TSM respectively.

 Qualitative estimation of Phytochemical Constituents

A preliminary phytochemical examination for extracts was completed as described by.9

Quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents

Total Phenolic contents

Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method with slight modification was adopted for the purpose of quantification of total phenol content in the methanolic and dichloromethane root extracts of Tecoma stans. Accurately weighed 10 mg of gallic acid was dissolved in 10ml methanol to make the concentration of the solution 1 mg/ml and from this different concentrations of gallic acid (10-200 µg/ml) were prepared. Aliquots of 0.5 ml of plant extracts (10mg/10ml in methanol) and each of the standard gallic acid solution were taken in tubes and mixed with Folin–Ciocalteu reagent five ml (1:10 in deionized H2O). After few minutes, 4 ml of a saturated solution of sodium carbonate (7.8% w/v) was added in each solution given in tubes and covered with silver foils and subjected to incubation for sixty minutes (at room temp.) with shaking. Now the absorbance of each solution is measured at 765 nm wavelength. Blank was also used which was methanol only. All the samples were analyzed in triplicates. Gallic acid (GA) was used as a reference. Results obtained were expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of the sample. The calibration curve was plotted from pure phenolic standard which was gallic acid to quantify phenolic contents in both extracts.10

Total Flavonoid Contents

AlCl3 colorimetric assay with modification was adopted to quantify the methanol and dichloromethane root plant extracts of Tecoma stans regarding flavonoids. A standard was also used which was rutin and the results were expressed as Rutin equivalent (RUE) per gram of the sample.  Dissolved 10 mg of rutin in 10ml methanol and from this varying concentration (10-120mg) solutions were prepared. Now 0.18 ml 5% w/v of sodium nitrite solution and 2 ml of distilled water were added in each solution of rutin. Similarly 0.8 ml of extracts (10mg/10ml) mixed with 0.18 ml 5% w/v of sodium nitrite solution  and 2 ml of distilled water.  After 10 minutes, 2ml 10% AlCl3 w/v solution was also added in both extracts as well as in standard rutin solutions. All solution were allowed to stay for 10 minutes and then 1 ml 4%  sodium hydroxide was added to each mixture and made volume up to 5 ml using distilled H2O and mixtures were allowed to stay for 15 minutes. The absorbance of each mixture and blank was determined at a wavelength of 510nm. With the help of the standard curve of standard, the amount of flavonoid was calculated as mg rutin equivalent per gram of extract. All readings were performed in triplicates.10

Total Alkaloid contents

Total alkaloid contents in both extracts of Tecoma stans were calculated by spectrophotometrically.11 Atropine solution was used as the reference standard and its solution was prepared by dissolving 10mg of atropine in 10ml distilled water. The plant extracts with concentration1 mg/ml were dissolved in hydrochloric acid which was 2 normal and then filtered. 1.5 ml of filtered sol. was shifted to a separating funnel. In this separating funnel, 6 ml of phosphate buffer of neutral pH and 4 ml of bromocresol green solutions were added and followed by vigorous shaking using 4ml chloroform for extraction purposes. The extracted solution was further diluted with chloroform up to 10ml and absorbance of this diluted solution was measured at 470 nm wavelength. The calculations were performed in triplicates. Atropine calibration curve plotted by preparing varying dilutions of (50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225 and 250 µg/ml) atropine solution and performed same procedure as mentioned above. Absorbance of each dilution noted at 470nm against blank solution (devoid of atropine).

Antioxidant activity

DPPH Assay

The antioxidant potential of dichloromethane, as well as methanol root extracts of Tecoma stans, was measured by using the DPPH assay.10 1mg/ml solution of DPPH was prepared in methanol. 10 mg extract was carefully dissolved in10 ml methanol to prepare 1mg/ml solution. From this stock solution 60, 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10 μg/ml dilution prepared. In each of these dilutions, 75 µl 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrzl solution was added. All test tubes were placed in the dark for 35 minutes and then the absorption was noted at 517 nm. IC50 was also determined from % DPPH radical scavenging activity. Ascorbic acid was used as a reference. The stock solution of reference was prepared with the procedure same for each plant extract. The whole experiment was performed in triplicates. % inhibition of the 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrzl free radical was measured by the formula given below:

AB is the absorption of a blank sample containing DPPH.  Whereas, AS is the absorption of DPPH solution having tested plant extract solution/ Standard.

ABTS Assay

ABTS assay is based on ABTS+? radical cation decolorization when it is reduced to 2, 2 – azino -bis (3-ethylbenzthiazolin 6 sulphonic acid). Radical cation was produced by reacting 1:1 volumes of seven mM  ABTS solution in H2O with 2.25 mM K2O8S2 and staying this mixture in dark at 30°C for 15 hours because the time was needed to get unchanging absorbance at 734 nm wavelength. After this, the solution was diluted using methanol until an absorbance value 0.69 ± .05 at 734 nm was achieved.  Ascorbic acid was taken as the reference standard. All stock solution and their dilutions were prepared as provided in DPPH assay. 2 ml of prepared solution of radial cation was reacted with 200μl of each of dilution of plant extracts and ascorbic acid. Vortexed the solutions and after 30 minutes absorbance was measured at 734 nm. The amount of sample required to decrease the absorbance of ABTS by 50% (IC50) was also calculated. All calculations were repetitive at least three times. The following formula was employed to calculate the percent radical scavenging activity.12

Where AB is the absorbance of ABTS radical and AS is the absorbance of plant extracts / standard.

Cytotoxic activity

The brine shrimp lethality test

The artificial seawater was placed in a chamber consisting of small plastic container having partition for light for attracting attract the hatched shrimp and dark areas (having shrimp eggs). Two days were given for the shrimp to hatch and mature as larva. A stock solution of both methanolic and dichloromethane root extracts (30mg/3ml) were prepared. From this stock solution 10, 100, 1000 µg/ml dilution were prepared. Each dilution was prepared in three replicates. A control was also prepared having 6ml only sea water. Both plant extracts with different dilution were added to different test tube and evaporating solvents, 6 ml of artificial seawater added to every tube with moderate shaking. Now 10 shrimps were added into each tube. Therefore, there were total of 30 shrimps in each dilution. After adding 6ml artificial seawater to each test tube, they were exposed to the light (lamp). After 24 hours, the no. of living (surviving) and dead shrimps were counted. The percentage mortality (%Mortality) was calculated by formula given below. Lethality concentration (LC50) was also calculated, whereas LC50 value of greater than 1000 µg/ml is non-toxic (inactive) while LC50 value less than 1000 µg/ml is toxic (active).13,14

Cytotoxicity against HeLa and 3T3 cell lines

The anticancer activity of both plant extracts was calculated in 96-well microplates using MTT assay. In this study, two human cancer cell line namely prostate cancer cell line (PC3 cell line) and cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cell lines) were used to validate the plant cytotoxic potential. Both cell line were first cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium having 100 µg/ml streptomycin, 100U/ml of penicillin and ten percent of fetal bovine serum and kept in 6.5% CO2 incubator at 37 oC . A culture of the cells having a concentration of 1 x 106 cells/ml was prepared and placed into 96 well plates. Now cells were incubated (6.5% CO2 incubator) with various concentrations (10-30 ug/ml in 0.5% DMSO) of both plant extracts and standard drug Doxorubicin for 48hrs at 37 0C. After 48 hours, sample solutions were washed using phosphate-buffered saline having 7.4 pH. Into each well, 200µl 0.5% MTT  phosphate buffer saline solution was added and subjected to incubation (6.5% CO2 incubator) again for more 4 hrs. Now absorbance at wavelength 570nm was noted. Similarly, the absorbance of wells without samples was also measured at 570nm as blanks. All calculations were performed in triplicates. The% cell inhibition was calculated by using formula given below.15

Antidiabetic Activity

α Amylase Inhibition Activity

250 μL of both extracts of Tecoma stans  having dilutions 150, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/mL was added in tubes,  mixed  with  0.020 molar  250 μL of sodium phosphate buffer  having pH 6.9 which was already containing 0.50 mg/ ml of  enzyme solution (α-amylase). This solution was preincubated at 25 C for 15 min followed by mixing of  250 μL of  starch solution (1%) in 0.020 molar buffer 6.9  pH (sodium phosphate)  at timed intervals and incubated again  at 30 C for 15 minutes. The reaction was ended by adding 500 μL of  DNS (dinitrosalicylic acid reagent). The tubes were ungergone for  incubation for 6 minutes and subjected to cooling  to room temperature. Solution (The reaction mixture)  in the tube was diluted with 8 mL of distilled H2O. After dilution, absorption of this mixture was determined at 540 nm using spectrophotometer. Control was prepared by the same method but here the extracts was repalced with distilled water. All reactions were performed in triplicates.  The inhibitory activity of α-amylase was calculated as percentage inhibition using formula giving below.16


Whereas, Aconl is absorbance of control and Aext is the absorbane shown by the extract. IC50 (50% inhibition of enzyme activity) were also calculated.

Glucosidase Inhibition Activity

The substrate solution for assay consisting of  p-nitrophenyl glucopyranoside abbriviated as pNPG was prepared in 20mM phosphate buffer having 6.90 pH. 100????L of alpha glucosidase (1.0U/mL) was preincubated using 50????L of the varing dilutions of  both methanolic and dichloromethan root extracts (150,250,500 and 1000ug/ml).  Then 50????L of substrate solution in the form of p-nitrophenyl glucopyranoside 3.0mM  mixed in 20mM phosphate buffer with 6.90 pH was added to initiate the reaction. This reaction mixture was then  incubated at 37C for 25 min. After this, reaction was stopped by mixing 2mL  0.1Molar sodium carbonate solution (Na2CO3). The enzyme inhibitory potential was calculated  by quantifying the yellow colored para nitro phenol released from substrate at 405nm.17All the reactions were performed in triplicates. Percentage inhibition is calculated as


Whereas A conl is absorbance of control and A ext is the absorbane shown by the extract. IC50 (50% inhibition of enzyme activity)  were also calculated.

Statistical analysis

To calculate the IC50, a logistic linear regression model was fit to the data using Microsoft Excel 2010. The obtained values were expressed as ‘Mean ± SD’. A value of p<0.05 was considered as significant. 



Metahnol and dichlorometha solvents were used for extration purpose. Results indicated that amount of methanol extarct was higher 60g than that of dichloromethan 26.7g extract.

Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis

Preliminary phytochemical screening or qualitative phytochemical analysis of methanolic and dichloromethane root extracts of Tecoma stans was performed in order to verify either the absence or presence of plant sec. metabolites. The data shown in table 1 summarizes plant secondary metabolites in both root extracts. According to results it is clear that dichloromethan extract displayed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins, phenols except saponins, proteins and carbohydrates. The methanol root extract of Tecoma stans extract exhibited the availability of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols saponin, terpenoids, tannins, carbohydrates and proteins.

Total flavonoid, phenolic and alkaloid contents

The present work has been carried out for quantification of the total flavonoid, alkaloid and phenolic contents of dichloromethane and methanolic extracts of roots of Tecoma stans. The results of total flavonoid,   phenolic and alkaloid contents of both extracts are summarized in table 2. Quantity of phenolic compounds in TSD and TSM expressed in gallic acid equivalent and determined by regression equation of calibration curve (y=0.0024x+0.0494, R2=0.9974) figure.1. Among the extracts, highest amount of gallic acid equivalent phenolic content of 159.79±5.27 mgGAE/g of extract was observed in TSM extract followed by TSD extract 32.41±2.50 mgGAE/g of extract. The content of the flavonoid in both methanol and dichloromethane root extract quantified from regression equation of standard curve (y=0.0017x+0.0634, R2=0.9942) figure 2 and were expressed in rutin equivalent. The results revealed that extract TSM possess high flavonoid contents 65.38±3.19 mgRU/g of extract as compared to TSD 13.56±1.67  mgRU/g of extract. Similarly quantity of alkaloid contents of both extract that in TSM and TSD root extract were also quantified and expressed in atropine equivalent which were 95.20±3.72 and 56.61±2.21 mgAT/g of extract respectively. Regression equation of calibration curve was (y=0.0005x+0.106, R2=0.9922) figure 3 used as well in this regard. According to results it is clearly indicated that TSM root extract of Tecoma stans contains high amount of flavonoids, phenolic compounds and alkaloid as compared to TSD.

Antioxidant activity

DPPH assay and ABTS assay

Antioxidant activity of Tecoma stans was measured by DPPH method using ascorbic acid. All concentrations tested showed a dose dependent escalation in the % antioxidant activity. At concentrations of 10μg/mL and 60 μg/ml, ascorbic acid showed a percentage inhibition of 44.07% and 95.85% respectively as given in the table 3. The IC50 value of ascorbic acid was also measured which was 12.72 μg/ml. Similarly at maximum concentration 60μg/mL, TSD and TSM extracts displayed 56 % and 79 % inhibition of radical respectively. According to results, TSM extract reveal significant scavenging activity against DPPT radical cation with IC50 value 26.02 μg/ ml. 

The dichloromethane and methanol extracts of root of Tecoma stans were also analyzed against the ABTS radical. All tested exhibited a dose dependent increase in the percentage antioxidant activity. At 60 μg/ml, reference (ascorbic acid) showed percentage inhibition 90.09% as given in the table 3 with IC50 value 20.26 µg/ml. Similarly at 60 µg/ml, TMS and TSD showed scavenging activity 71% and 31% respectively which is the same trend as DPPH antioxidant activities. According to results, TSM extract revealed significant radical scavenging activity with IC50  value 37.78 µg/ml. Scavenging of DPPH radical by the plant Tecoma stans was found to be slight higher than that of ABTS radical. According to studies some compounds exhibiting ABTS +.radical scavenging activity did not reveal DPPH scavenging activity but this is not the case in this study.18

Cytotoxic activity

Brine shrimp lithality assay

Methanolic extract of root of Tecoma stans (TSM) exhibited potent brine shrimp larvicidal activity with lethality concentration (LC50) 384.31 µg/mL as given in the table 4. Whereas, 96.66 % mortality was seen at a concentration of 1000 µg/ml in methanolic extract (TSM). Dichloromethane extract (TSD) exhibited 20 % mortality at 1000 µg/ml. Based on results, TSM extract, exhibited a dose dependent increase in brine shrimp lethality. The detected lethality of TSM to the brine shrimps showed the availability of potent cytotoxic and possibly anticancer constituents.

Cytotoxicity against HeLa and PC3 cell lines

In the present study, in- vitro cytotoxic effects of both root extracts of Tecoma stans were evaluated against the  human cancerous cell lines namely PC3 (prostate cancer cell line) as well as HeLa (cervical cancer cell line). The cytotoxic potential of both plant extracts with IC50 are given in table 5. The results showed that with the increase of concentrations of both extracts, the percent inhibition of the cancerous cell was also increased. Among the two extracts, TSM extract at 30 µg/ml exhibited higher cytotoxicity against PC3 (61%) and HeLa (74%) cell lines with IC50 17.78 and22.89µg/ml respectively using Doxorubicin as standard with IC50 1.44 µg/ml.

Enzymatic activity

Alpha amylase inhibitory activity of both extracts was evaluated and results are give in table 6. Results were compared with standard acarbose. Results showed that TSD extract showed miled enzyme inhibitory activity 35.22% while TSM reveald prominent and dose dependant inhibitory activity against alpha amylase. At 1000ug/ml concentration, inhibitory potential of standard acarbose and TSM were 83.65% (IC50 390.96 µg/ml) and 63.68% (IC50 638.68µg/ml) repectively. Similarly, plant extracts were also evaluated against alpha glucosidase enzyme while acarbose used as standard and results are give in table 6. Results indicated that like alpha amylase inhibitory activity TSD extract was very less active against this enzyme and at 1000ug/ml it showed less inhibitory activity 29.49% against enzyme as compared to methanolic extract which was potent inhibitor of alpha glucosidase enzyme. At 150mg/ml dose, TSM did not showed significant inhibitory activity (27.07%) but at 1000mg/ml this methanolic extract showed significant inhibitory effects 75.66% on alpha glucosidase enzyme when compared with standard (84.04%). IC50 values of methanolic and acarbose were calculated which were 457.03and 355.23µg/ml respectively.


Plant secondary metabolites have played a vital role in curing and preventing various human ailments. Therefore, a detailed investigation of all medicinal plants is required before their use as medicine, since the therapeutic activity completely depends on the quality of plant material.  The study of any plant crude sample is valuable only if it contains the active constituents which have to be recognized to validate its real value. Moreover, information about different plant constituents is a very essential and beneficial as it is much valuable in screening of their biological activities and the production of complex chemical compounds. Therefore, to screen these constituents and their therapeutic activities we selected roots of Tecoma stans. Our results revealed that roots of Tecoma stans contains important secondary metabolites like alkaloids flavonoids, phenol, saponins etc.Similarly in this study, low and high polarity solvents are also tested to study their effects on extraction of phyto constituents. The resultant extracts were also screened for quantitative phytochemical analysis as alkaloids, flavonoids and other phenols are responsible for many pharmacological properties.20,21 Result indicated that both extracts TSM and TSD contained almost equal secondary metabolites but their amounts regarding alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids are higher in methanolic extract (TSM).  It was also observed that a high amount of extract was obtained when methanol was used as solvent for extraction purpose. The above-mentioned preliminary phytochemical screening and quantitative phytochemical analysis has provided some basis to perform some pharmacological studies of roots of Tecoma stans

Radical scavenging property plays a significant role in preventing illnesses for example cancer, inflammation, CVS diseases etc. The qualitative phytochemical study of Tecoma stans shown that the it has alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, phenols, glycosides. Many aerial parts of Tecoma stans have been evaluated regarding anti-oxidant activity.19,20,21,22 In this study, antioxidant activity performed by DPPH assay and ABTS assay. It was also indicated that TSM contains potent scavenging activity that could be due to the high amount of polyphenol and alkaloid contents in this extract.

The antioxidant assay findings further, directed the study towards cytotoxic assay.  Flowers, leaves, fruits of Tecoma stans having antioxidant activity have been identified and their anticancer activity was also evaluated against different cancer cell line.23,24 TSM contains greater amount of secondary metabolites which helps to explain its higher cytotoxicity than dichloromethane root extract and TSM is toxic (active) as its LC50 value is less than 1000 µg/ml.14 In present study this brine shrimp lethality was verified by applying MTT assay against PC3 and HeLa human cancer cell lines. Tecoma stans was evaluated first time against these cell lines and the results revealed that only methanol plant extract exhibited potent inhibitory activity against both cell lines. The choice of HeLa and PC3 cell line was based on the fact that according to American Institute for Cancer Research, in men prostate cancer is the 2nd most commonly occurring cancer and the 4th most commonly occurring cancer overall. Whereas, cervical cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Thus require new therapies for their treatments

Alpha glucosidase inhibitors in the small intestine delay the carbohydrate breaking and reduce the postprandial blood glucose excursion in diabetics.25 Inhibition of carbohydrate digesting enzymes such as ????-glucosidase and ????-amylase in the gastrointestinal glucose absorption is one of the strategies used to treat diabetes mellitus.26 In present  study, the effect of Tecoma stans roots extracts (TSM and TSD) on the inhibition of alpha glucosidase and alpha amylase was assessed. The results of the inhibitory assays (alpha glucosidase and alpha amylase) revealed that the extract TSM of the roots has greater alpha glucosidase  inhibitory activity as compared to alpha amylase.  According to the previous reports that plant phytochemicals are strong inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase and mild inhibitors of alpha-amylase.27 It is a quality that have advantage over synthetic drugs (acarbose) use by diabetics in postprandial blood glucose management. These drugs are strong inhibitors of alpha-amylase. Mild inhibition of alpha amylase and stronge inhibition of alpha glucosidase activity of the vegetable extracts could address the major side effetcs of currently used  alpha amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor drugs having side effects  (flatulence, diarrhea, meteorism and abdominal distention.28 It has been suggested that excessive pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibition causes abnormal bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates in the colon might be the cause of such adverse effects.27


The current study concludes that roots of Tecoma stans are potential source of phytochemicals and suggests that the plant samples are found to have suitable antioxidant activity that may be credited to the availability of significant phenolic and flavonoid contents. It is shown that among the plant extracts tested, the TSM extract revealed highest antioxidant activity using DPPH inhibition and ABTS assay. Extract of Tecoma stans (TSM) exposed notable cytotoxic activity when assessed against PC3 and HeLa cancer cell line. The results of in vitro anti-diabetic activity reveals that pant possess a potent inhibitory activity against both alpha amylase and glucosidase enzymes and can helpful for management of postprandial glucose level in diabetes. The obtained results claim further pharmacological characterization and bioactivity guided isolation of the compounds responsible for the observed activities.


Authors are grateful to the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Department of Biotechnology Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan. In addition, experts of International Centre of Chemical and biological Sciences, University of Karachi are also acknowledged for technical assistance.

Source of Funding

We had no funding sources for this study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Authors’ Contribution

The authors Atif Shahzad1, Samina Afzal1 and Imran Ahmad1 have made substantial contribution to design and perform the experiments. They were involved in planning, implementation and analysis of the research study and its presentation in the form of final manuscript.




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23. Marzouk M, Gamal-Eldeen A, Mohamed M, El-Sayeed M. Anantiproliferative and antioxidant constituents from Tecoma stans. Z. Naturforsch. C. (2006) 61(11): 783-791.

24. Robinson J.P, SuriyaK, SubbaiyaR, Ponmurugan P. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Tecoma stans against lung cancer cell line (A549). Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (2017) 53(3)

25. Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Shetty K. Evaluation of pepper (Capsicum annuum) for management of diabetes and hypertension. J. Food.Biochem. (2007) 31 (3): 370-385

26. Mccue P, Kwon YI, Shetty K. Anti-amylase, antiglucosidase and anti-angiotensin I-converting enzyme potential of selected foods. J. Food. Biochem. (2005) 29(3): 278–294

27. KwonYI, Apostolidis E, Kim YC, Shetty K. Health benefits of traditional corn, beans and pumpkin: In vitro studies for hyperglycemia and hypertension management. J. Med. Food.(2007) 10:266 - 275

28. Pinto MDS, Ranilla LG, Apostolidis E, Lajolo FM, Genovese MI, Shetty K. Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models. J. Med. Food. (2009) 12: 278 - 291.


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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