International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - 13(11), June, 2021

Pages: 219-226

Date of Publication: 04-Jun-2021

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Iatrogenic Effects of Orthodontic Treatment-A Review

Author: Anusha S, Navaneetha N, Piradhiba R, Veerasankar S

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: Orthodontic treatment aids in the improvement of function, esthetics, and the patients' self-confidence. Iatrogenic damage during orthodontic treatment is believed to have deleterious effects on the dentition &periodontium. The complications associated with orthodontic treatment are a result of a multifactorial process including the patient's biology, clinical skills of the orthodontist, orthodontic appliances, orthodontic treatment procedures, and length of treatment. Aim: The purpose of this study is to summarize the scientific-based evidence on the iatrogenic effects that may be associated with orthodontic treatment and thereby discuss methods of prevention by reviewing various articles published under this topic. Methodology: The database collected from PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), Cochrane library, Google scholar and research gate were studied and thus all available information has been reviewed and briefed in this article. Discussion and Conclusion: If the orthodontic treatment is to be beneficial, the advantages it offers should outweigh any possible damage it may cause. It is important to assess the risks of treatment as well as the potential gain and balance these aspects of treatment before deciding how to treat the malocclusion. Further studies and controlled trials on the aetiology and intensity of each effect concerning every influencing factor are required.

Keywords: Orthodontics, Iatrogenic, Resorption, Hypersensitivity, Allergy, Demineralisation

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Orthodontic treatment is being practiced since the 1800s and the benefits gained are voluminous like improvement in dental health, function, appearance, and self?esteem.Although orthodontic treatment has many such recognized benefits, orthodontic appliances can cause unwanted complications if adequate care is not taken during the treatment.1

Iatrogenic is derived from the Greek word “iatros” meaning physician and “gen” meaning ‘producing’. Identifying the risk factors, causes, and ways to prevention is important for a successful orthodontic treatment and the oral health of the patient. Adequate knowledge on these complications has to be imparted to the patient and necessary counselling on his role in avoiding these have to be given. There is less literature on the consolidated review of all the observed iatrogenic effects and ways to prevent them during orthodontic treatment. This review article aims to discuss various iatrogenic effects of orthodontic treatment and ways to avoid the occurrence of these for a successful orthodontic treatment.2


The white spot lesion (WSL) has been defined by Fejerskov et al. as the first sign of caries-like lesion on enamel that can be detected with the naked eye.1 Enamel decalcification in the form of white spot lesions is a consequence of improper oral hygiene while undergoing orthodontic treatment ( Fig 1). They appear as small lines along the bracket periphery or as large decalcifications with or without cavitations.2

Fig. 1: Facial surface of maxillary anterior teeth.

(Photo courtesy: Chapman et al, Risk factors for incidenceand severity of white spot lesions during treatment withfixed orthodontic appliances. , AJODO 2010)

A sudden increase in the number of WSLs occurred during the first 6 months of treatment and continued to increase at a slower rate to 12 months, thus maintaining proper oral hygiene is critical in the initial months of the treatment.3 According to Oggard et al.,1988 the occurrence of WSLs in orthodontically treated patients was maximum in lateral incisors followed by canines, first premolars, 2nd premolars, and central incisors. The incidence rate is 45.8% and the prevalence rate is 50%–96% in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, which is quite alarming.4, 5

Diagnosis: There are various methods to identify which include visual inspection, photographs, fluorescent methods, and optical modalities such as diagnosed, quantitative light-induced fluorescence, and digital image fibre-optic transillumination. Benson et al., 2003 considers quantitative laser techniques as more sensitive, yielding a higher prevalence rate than the simple visual technique.6, 7

Prevention and management

a) Maintain Oral Hygiene: Mechanical plaque control by proper tooth brushing, interdental brush, disclosing solutions, floss, water irrigation or powered toothbrush can be used8.

b) Fluoride Toothpaste: Fluoride toothpaste contains sodium fluoride, monofluorophosphate or stannous fluoride (1500-5000 ppm) where fluoride ions get incorporated into the surface of enamel forming fluorapatite crystals. Sonesson et al., proves that they reduced the incidence of WSL by 32%.9, 10

c) Fluoride Mouth rinse: Fluoridated mouth rinses containing 0.05% sodium fluoride used daily or every other day reduced WSL by 25%. Antibacterial agents like chlorhexidine, triclosan, or zinc have been incorporated into these mouthwashes to improve their cariostaticeffects.10,11, 12.

d) Fluoride Varnish: Varnishes adhere to the enamel surface longer than other topical fluoride products and do not require patient compliance. 5% NaF forms a reservoir of calcium fluoride on the tooth surface and prevents demineralization by 30- 50% when applied biannually.13, 14,15

e) Fluoride Releasing Banding Cement

Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) pumps fluoride by absorbing from the environment and releasing it in the most susceptible areas.16 Bishara et al. reported a very less initial bond strength of RMGIC with a failure rate of 24.8%.17, 18

Bioactive glass (BAG) is a cross-linked matrix of hydrolyzed alkoxides of SiO2 and CaO that releases ions such as calcium, fluoride into the oral environment and prevents demineralization of enamel. Manfred et al. showed that BAG-Bond adhesives have better microhardness than Transbond-XT.19

f) Elastomeric ligatures: Tin fluoride (SnF) containing elastomeric ligature ties release a low concentration of fluoride for a long period. Wiltshire et al., 1996 reported an initial burst of fluoride-release (35%) during the first 24 hours followed by a continued release of 63%, 83%, and 88% of the total fluoride in the first week, first month, and second month, respectively.20,21

g) Pit and fissure sealants: The application of resin sealants on the enamel surface surrounding the bracket protects the enamel surface from acid attack. Benham et al. reported a decrease in WSL by 3.8 times with sealants.22, 23 Sealant combined with brushing was more effective in protecting enamel than brushing alone.24

h) Xylitol: Xylitol is a polyol (a type of carbohydrate) that is not metabolized by S mutants and can be used as a sugar substitute. It is available as chewing gum or lozenges.25 Xylitol lozenges reduce the acidogenicity of dental plaque by increasing the pH value.26

i) Laser irradiation: Laser irradiation is a new method for inhibiting demineralization around orthodontic appliances which is regularly combined by fluoride therapy. Meurman et al showed that it is possible to convert hydroxyapatite crystals to fluorapatite crystals instantly in the presence of fluoride using a COlaser. 27

j) Intraoral fluoride-releasing devices: Copolymer Membrane Device, Glass Device Continuing Fluoride, Slow-Fluoride Release Tablets. These devices can significantly increase the salivary fluoride concentration without substantially affecting the urinary fluoride levels.28


External apical root resorption (EARR) is defined as a physiologic or pathological process characterized by the loss of cementum or dentine resulting in the shortening of the root apex29. When heavy orthodontic forces are applied for a long duration (weeks or months), necrosis (hyalinization) of the compressed PDL may occur. The defensive leukocytes that migrate out of PDL capillaries include osteoclast progenitors that promptly coalesce to form multinucleated cells, capable of resorbing mineralized tissues (bone and tooth roots).30

Stages of root resorption, as proposed by Levander and Malmgren, which was further modified by Beck and Harris in 1994 ( Fig 2).31

Fig. 2: Root resorption index acc. to Malmgrenet al., 1982

Root resorption after orthodontic treatment of traumatized teeth. AJO. 1982

(Grade 0: Normal root length

Grade 1: Irregular root contour

Grade 2: Root loss apically, <2mm

Grade 3: Root loss apically, 2mm to 1/3rd root length

Grade 4: Root loss exceeding 1/3rd of root length)

Krishnan et al., reported a genetic influence in those individuals homozygous for IL-1β(+3953) allele 1 where the risk of root resorption increased by 5.6-fold.30

Maxillary teeth are more sensitive than mandibular teeth as their extent of movement is greater and their root structure and periodontium tend to transfer the forces mainly to the apex. The use of fixed appliances is more detrimental to the roots than removable appliances.32 The use of elastics that give jiggling forces, rapid maxillary expansion with cervical traction, has been reported to cause severe root resorption of the first maxillary molars.33, 34 Intrusion is the most damaging to the roots involved.35 Agap in treatment with intermittent forces permits the resorbed cementum to restore and avoids further resorption.36

In the view of accelerated orthodontics, which mainly acts by RAP (Regional Acceleratory Phenomenon), the inflammatory markers (cytokines) activate the cementoblasts and it increases the chance of root resorption.37

Diagnosis: Several radiographic techniques used include periapical radiograph, orthopantomogram, cephalogram, and laminogram as it provides the most appropriate information with the least irradiation to the patient.32

Prevention and management: Clinical considerations30, 32

  • Frequent periapical radiographs, at least every year during active treatment

  • The orthodontic force should be for a short duration, intermittent and minimal.

  • Traumatized teeth should be treated with utmost care since they are more prone to root resorption.

  • Eliminate pressure habits

  • Occlusal traumatism and jiggling are detrimental to the roots

  • If any root resorption is found, an inactive phase of 4 to 6 months before resuming orthodontic treatment is advised. In extreme cases, an interdisciplinary approach is adopted35.


Injudicious use of interproximal reduction (IPR) can result in hypersensitivity. IPR is done to manage tooth mass discrepancy, late secondary crowding problems, prevent relapse by stabilizing dental contacts over the long-term, and eliminate black triangles in periodontal patients and reshaping the canines in congenitally missing lateral incisors. Around 0.2mm- 0.6mm can be removed from the mesiodistal surfaces of the teeth based on the tooth. The air-rotor with fine tungsten-carbide or diamond burs/ disks and abrasive metal strips are used38.

Hypersensitivity depends on various factors such as the age of the patient, severity of crowding, pathological tooth wear, hypersensitivity before treatment, and the amount of the enamel removed.39 The sensitivity is mild, transient and the symptoms usually subside over time40.

Prevention and management                                                                                      

Identifying the thickness of enamel by projecting a line from the cervical line vertically to the occlusal plane because dentin is projected in a straight line from the cervical line or using special gauges, aligning the rotated teeth before striping, finishing and polishing with superfine strips, using a fluoride mouth rinse or denitrifies, or professional interventions through the application of fluoride varnish to promote remineralization can be done.41- 43


Orthodontic appliances interfere with oral hygiene procedures and contribute to plaque accumulation.44 Vanarsdall et al. observed that the gingival changes associated with orthodontic appliances are transient and they resolve themselves or will respond to professional oral prophylaxis measures. Gingival recession is the exposure of root surfaces due to apical migration of the gingival tissue margins.45 Marginal tissue recession or attachment loss is associated with thermal and tactile sensitivity, esthetic complaints, and root caries.46

Morris et al. reported that orthodontic treatment is not a major risk factor for the development of gingival recession. However, larger amounts of maxillary expansion may increase the risk of recession after treatment.47

 Prevention and management

When pre-existing gingival recessions are found before orthodontic treatment, the impact of orthodontic treatment should be carefully evaluated. If the tooth is planned to move lingually, tooth movement alone can end up treating or at least not aggravating the recession. If the tooth is to be moved labially, a mucogingival procedure to avoid disease progression must be planned. OTM may be initiated once wound healing is complete (3-4 months). When a gingival recession occurs during tooth movement, soft tissue grafting is indicated and is performed as soon as possible. Orthodontic therapy should be carefully evaluated to determine whether to stop or slow down OTM until wound healing is complete48.


Open gingival embrasures, also known as black triangles, refer to space below the interproximal contact when space is not filled with gingiva. They cause esthetic and periodontal problems related to chronic food retention.2 Adult orthodontic patients show a relatively high incidence of 38 to 43.7% of open gingival embrasures despite their high esthetic demands( Fig 3).49

Fig. 3: Black triangle

(Photo courtesy: Pugliese F et al., Black triangles:

Preventing their occurrence, managing them whenprevention is not practical.

Semin.Orthod. 2019)

Ageing, thin periodontal biotype, increased distance from the contact point to the alveolar bone, divergent or triangular shaped crown forms, incisively placed interproximal contact, root angulation a (1° increase in root divergence increased the odds of an open gingival embrasure by 14- 21%) pose a major risk factor for the black triangle.50 Burke reported that a black triangle is a consequence of aligning crowded maxillary central incisors. One-third of orthodontic patients are likely to have crowded central incisors, of which two-fifths of them are likely to have a post-orthodontic black triangle.51

 Prevention and management

Periodontal management by papilla preservation or papillae regeneration with soft tissue graft can be advised. Restorative approaches to change the shape of the crown. Orthodontic treatment to converging roots of central incisors (normal gingival embrasures converges at 3.65°) and restorative approaches by reshaping the triangular crown shape results with reduction of interproximal enamel (IPR) using diamond strips or discs (0.5- 0.75 mm of enamel is removed with IPR).52


Intraoral appliances:

Patients may have mouth ulcers, due to pricking of wires, bands, brackets or, cleats on the lips and cheeks. Oral tissues rapidly adjust to the new appliance and in the meantime, vegetable wax can be used to give temporary relief. Sometimes, palatal/ lingual bars may cause trauma to the palate or tongue. Some patients damage their appliances frequently, they are counselled about diet and habits and extra precautions such as placing bands rather than bonds are taken.53

Extraoral appliances:

            In 1975 the American Association of Orthodontists reported in an editorial that they come across several rare situations in which patients undertaking extraoral traction appliances had sustained facial injuries.54

The extraoral injuries involve the cheeks, chin and, eye. Injury from headgear is the most common and is commonly due to:

  1. Accidental disengagement when the child was playing while wearing the headgear

  2. Incorrect handling by the child during the fitting or removal of the headgear

  3. Deliberate disengagement of the headgear caused by another child

  4. Unintentional disengagement or detachment of the headgear during sleep

The current safety devices available to counter injuries are safety release or snap-away head caps/neckstraps, plastic safety neck straps, and several designs of safety face-bows. They should be given both verbal and written safety instructions after fitting headgear.54, 55 Micro implant injuries

Micromplants are commonly used in absolute anchorage cases. Ellis and Benson discussed the most frequent complications and accidents are the contact between adjacent tooth roots, mucositis, contamination, and mini-implant fracture during placement or removal. Inflammation of soft tissues (poor oral hygiene and implants on free gingiva) around the mini-implant is a possible complication for TADs, which may lead to loss of stability ( Fig 4).53

Gingival soft tissue thickness must be considered when choosing the most appropriate type of mini-implant and incomplete engagement into the cortical bone during placement leads to miniscrewslippage.56, 57

Fig. 4: Mini implant injury

Photo courtesy: Consolaro et al., Reasons for mini-implants failure: choosing installation site should be valued!. Dental Press J Orthod. 2014

 Due to accelerated orthodontics

          Of all the available techniques for accelerated orthodontics, corticototmy is known to double the rate of tooth movement58. Even though Wilko brothers claim it to be a routine periodontal procedure, surgery-assisted techniques are invasive with bone loss, postoperative pain, swelling, infection, avascular necrosis, and moderate morbidity.59, 60

Ingestion of appliance components

          Accidental ingestion or inhalation of foreign bodies in orthodontics range from brackets, bands, buccal tubes, lingual arches and quad-helix, removable appliance fragments, sectional archwire fragments, coil springs, expansion appliance keys, and retainers.61

         When a foreign object is lost at the back of the mouth, it is expected to pass through the gastrointestinal tract, rather than the respiratory tract. The British Orthodontic Society advises that any object ingested that is smooth, flexible and, less than 5 cm in length passes through the GIT uneventfully, whilst larger objects are more prone to obstruct or perforate the GIT.62


  • Identifying at-risk patients during history taking

  • Ensuring high-speed suction and appropriate barrier techniques such as rubber dam, gauze, or cotton wool rolls.

  • Small orthodontic components can be protected from ingestion by attaching floss or wax.

  • Appliances, both fixed and removable, should be retentive.

  • Every removable appliance should have a radio-opaque component and should be without any sharp edges.

  • An upright position can be used instead of a supine position for some patients and procedures.

  • Unsupportedarchwires should be supported with sleeves or tubing.

            Any missing appliance or component is checked for at each visit. Acting immediately to retrieve the foreign body clinically, and using radiological data in deciding to retrieve or observe.

Due to aligners

            With the advances in 3D printing and manufacturing, aligners is an emerging technology to treat malocclusions65. Even though they showed a reduced incidence of root resorption, the treatment outcome showed no difference.66, 67 On analysing the MAUDE (Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience) database, serious adverse clinical events- e.g., difficulty in breathing, swollen throat, anaphylactic reaction, swollen lips, laryngospasm, blisters could be associated with the use of Invisible aligner systems.68


An allergic response is one in which the immune system of our body reacts extremely to a foreign substance. Two key allergic reactions have been described in the literature. A delayed hypersensitivity reaction (Type IV) is an allergic immune reaction manifesting primarily through T cells (Cellular immunity).69

Allergy in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment can be due to several reasons and these include nickel allergy, allergy to the acrylic resins that are used during treatment, latex products, etc.


Nickel alloys are widely used in an orthodontic practice in the form of brackets, wires, bands, and other components. Signs and symptoms of nickel allergy include gingivitis, gingival hyperplasia, lip desquamation, burning sensation in the mouth, metallic taste, angular cheilitis, and periodontitis ( Fig 5).69, 70

Fig. 5: Nickel allergy

(Photo courtesy: Staerkjaeret al., Nickel allergy and orthodontic treatment. EJO 1990)

Kim et al. suggested in such patients stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy, fibre-reinforced composite wires, gold plated wires, ion-implanted nickel-titanium archwires, or plastic/resin-coated nickel-titanium archwires can be used71. Ceramic brackets or even plastic aligners are a good alternative. Extra-oral metal components like headgear studs can be replaced with plastic coated studs72.


Natural rubber latex is found in gloves, intra and extra-oral elastics, separators, elastomeric modules, elastomeric power chains, polishing rubber cups. Severe systemic reactions, involving the skin, airways, and/ or cardiovascular systems, have been reported after cutaneous and respiratory exposure73.

            A definitive diagnosis should be based on the previous medical history and a positive skin reaction to the particular chemicals present in natural rubber latex. In the latex-sensitive patient, stainless steel ligatures, self-ligating brackets and, self-locking separating springs may be preferred. Synthetic non-latex gloves made from nitrile, polychloroprene are available as an alternative.

 Acrylic resin

Acrylic re


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Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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