International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - 14(7), April, 2022

Pages: 40-48

Date of Publication: 05-Apr-2022


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In-Vivo Screening of Citrus Maxima Oil Against, Escherichia Coli Infection in Rabbits

Author: Nisar Ahmad, Muhammad Shahab Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Bilal, Farooq Akbar Khan

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative facultatively anaerobic bacteria that cause serious damage in animals and humans by causing high morbidity and mortality. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has made it necessary to replace alternative sources of antibiotic products. There is a persistent need to recognize new and novel antimicrobial agents that would help in alleviating the problems of emerging resistant bacterial pathogens. Plant-derived natural products represent an attractive source of antimicrobial agents since they are natural and affordable, especially in rural societies in poor developing countries Objectives: The objective of the current research was to explore the antibacterial capabilities of the Citrus maxima oil against Escherichia coli infection in rabbits. The effect of oil on rabbits' hematological parameters was also assessed. Methods: Rabbits were distributed into six groups, 1st group served as a negative control, 2nd group as a positive control, infected with E. coliat the dose rate of 2.0 x 1010 CFU without medication, group 3rd, 4thand 5th were infected with E. coli and supplemented with oil at different doses and 6th group was infected with E. coli and treated with Moxifloxacin HCL (standard drug) at the dose rate of 7mg/kg. The blood samples of tested animals were collected for the analysis of haematological parameters on different days of the experiments. Result: The results showed a significant increase in WBCs, MCV, HCT and neutrophils during infection. RBCs, MCH, MCHC, haemoglobin, lymphocytes and platelets count decreased during infection. The current study provides a scientific contextual for the significant use of Citrus maxima oil for the treatment of various pathological diseases. Conclusion: The obtained result gives an insight into the antibacterial capabilities of the Citrus maxima oil against Escherichia coli infection in rabbits. Citrus maxima oil exhibited variable, but remarkable antibacterial potential. These oils could be used as a source of antimicrobial agents in pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, bacterial pathogens, Citrus maxima oil, Escherichia coli, Hematological parameters, Medicinal plant

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

The increasing bacterial conflict to antibiotics has developed a growing APPREHENSION GLOBALLY.With the appearance and growth of microorganisms such as gram-negative (E.coli) bacteria which can cause serious infections.There are a number of drugs available to treat gram-positive bacteria, but less in number to treat gram-negative bacteria.In addition, high cost and adverse effects are commonly related to widespread synthetic antibiotics are a chief burning global issue in considering infectious diseases.4 Infectious diseases pose serious problems to health and they are the main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.5 The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, has made it necessary to replace alternative sources of antibiotic products.Plant derived natural products represent an attractive source of antimicrobial agents since they are natural and affordable, especially in rural societies in poor developing countries.7

The literature survey revealed that the peel of Citrus maxima fruits is extremely thought to be a universal remedy within the flavoring drugs with various spectra of pharmacologic activity.8 Citrus maxima is the most extensively studied medicinal plant in recent literature. Citrus maxima is an edible fruit, its flesh is juicy, soft in texture and wealthy in nutrients and is endemic to tropical part of Asia.9E.coli is the most commonly found bacterium in the human intestinal tract. Under normal conditions, its presence is conducive to digestive processes. But when present in excess or in virulent form it causes diseases.10 E.coli, contaminate food and water supplies.11

Plants play an important role in human health because they produce a wide array of bioactive molecules which have medicinal values.12 Despite the efforts in producing the number of new antibiotics in the last three decades, resistance to these drugs by microorganisms has increased.13 The in-vitro anti-bacterial activities of three citrus Plants extracts, Citrus macrocarpa, Citrus Aurantium and Citrus maxima against S. aureus but not against E.coli.14 The oil of this fruit has been reported to possess some nutritive and medicinal potentials.15

Material and methods

The main objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Citrus maxima oil against E. coli infection in rabbits.A total of 30 adult Rabbits of both genderswas used in the current study as experimental animals.

Grouping of animals

Rabbits having same weight were kept in the same group, thirty rabbits of both gender, which were randomly divided into six equal groups, 1stgroup (negative control), 2ndgroup infected with Escherichia coli orally at the dose rate of 2x1010 CFU (served as positive control) which did not receive any drug or essential oil as a treatment, 3rd group, infected with E. coli at the dose rate of 2x1010 CFU and was treated with Citrus maxima oil at a dose rate of 1ml, 4th group, infected with E. coli at the dose rate of 2x1010 CFU and was fed with Citrus maxima oil at a dose rate of 1.5ml, 5th group, infected with E.coli at the dose rate of 2x1010 CFU and fed with Citrus maxima oil at a dose rate of 2ml, 6th group was injected with E.coli at the dose rate of 2x1010 CFU and was fed with standard drug, (Moxifloxacin HCL).

Chemicals and apparatus

Citrus maxima oil and Moxifloxacin HCL were purchased from the local market of QissaKhwani Bazar, Peshawar, Pakistan. The equipment used in the current study were a Haematological analyzer and a Weight scale.

Initiation of medication

All groups of rabbits received a freshly cultured sample of E. coli (2x1010 CFU) orally except the control group. After administration of the bacteria, rabbits were checked for feed intake and other clinical signs. The responses of the rabbits to E. Coli bacteria were identified by the clinical signs like temperature, diarrhea, weight loss and reduced feed intake.

Medication of infected rabbits

After development of clinical signs, group 3rd, 4th and 5th were treated with Citrus maxima oil at a dose rate of 1ml, 1.5ml and 2ml, while group 6th was treated with standard drug, Moxifloxacin HCl. Phenobarbital sodium was used to anesthetize the rabbits for the collection of blood samples. Blood samples (about 3ml) were collected from all rabbits, at day zero, day three, day six and day nine of the experimental work for the analysis of different haematological parameters.

Statistical analysis

The data obtained from the study were analysed statistically, using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s multiple comparison test were used to determine the differences between treatments. The mean and standard deviation (SD) were sorted out of each parameter, using, Graph pad prism software.

RESULTS

In the present study, rabbits were divided into different groups. 1st group was kept as a negative control, neither infected nor medicated, 2nd group served as a positive control which was infected, but not treated 3rd, 4th and 5th groups were treated with Citrus maxima oil at a dose rate of 1ml, 1.5ml, and 2mland group 6th was treated with standard drug (Moxifloxacin).

Pre infection

Blood samples was collected on day zero and the results of all the groups have been shown in: (Table 1).

1stGroup (negative control)

About 3ml blood was collected from the animals. The TRBCs of negative control was 5. 73±0. 028x106/µl and hemoglobin value was 9. 52±0. 035%. The MCH, MCHC and MCV values were 21.49±0.134 Pg, 33.0±0.848 gm/dl and 50.7±0.070pg. The WBCs count was in the range of 5.72±0.035 x 103 /µl while lymphocytes count was 27±0.494%. The neutrophils, platelets count and HCT value were also in the normal reference range (60.5±0.707%, 530.5±0.035 x 103 /µl and 37.5±0.17%).

2nd group (positive control)

The same amount of blood was also collected and were analysed for different parameters. The values of the RBCs and haemoglobin were 5.08±0.033x106/µl and 9.81±0.13%. Lymphocytes count was 28.3±0.31%. MCH and MCHC level were 19.7±0.41Pg and 30.5±0.16gm/dl. The MCV, WBCs and Neutrophils count were in the range of 50.6±0.12pg, 5.5±0.045x 103 /µland 62.6±0.25%. Platelets level was 528±0.11x 103 /µl and HCT value were 36.8±0.10%.

3rd Group three (low dose)

Before infection the RBCs and hemoglobin value were in the range of 5.70±0.17x 106 /µl and 9.45±0.057%. The MCH value was 21.45±0.14pg and MCHCs value was 33.03±0.081gm/dl while MCV was in 50.76±0.072pg range. WBCs, lymphocytes and neutrophil count were 5.71±0.036x 103 /µl, 27.05±0.26% and 62.53±0.19%. HCT value was 37.46±0.92%, platelets count was 531.52±0.27x 103 /µl while RDWC level was 15.56±0.095%.

4thGroup (medium dose)

RBC and haemoglobin of group 4th before infection were 5.73±0.23x 106 /µl and 9.52±0.27%. The concentration of MCH was 21.48±0.33pg while MCHC was 32.95±0.12gm/dl. The level of MCV and WBCs were in the range of 50.74±0.12pg and 5.71±0.076x 103 /µl. Lymphocytes, neutrophils and platelets count were 28.96±0.17%, 61.47±0.44% and 525.50±0.14x 103 /µl while HCT and RDWC values were in the range of 37.50±0.14%, and 15.60±0.26%.

5thGroup (high dose)

The RBC count was 5.76±0.074x 106 /µl while hemoglobin value was 9.75±0.38%. The values of MCH, MCHC and MCV were 21.51±0.25pg, 32.95±0.25gm/dl and 50.69±0.16pg. WBCs count was 5.71±0.036x 103 /µl and lymphocytes count was 28.08±0.28% while the neutrophil count was 60.44±0.36%. Platelets, HCT and RDWC level were 530.54±0.087x 103 /µl, 37.53±0.15% and 15.57±0.21%.

6thGroup (standard drug)

The RBCs and haemoglobin values were 5.78±0.77x 106 /µl and 9.81±0.084%. The concentration of MCH was 21.56±0.036pg and MCHC was 33.02±0.17gm/dl. MCV, WBCs and lymphocytes count were 50.72±0.34pg, 5.73±0.045x 103 /µl and 27.03±0.13% while neutrophil count was 61.52±0.27%. The platelets count was 524.53±0.053x 103 /µl, HCT value was 37.48±0.17%.

During Infection

The rabbits were infected with pathogenic E. coli at the dose rate 2x1010 CFU, except group 1st (control group). After causing infection, whole blood was collected from all the infected groups for analysis of haematological parameters (Table 2).

2nd group (positive control)

The RBCs and haemoglobin count during infection were 3.47±0.042x 106 /µl and 6.82±0.042%. Neutrophils and Platelets count were 66.4±0.042% and 435±0.042x103/µl. The MCH value were20.53±0.042pg and the MCHC were 28.15±0.070gm/dl. The lymphocyte, WBCs and MCV count were 23.6±0.035%, 8.22±0.035x 103 /µl and 59.53±0.028pg. The HCT value was 41.62±0.028%. The level of RDWC was 15.42±0.10% during infection.

3rd Group (low dose)

This group was also infected with E. coli, RBC count was 3.44±0.028x 106 /µl and haemoglobin value was 6.74±0.035%. The MCH and MCHC values were 20.50±0.035pg and 28.17±0.035gm/dl. The MCV, WBCS and lymphocytes count were 66.56±0.622pg, 8.17±0.014x 103 /µl and 25.62±0.042% while HCT value was 41.64±0.056%. The level of RDWC was 15.45±0.24%, the neutrophils and platelets count were 65.41±0.414 % 491.04±0.21x 103 /µl.

4th Group (medium dose)

RBCs and haemoglobin count were 3.48±0.21x 106 /µl and 6.85±0.14%. The MCH value were 20.49±0.14pg and MCHC were 28.18±0.28 gm/dl. MCV, lymphocytes, WBCs count were 57.52±0.11pg, 24.64±0.49 %, 7.4±0.07x 103 /µl and HCT value was 42.66±0.056 %. Platelets and neutrophils count were 54.43.8±0.4, % 444.03±0.07x 103 /µl. The RDWC level was 15.45±0.24% during infection.

5th Group (high dose)

RBCs count was 3.5±0.014x 106 /µl while haemoglobin value 6.90±0.14%.

The values of MCH and MCHC were 20.52±0.14pg and 28.20±0.28 gm/dl. MCV, WBCs and lymphocytes count were 56.55±0.11pg, 8.33±0.070 x 103 /µl and 23.65±0.049%. Platelets and neutrophils count were 467.05±0.28x 103 /µl and 67.41±0.035%. The HCT value was 41.65±0.29 %.

6th Group (standard drug)

In this group the RBCs and haemoglobin values were 3.51±0.014x 106 /µl and 6.98±0.070%. MCH value was 20.54±0.14pg and MCHC was 28.22±0.28gm/dl. The lymphocyte and MCV count were 21.66±0.084% and 55.2±0.11pg. During infection. Platelets and neutrophils count were 429.06±0.28x 103 /µl and 54.44±0.141%.

During Treatment

Total Red Blood Cells (TRBCs)

At day six, the TRBCs count in negative control group was 5.73±0.028x 106 /µl, the positive control group was 4.54±0.028x 106 /µl. In groups, that were infected with E.coli and treated with C.maxima oil at the dose rate of 1ml/kg, 1.5ml/kg and 2ml/kg, the TRBCs counts were 6.26±0.028x 106 /µl, 5.40±0.042x 106 /µl and 4.04±0.028x 106 /µl. The group which was infected with E.coli and treated with standard drug (Moxifloxacin HCl), the RBCs count was 5.83±0.035x 106 /µl. A significant difference (P<0.05) was found in the mean TRBCs counts of control group with the rest of groups (Table 3).

Haemoglobin (Hb)

The haemoglobin value in control group and positive control group at day six were 9.52±0.035% and 8.85±0.035%. In groups, that were infected with E.coli and treated with C.maxima oil at the dose rate of 1ml/kg, 1.5ml/kg and 2ml/kg, the haemoglobin values were 10.12±0.028%, 9.0±0.042% and 8.28±0.035%. The group that was infected with E.coliand treated with standard drugs (Moxifloxacin), the haemoglobin value was 9.6±0.035%. A significant difference (P<0.05) was found in the mean Hb value of control group with the rest of groups.

Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH)

At day 6th, the MCH value of negative control was 21.1±0.134 pg, the positive control value group was 17.8±0.042pg. In groups, that were infected with E.coli and treated with C.maxima oil at the dose rate of 1ml/kg, 1.5ml/kg and 2ml/kg, the MCH value were 18.51±0.028pg, 19.49±0.042pg and 19.7±0.035pg.  That group which was infected with E.coli and treated with standard drug (Moxifloxacin HCl), the MCH value was 19.7±0.035pg. A significant difference (P<0.05) was found in the mean MCH value of control group with the rest of groups.

Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)

The MCHC value in control group was 33.0±0.848gm/dl, the positive control group was 27.5±0.042gm/dl. In groups, that were infected with E.coli and treated with Citrus maxima oil at the dose rate of 1ml/kg, 1.5ml/kg and 2ml/kg, the MCHC values were 30.7±0.028gm/dl, 30.9±0.035gm/dl and 30.20±035 gm/dl. The group which was infected with E.coli and treated with standard drug (Moxifloxacin), the MCHC value was 30.9±0.035 gm/dl. A significant difference (P<0.05) was found in the mean MCHC value of control group with the rest of groups.

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)

In control group at day 6th, the MCV value was 50.7±0.070pg, the positive control group was 66.7±0.035. In groups, that were infected with E.coli and treated with olive oil at the dose rate of 1ml/kg, 1.5ml/kg and 2ml/kg, the MCV values were 57.5±0.064pg, 56±0.035pg and 58.4±0.035pg. That group which was infected with E.coli and treated with standard drug (Moxifloxacin), the MCV value was 56.5±0.042 pg. A significant difference (P<0.05) was found in the mean MCV value of control group with the rest of groups.

White Blood Cells (WBCs)

The WBCs count in control group was 5.72±0.035x 103 /µl, the positive control group was 8.36±0.042x 103 /µl. In groups, that were infected with E. coli and treated with Citrus maxima oil at the dose rate of 1ml/kg, 1.5ml/kg and 2ml/kg, the RBCs counts were 7.14±0.028x 103 /µl, 7.05±0.042x 103 /µl and 7.11±0.035x103 /µl. The group which was infected with E.coli and treated with standard drug (Moxifloxacin HCl), the WBCs count was 7.03±0.028x 103 /µl. A significant difference (P<0.05) was found in the mean WBCs counts of control group with the rest of groups.

Lymphocytes (L)

At day 6th, the lymphocytes count in control group was 28.80±0.494%, the level of positive control group was 21.8±0.042%. In groups, that were infected with E.coli and treated with C.maxima oil at the dose rate of 1ml/kg, 1.5ml/kg and 2ml/kg, the lymphocytes counts were 26.6±0.028 %, 25.3±0.035% and 26.4±0.042%. That group which was infected with E.coli and treated with standard drugs (Moxifloxacin HCl), the lymphocytes count was 24.2±0.035%. A significant difference (P<0.05) was found in the mean lymphocytes counts of control group with the rest of groups.

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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