International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - 7(18), September, 2015

Pages: 61-66

Date of Publication: 20-Sep-2015

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Author: Ashwini N. S.

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder in which the frequency has become worldwide. Because of this, there is always an epidemic in some countries of the world, with the number of people affected is expected that within the next decade to double due to the increasing aging of the population, thus increasing the existing burden of health care providers, particularly in the less developed countries. This review is based on a search Medline, Cochrane Database of Systemic journals and references to the literature list at the bottom.Subject heading and key wordsused include type 2 diabetes, the prevalence, the current diagnosis and therapy in progress. Onlyarticles in English were included. Early detection and diagnosis is still for the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria include clinical and laboratory parameters. No cure has been found yet for the disease;Treatment details, however, include lifestyle changes, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin sensitizers such as metformin, a biguanidethat reduces insulin resistance, is still the firstline drug specifically for overweight patients.Other effective drugs includesnonsulfonylureasecretagogues, thiazolidinediones, inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase and insulin.Recent research in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes has led to the introduction of new drugs such as glucagon-like peptide 1 analogoues: Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and 11s-1-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, glucokinase activators of insulin release and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled
fatty-acid-receptor agonists, glucagon receptor antagonists, inhibitors of the hepatic metabolism of glucose production and fast release bromocriptine. Inhaled insulin has been approved in 2006, but was withdrawn from the market due to low patronage.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Diagnosis, Administration, New medicines

Full Text:


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is perhaps one of the oldest diseases known to mankind. It was first mention in Egyptian manuscript about 3000 years ago1 . In 1936 the difference between type 1 and type 2 DM madesignificantly2 .Type 2 diabetes is described (as non-insulin dependent DM earlier) as a component of the metabolic syndrome in 19883 . Type 2 diabetes,the most common form of DM characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and insulin deficiency4 .Type 2 DM results from the interaction of genetic, environmental and behavioral risk factors5, 6. People with type 2diabetes are more susceptible to various forms of short- and long-term complications that often lead to premature death. This trend of increasing morbidity and mortality is seen in patients with diabetes type 2 because of truism that type DM, insidious onset and late recognition, particularly in poor developing countries such resources Africa7 .


It is estimated that 366 million people had DM in 2011; 2030 will be 552 million increased 8.The number of people with type 2 diabetes is increasing in all countries with 80% of people with DM living in low and middle income countries.DM caused 4.6 million deaths in 20118 . It is estimated that 439 million people suffer from type 2 diabetes since year 20309 . The incidence of type 2 diabetes ranges from one geographic area to another, due to lifestyleand environmental risk factors10. The literature has shown that there is little available data on type 2 diabetes prevalence in Africa as a whole.Study data trends based tip of Africa to show a dramatic increase in the prevalence of rural and urban areas, and both gender equally11. The majority of the weight in Africa appears to be type 2 DM, to be less than 10% of cases ofDMis type 1 DM11.A 2011 Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report estimates that DM affects about 25.8 million people in the United States (7.8% of the population) in 2010, with 90% to 95% of which is type 2 -DM12.It is expected that  the prevalence of diabetes in patients with type 2 diabetes, it is important that adults will increase in the next two decades, and much of the increase will be in developing countries, where the majority of patients are aged between 45 and 64 years13.It is estimated that the state equal to or even greater than the previous one in the developing countries, which will be completed double taxation arising from the current trend of moving from non-communicable diseases contacts

Lifestyle, Genetics, and Medical Conditions

Type 2 diabetes is caused primarily by lifestyle factors and genetics15. A number of lifestyle factors are known to develop type 2 diabetes. These are physical inactivity, lack of exercise, cigarettesmoking and generous consumption of alcohol16. Obesity has been found to contribute about 55% of cases of type 2 DM17.The increased rate of childhood obesity between the 1960s and 2000s is believed to have led to an increase of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents18. Environmental toxins may contribute to the recent increase in the rate of type 2 diabetes.Found a weak positive correlation between the concentration in the urine of bisphenol A, a component of some plastics, and the incidence of type 2 DM19.There is a strong hereditary genetic connection in type 2 DM with relatives (especially first degree) with type 2 diabetes increases the risk of type 2 diabetes significantly. Agreement between monozygotic twins is close to 100%, and about 25% of People with the disease have a family history of DM20.Recently discovered genes associated significantly with type 2 diabetes include TCF7L2, PPARG, FTO, KCNJ11, NOTCH2, WFS1, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, SLC30A8 and JAZF1 HHEX. KCNJ11 (potassium internal channel correction, subfamily J, member 11), encodes the islet ATPsensitive potassium channel Kir6.2 and TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7-like 2) regulates proglucagon gene expression and thus production glucagonlike peptide-121. Furthermore, obesity (which is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes) is strongly inherited22.Monogenic forms as Maturityonset diabetes of the young (MODY), constitutes up to 5% of cases23. There are many diseases that can potentially cause or exacerbate type 2 diabetes, including obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol (combined hyperlipidemia), often referred to as conditions of metabolic syndrome (also known as syndrome X, Reaven’s syndrome known) 24. Other causes include acromegaly Cushing’s syndrome, thyrotoxicosis, pheochromocytoma, chronic pancreatitis, cancer and drugs25. Additional factors found that the risk for type 2 diabetes with increasing age, diet rich in fat 26 and a less active lifestyle27.


Type 2 diabetes is an insulin sensitivity due to insulin resistance, reduced insulin production, and pancreatic beta cells can failure28, 29. This results in a reduction in glucose transport in the liver, muscle and fat cells. There is an increase in the distribution of fat in hyperglycemia. The inclusion of the modified alpha-cell function has been detected recently in the pathophysiology of type 2 DM30. As a result of dysfunction, glucagon and hepatic glucose levels which are increased during fasting, is not removed with a meal. Since insufficient insulin levels and increased insulin resistance that results in hyperglycemia. The incretins are important mediators of the intestine of the release of insulin, and in the case of GLP-1, suppress glucagon. Although the activity of GIP is impaired in individuals with type 2 diabetes remain intact GLP-1 insulinotropic action and hence the GLP-1 is a potentially useful therapeutic option30.However, since the GIP; GLP-1 is rapidly inactivated by DPP-IV in vivo. Two therapeutic approaches have been developed to solve this problem: GLP-1 analogues with increased half-life and DPPIV inhibitors that prevent the breakdown of endogenous GLP-1 and GIP30.The two classes of agents have shown promise improved, with the ability to not only normalize postprandial glucose and fasting, but also for the function and beta cell mass. Investigations are under way, the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of insulin resistance and etiology of type 2 DM31. Also very important is adipose tissue, as endocrine organ hypothesis(various Adipokytokines secretion, ieleptin, TNF-alpha,resistin and adiponectin resistance Insulin involved and possibly a dysfunction of beta cells) 30. The majority of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight, with central visceral obesity. Therefore, fat plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although the prevailing theory used to explain this connection, the gate / visceral case gives a key role in non-esterified high fatty acid concentrations, two new theories resulting trumpets fat storage syndrome (triglyceride accumulation in muscle, liver and pancreatic cells). These two assumptions are the framework for the study of the interaction of insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and between us obesogenicenvironment and the risk of DM in the next decade30.

Screening and Diagnosis

Tests for screening and diagnosis of DM are readily available. The recommended test is the same as for the diagnosis of prediabetes or DM32. Although approximately 25% of patients already type 2 diabetes have microvascular complications at diagnosis, suggesting a diagnosis, so it is a positive effect equivalent to that had the disease for more than five years old, when diagnosis33. It is still in the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines of 1997 or the World Health Organization (WHO) national criteria diabetic group in 2006, which is for a single elevated glucose reading levels with the primary symptoms (polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia weight loss) Otherwise set values twice or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0 mmol / L (126 mg / dL) or Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), two hours after the oral dose of plasma glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) 32 recommen-dations from the 1997 ADA for the diagnosis of DM emphasis fasting glucose, whereas WHO concentrates on OGTT32. The glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fructosamine, is always useful to determine the control of blood glucose with time. But doctors often practiced using other measures than those recommended. In July 2009, the International Expert Committee (IEC)recommended additional diagnostic criteria for HbA1c result ≥6.5% for DM. The Commission proposed that the term prediabetes can be eliminated, but defines the range of HbA1c ≥6.0% and detection <6.5% in subjects with high risk of developing DM34. As with glucose-based tests, there is no definite threshold of HbA1c at which normality ends and DM begins32. The IEC has decided to comment on a cut-off point for the diagnosis of diabetes, that emphasizes the particularity that this balanced position and the cost of impersonation diabetic subjects by minimal clinical consequences of delayed diagnosis apatientwith anHbA1c level <6.5% 34.


The lifestyle and dietary changes. Studies have shown that there is a significant reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with a combination of the feed body mass index of 25 kg / m2 , eat fiber and unsaturated fatty acids and low nutritional dietary saturated fats and trans-fats and glycemic index, regular exercise, abstention from smoking and moderate drinking alcohol5, 16, 35-37. Suggesting that the majority of Type 2 diabetes can be prevented by lifestyle changes. Patients with type 2 diabetes should receive medical evaluation of the diet; Lifestyle recommendations should be adapted to the physical and functional ability38.

Pharmacological agents


Biguanides, metformin is the most commonly used in patients in overweight and obese, suppresses hepatic glucose production, increases sensitivity to insulin increases glucose uptake by phosphorylation GLUT-activating agent, increases fatty acid oxidation and reduced absorption of glucose from the digestive tract39. Research published in 2008, also shows the mechanism of action of metformin that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, an enzyme that plays a role in the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis genes40. Because of concerns about the development of lactic acidosis, metformin should be used with caution in elderly diabetic patients with renal insufficiency. It has a low incidence of hypoglycaemia than sulfonylureas39.


This is generally well tolerated, but because stimulate secretion of endogenous insulin, the risk of wear hypoglycemia38. Elderly patients with diabetes who are treated with sulfonylurea have an increased risk of hypoglycaemia by 36% compared to younger patients41. Glyburide is associated with higher rates of hypoglycemia compared with glipizide42. Some of these risk factors for hypoglycaemia depends on the age-related renal insufficiency, concomitant administration of insulin sensitizers or older than 60 years, calculated from the hospital recently, alcohol abuse, the reduction of calories, different drugs or actions sulfonylurea drugs43. Using long-acting sulfonylurea glibenclamide should be avoided in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus and the use of shortacting glipizide to preferred38.


Repaglinide and nateglinide are non-sulfonylurea secretagogues act on the ATP-dependent K channels in pancreatic beta cells and stimulating the release of insulin from betacells, similar to sulfonylurea, although the binding site is different44. Meglitinides have rapid onset and short duration of action (4-6 hours), and therefore a lower risk of hypoglycemia. The meglitinides are given before meals for postprandial glucose control. Preprandial administration allows for flexibility in case a meal lost, no increased risk hypoglycemia45. Mainlyrepaglinide is metabolised by the liver in very small amounts and excreted by the kidneys and therefore, dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment is required, except with end stage renal disease44 failure.


It is a thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizer, selective ligands peroxisome proliferator-activated transcription factor gamma. These are the first drugs to treat patients46with the basic problem of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, whose course now consists mainly pioglitazone on the contained use of rosiglitazone by the Food and Drug Administration recommended (FDA) recently because of increased cardiovascular events reported in rosiglitazone36. Use of pioglitazone is not associated with hypoglycemia and can be used in patients with renal impairment and therefore tolerated in older adults. On the other hand, due to concerns about peripheral edema, fluid retention and fracture risk in women, whose use is limited in older adults with diabetes. Pioglitazone should be avoided in elderly patients with congestive heart failure, and is contraindicated in patients with class IIIIV heart failure47.

Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors

Acarbose, miglitol and voglibose not be used widely for the treatment of type 2 diabetes subjects, but rather safe and effective. These agents are more effective in postprandial hyperglycemia and should be avoided in patients with significant renal impairment. Their use is generally limited due to the high rate of side effects such as diarrhea and flatulence38. Voglibose which is newer drug, in one study it was shown that glucose tolerance compared to the delay of progression of the disease and the number of patients that improve significantly normoglycemia48.

Incretin-based therapies

1 (GLP-1) analogues with glucagon peptide is the basis of the treatments based on targeting incretin control49 this littleknown function of DM pathogenesis will lead to sustained improvement in glycemic control and improve body weight. Designed for use as monotherapy in addition to diet and exercise, or in combination with oral antidiabetic agents in adults examples of type 2 diabetes are available exenatideimitative and secretory Liraglutide38. There is no risk of hypoglycemia using the GLP-1 treatment (except when combined with insulin secretagogues). Moreover, the emerging incretin therapies are based on data that may have a positive impact on inflammation, cardiovascular and liver health, sleep and central nervous system49.

Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors

Inhibitors of dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP) IV inhibitsdipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), a ubiquitous enzyme is rapidly inactivated both GLP-1 and GIP increase active levels of these hormones, thereby improving islet function and glycemic control in type 2 DM50. DPP-4 inhibitors are a new class of anti-diabetogenic drugs that provide comparable efficacy to current therapies. It is suitable as monotherapy in patients inadequately controlled by diet and exercise and as adjunct therapy in combination with metformin, thiazolidinediones and insulin controlled. DPP-4 inhibitors are well tolerated, leading to lower risk of causing hypoglycemia and weight neutral. However, they are relatively expensive50. The longterm sustainability of effect on glycemic control and the morphology of the beta cells and the function established yet50, 51


Insulin is used alone or in combination with oral hypoglycemic agents. The increase in the basal insulin therapy helpful if some beta cell function. Instead of an insulin basal-bolus is necessary if the depletion of beta cells. Emergency treatment using replacement is necessary if the toxicity of glucose, which should mimic the normal release of insulin by the beta cells of pancreas52. Insulin is available in injectable forms - rapid-acting, short-acting, intermediate-acting and long-acting. Long acting form is less likely to induce hypoglycemia than forms Quick.

Insulin analogues

Insulin therapy is limited its ability to mimic the normal physiological insulin secretion. Average traditional activity for long-term insulins (insulin NPH, Lente insulin and Ultralente) from the non-absorption and action tips, hypoglycemia53,54may cause the pharmacokinetic profiles of new insulin analogues limited differ from those of insulin and whose onset and duration ranging from fast action expands. Currently, two fast-acting insulin analogues lispro and insulin aspart and long-acting insulin analog, insulin glargine, is available53, 54.

The future of treatment with inhaled insulin drug

Inhaling form of fast-acting insulin, in 200655, were available then. The European Medicines Evaluation Agency and the FDA approved for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 DM in adults55-57. It is a form of fast-acting insulin is indicated for use in patients with type 1 and adults with type 2 diabetes and has the convenience of administration directly into the lungs. However, studies have shown that inhaled insulin is as effective as, but not better than short acting insulin 55, recalled by the manufacturer, in October 2007 because of poor sales.


Quick release bromocriptine has recently been developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, however, the mechanism of action is unclear. Studies have shown that reducing the average HbA1c of 0.0% to 0.2% at 24 weeks therapy58.


Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2, to increase the urinary excretion of glucose and inhibitor of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The effect of glucocorticoids on liver and fat insulin releasing glucokinase acid receptors and agonists acids linked to G-proteins pancreas, glucagon receptor antagonists and of glucose production in the liver metabolism inhibitors are patients59 for evaluating the development of a new drug therapy for type 2 diabetes.


Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease that can be prevented through changes in lifestyle, diet control and management of overweight and obesity. The education of the population is still the key to controlling these thresholds epidemic.


Thus new drugs are developed, but there is no cure for the disease is available, although a new light on the pathophysiology of the disease. Management should be able to improve the quality of life of type 2 diabetes.


Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The author is also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.



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A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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