International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - 14(7), April, 2022

Pages: 06-11

Date of Publication: 05-Apr-2022


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Smart SOP's Surveillance System using Deep Neural Network

Author: Chaman Lal, Zahid Ali, Shagufta Aftab, Suresh Kumar Beejal, Mehwish Shaikh, Ambreen Fatima

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:The global pandemic Corona virus sickness 2019 had a devastating impact on the world, according to statistics received by the World Health Organization. A study shows that about 33 million people are affected by the virus and more than 1 million deaths are reported worldwide. Currently, there are no specific vaccines or treatments for COVID-19. Now, WHO recommends that wearing a mask and following the SOP's can help us in preventing the spread of the virus. There are only few studies about face mask detection based on image analysis. To create a safe environment in public places, educational institutions, & shopping malls we are proposed an effective idea based on computer vision and AI which is focused on real-time automated monitoring through the camera to detect people whether they are wearing a mask or not, also checks body temperature by the sensor-based model. In this proposed system modern deep learning algorithms have been mixed with different techniques to detect the unmasked faces and temperature and generate warning alerts by capturing images of the people not wearing masks and if the person has temperature, then it will also generate an alert of having temperature. This system favors society in preventing the spread of the virus as it has already infected 33 million people worldwide. The goal is to evaluate the face detection through image processing to prevent society from the spread of global pandemic disease and pollution.

Keywords: COVID-19, SOP’s, CNN, Computer vision, DNN, & Sensor-based model

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

The spread of COVID-19 has created global health crises. In December 2019, before the coronavirus was proclaimed a global pandemic, a new infectious respiratory disease arose in Wuhan, China, infecting thousands of people and resulting in 170 recorded deaths. The disease was dubbed COVID-19 by the 1World Health Organization (Coronavirus disease 2019). Coronavirus expanded fast over the world, posing major health, economic, environmental, and social issues to the entire world population. As a result, an increasing number of people are concerned about their health, and governments regard public health to be a major priority1 People should use masks to reduce the risk of virus transmission and keep social space between persons to prevent the infection from spreading, according to the WHO. The identification of face masks and temperature has become a computer vision challenge to aid society. This model explains how to prevent the virus from spreading by detecting a person's temperature and whether they are wearing8 a mask in public settings in real-time. It’s a real-time temperature measurement, and the flow of people can pass through quickly to avoid staying long and reduce the risk of cross-infection. The model is a combination of a lightweight neural network, and computer vision with the transfer of learning techniques to detect the unmasked faces and temperature through image processing by real-time monitoring of the people. Since the data set to detect the mask can be harder to extract, we use transfer2,9,10 learning techniques. Using Open-CV helps in deep learning the model3,7,11 and helps to meet the real-time requirements so if any person is detected with temperature or not following the SOP’s i.e., not wearing a mask, it takes a picture of the person not wearing the mask and send violation alert or notification will be sent to the system to take necessary actions.

BACKGROUND

As the global pandemic has infected over millions of people and caused more than 1 million deaths are reported worldwide and no proper solution has been discovered to stop the spread of the coronavirus. The COVID-19 virus is primarily transmitted through droplets of saliva or nasal discharge when an infected person coughs or sneezes, thus respiratory14 etiquette is very important (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow). There are no COVID-19 vaccinations or therapies available currently. However, numerous clinical trials testing potential therapies are currently underway. As clinical findings become available, WHO will continue to offer updated information5. Now, WHO recommends that people should take safety measures and should follow the SOP’s and wear masks to prevent the spread of the virus4,6. A significant indication of COVID-19 infection is a rise in body temperature. Thermal screening is now carried out with handheld contact-free thermometers, which necessitates health personnel approaching the individual being checked, placing them at risk of infection. It's also nearly impossible to take the temperature15,16 of every single person in a public place.

To overcome this problem, we proposed a computer vision approach to help society in maintaining the environment12,13 in which SOP’s are followed strictly. We proposed a computer vision system model which is supposed to check the temperature of people and whether people are wearing masks or not by real-time monitoring of the people and if someone is captured not wearing mask or if they have body temperature then it will notify the authorities by sending them the warning alerts with captured images. It will help society in preventing the spread of the virus in public places.

RELATED WORK

Neural networks (NNs) are compositional models with more generic nodes and less interpretability than the previous models. The most well-known use of Convolutional NNs20,23. These models, in the form of DNNs, did not emerge as extremely successful on large-scale picture classification tasks until recently19. However, their detecting potential is restricted. Using multi-layer Convolutional NNs, scene parsing has been attempted as a more detailed kind of detection21. DNNs have been used to solve the problem of medical image segmentation18,22, which has a similar high-level purpose but uses a much smaller network with different features, loss function, and lacks apparatus to distinguish between multiple instances of the same class, is perhaps the most similar method to ours.

We perform object box extraction after regressing to object masks over many sizes and huge image boxes. The acquired boxes are fine-tuned by repeating the technique on the subpictures, which are cropped using the current object boxes. We just show the whole object mask for clarity, but we use all object masks.

  1. CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK

CNN's are a sort of feed-forward neural network with many layers. Convolutional neural networks have layers with small neuron collections that each observe a small piece of an image. The results from all the collections in a layer partially overlap to provide the overall visual picture. Each filter takes a set of inputs, conducts convolution, and optionally adds non-linearity to the mix17. In picture and facial recognition, the most widely used algorithm is CNN. CNN is a sort of artificial neural network that extracts features from input data using convolutional neural networks to enhance the number of features.

  1. DEEP NEURAL NETWORK

Image recognition is a specialty of deep25 neural networks (DNNs). The purpose of neural networks, which are computer systems that identify patterns, is pattern recognition. The name comes from the fact that their design is based on the structure of the human brain. In this system, there are three types of layers: input, hidden layers, and output. The input layer receives a signal, the hidden layer processes it, and the output layer produces a decision or forecast based on the input data. The network's layers are made up of interconnected nodes (artificial neurons) that execute calculations. Neural networks extract features directly from the data with which they are trained, removing the need for experts to manually extract them.

  1. OBJECT DETECTION

Object detection, a subset of computer vision, is an automated approach for finding interesting objects in a picture in relation to the background. [Fig: 1] shows two images with foreground objects. The convolutional DNN established by is the foundation of our network. It has a total of seven layers, the first five of which are convolutional and the latter two of which are fully linked. As a non-linear transformation, each layer employs a corrected linear unit. In addition, max pooling21 is present in three of the convolutional layers. We suggest the reader to for more information.

  1. TENSORFLOW BASED DETETCTION

The human visual system is fast and accurate, and it can execute complicated tasks like identifying many items at once, so humans can detect and identify an object in real-time. Because of the availability of massive datasets and machine learning methods, computers can now detect and classify multiple images with high accuracy, just like humans. Google Brain TensorFlow is an open-source toolkit for numerical computing and large-scale machine learning that makes it easier to gather data, train models, serve predictions, and refine future outcomes. TensorFlow is a software that mixes Machine Learning and Deep Learning models and algorithms. The steps for detecting objects in real-time are very similar to those described before. All we need now is an additional dependent, which is Open CV.

e. DETECTION BASED ON DNN

As illustrated in [fig. 2], the basis of our technique is a DNN-based regression towards an object mask. We may create masks for the entire object as well as parts of it using this regression model. We can get masks of many objects in a picture using a single DNN regression [fig. 2]. We use the DNN localizer on a small selection of huge sub-windows to improve the precision of the localization even more.

system requirement

  1. TENSORFLOW:

Tensor flow is a free software package that may be used for a range of data flow and differentiable programming tasks. It's a symbolic math library that's also used in machine learning applications like neural networks. It's used by Google for both research and manufacturing. TensorFlow was built by the Google Brain team for internal use. On November 9, 2015, it was made available under the Apache License 2.0. TensorFlow's architecture enables computation to be distributed over a range of platforms.

b. OPEN CV

Open CV is a collection of programming functions geared primarily at real-time computer vision. Willow

Garage now supports it, which was originally built by Intel. The library is cross-platform and free to use, thanks to the open-source BSD license.

c.MT CNN

Multi-Task Cascaded Neural Network (MTCNN) Fig.

4 is an acronym for Multi-Task Cascaded Neural Network. A convolutional neural network is a type of neural network that recognizes faces and facial landmarks in images. It consists of three neural networks coupled in a cascade.

d.KERAS

Keras is a neural network library written in Python. As a foundation, it can be built atop TensorFlow, Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit, Theano, or PlaidML. It's user-friendly, modular, and expandable, to facilitate deep neural network research quickly.

e.LINUX

Compared to other operating systems, Linux is more stable and secure (OS). Linux and Unix-based operating systems have fewer security vulnerabilities since the code is regularly checked by many developers. Its source code is also available to anyone.

f.PI INTERFACING CAMERA

The Pi 4 can be used for a vast array of image recognition tasks, and the creators of the device seem to have recognized.

g.LCD DISPLAY

LCD display will be used to display pictures of person wearing masks or not wearing masks which are detected by the system. Also, it will help in displaying messages like when it detected an unmasked face.

h.SENSOR FOR TEMPERATURE DETECTION.

The sensor will be needed to measure temperature24 on real time in [fig. 3].

METHODOLOGY

Using Deep Learning algorithms, it was possible to detect temperature and unmasked faces. Our project is divided into two phases: training the model by giving data set and implementing the detection system based on image processing. For this purpose, we divide it into different phases mentioned below:

a.DATA COLLECTION

In phase 1 we will collect the data set that will help us in training the model that how the system detects if the person is wearing mask and following SOP’s or not. For this purpose, we will take different pictures of people wearing masks and not wearing masks to train the model on what measures the system will identify who is wearing masks or who is not wearing mask in public places. Some examples are shown in figure below with masks, without masks, hand masks, with or without masks in one frame and confusing images without masks.5,6 Also, we will give data set to recognize the body temperature automatically by sensor.15,16

b.MODEL TRAINING

Due to limited size of data set of face mask it is difficult for learning algorithms to learn better features. Our proposed system uses transfer learning techniques to train the system model [fig. 4] that on what measures will it detect the temperature and checks if the person is wearing mask or not. The data set is loaded into the project directory, and the algorithm is trained using photographs of people wearing masks, without masks, and images that are perplexing14 without masks. All the images and data set for thermal screening of body temperature from phase 1 creates a baseline for our project it will help the algorithms to learn objects which shows that transfer learning can increase the face detection performance by 3 to 4% and enhance the accuracy level. The model is trained by using TensorFlow for better image processing compiled with MTCNN algorithm which improves the accuracy level by 99.99%.

c.MODEL IMPLEMENTATION

After training the model we must implement the algorithm-based system i.e., MT CNN algorithm with the camera to automatically track the public areas to prevent the spread of COVID-19. The camera will help the trained model to detect on real-time in public places if a person is not wearing masks or have temperature. The system will also help in maintaining a hygienic environment in public places. Also, it improves the accuracy level by 99.99%.

d.MODEL TESTING

Once the model is completely trained and is given all the data set to measures the detection of people not wearing mask, we check the accuracy level of the model based on the data set given to it by showing the bounding box with green colour. If the person in the bounding box is not wearing a mask or the mask is not visible to the camera or if the person is having temperature15,16 it will change it colour into red and capture its image and will generates a warning and send alert to monitoring authorities with face image. To begin, a CNN technique7 is utilized to create a huge number of bounding boxes that span the entire image5,6 (that is, an object localization component). Then, for each of the bounding boxes, visual features are extracted. The system accuracy level is approximately 99.99%.

We can see how the model identify the images with and without masks with red and green boundary boxes. The red box will appear when the camera captures any faces without mask and temperature body then it will generate alerts and notify the authorities otherwise the boundary box will be green showing that people are wearing masks.

RESULT AND ANALYSIS

In all the images we include in the data set we have given some images of people wearing masks, some not wearing masks and some confusing images and some techniques on how to measure the temperature of the body. The data set was used to train the model which gives the accuracy of 99.99% 8,9,13. When the model is completely trained by implementing the deep learning algorithms, it will help the society in maintaining the SOP's in public areas when the camera monitors any person in the boundary box without mask or have temperature it will automatically generate warning alerts and send the notification to the monitoring authority with the face image that violates the rule or have body temperature. Resulting in an environment where we can prevent the spread of this global pandemic coronavirus and polluted environment.

The above pictures are showing the results of a person who is captured by the system not wearing mask and at the same time it is showing the results with a message "Please wear mask to defeat corona" in a green boundary box. Below has one more person detected not wearing mask.

As in this pic, we can see the system does not recognize the name of the person it is because we have not feed its data in the system, but it can still detect the not wear mask [fig. 5] and wear mask [fig. 6] faces.

The proposed system can detect the temperature and unmasked faces by real-time monitoring of the people using image processing and data entry.

The system is user-friendly; we can get the data of captured images easily.

The system monitors the people in the boundary box and if it detects a person having a temperature or without mask it will change the color of the boundary box into red.

The system keeps the detected picture in the database for future use.

The system will notify the authorities if it detects temperature or unmasked faces by capturing their pictures automatically.

Data entry and image processing of large data set can improve the accuracy level of the system.

This system with more modification will help the society in future.

The system has accuracy level of 99.99%.

CONCLUSION

The proposed system will contribute to the healthcare sectors through which we can help society in preventing the spread of the pandemic virus COVID-19 even after the vaccine is invented. Detection of temperature and unmasked faces by image processing and data entry, which can contribute to public healthcare. The architecture is based on the two main phases which are training face mask and temperature detector and implementing the face mask and temperature detector. To extract large data set, we used transfer learning technique to train the model. If someone is captured not wearing mask it will automatically generates warning alerts with image of the person to take necessary actions to maintain the SOP’s based environment and to prevent the spread of the coronavirus. On training the model, we got an accuracy of 90%. As a result, it may be used to measure temperature and monitor uncovered faces in crowded places such as train stations, bus stops, markets, streets, mall entrances, schools, and colleges.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The researchers whose works are cited and listed in this paper's references have been of tremendous assistance to us. The laboratory facility for the analysis deserves special mention. The authors express their gratitude to individuals who contributed to the study's improvement for being patient.

Source of Funding: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None

Author’s contribution:

Chaman Lal: writing of final drafts and data collection.

Zahid Ali: Manuscript Final Editing

Shagufta Aftab: writing of first draft.

Suresh Kumar B: Manuscript Editing.

Mehwish Shaikh: Editing of first draft.

Ambreen Fatima: writing of second draft.

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Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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