International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
logo
slider
slider
slider
slider
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 13 Issue 17, September, 2021

Pages: 88-91

Date of Publication: 12-Sep-2021


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

Correlative Evaluation between Clinical and Pathological Diagnosis in Multinodular Goiter

Author: Abhay D. Havle, Kaenat Ahmed, Munnuru Khaleel Basha

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: Multinodular goitre is an enlarged, diffusely heterogeneous thyroid tissue. Initial presentation may include diffuse enlargement, but asymmetrical nodularity develops later on. Objective: To correlate between clinical features, FNAC and histopathology findings in cases of multinodular goitre. As far as the Study Design is concerned it is a prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: All clinically diagnosed cases of multinodular goitre were included in the study. All cases underwent FNAC and subsequent thyroidectomy after routine pre-operative work up such as CBC, Urine, BT, CT, FT3, FT4 and ultra TSH, blood sugar, BUN and ultrasonography of neck etc. The surgical specimens of thyroidectomy were subjected to histopathological examination in all cases. Result: The commonest presenting symptom was neck swelling (100%) and associated pain (48%). The pressure symptoms on food, air passage and recurrent laryngeal nerve like dysphagia, dyspnoea and hoarseness of voice were noted in 42, 22, and 22 per cent of cases respectively with a mean 28.6\? 11.54. A significant association of these pressure symptoms was seen with colloid goitre (74%). Hyperthyroidism (14%) was in association with multinodular goitre. On fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) the most common finding was nodular colloid goitre 64%, followed by Hashimoto's thyroiditis 11% and follicular neoplasm 4%. On histopathological examination of the resected thyroid specimen, colloid nodular goitre was seen at 74% and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in 18%. 1 % of cases had papillary and follicular carcinoma each. Conclusion: Multinodular goitre was more common in females belonging to the age group of 30 to 40 years. The most common (48%) presenting symptom was swelling in front of the neck and associated pain. Pressure symptoms were significantly associated with colloid goitre. Associated hyperthyroidism was in (14%) multinodular goitre cases. The FNAC is a useful investigation for initial diagnosis in cases of multinodular goitre but it could not differentiate between follicular neoplasms. Therefore, histopathology remains an imperative investigation to rule out malignancy in multinodular goitre

Keywords: Multinodular Goitre, Presenting Complaints, Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, Thyroidectomy

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION:

 Multinodular goitre is an enlarged, diffusely heterogeneous thyroid tissue. Initial presentation may include diffuse enlargement, but asymmetrical nodularity develops later on. Iodine deficiency is a common cause. Initially, the patient is euthyroid; however, eventually, T3 and T4 levels get elevated and later may progress into a clinical hyperthyroid state or malignancy in the nodule. Ultrasonography (USG) and radioisotope scanning help to identify the heterogeneous thyroid substance in the goitre. Nodules with poor uptake of radioactive isotope- I131 or 128 suggest suspicion of malignancy.1-3 The possibility of malignant transformation of thyroid nodule in multinodular goitre is 5% to 10%.4 A variety of tests are carried out to know the anatomical and functional status of the thyroid gland.  Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is an established outpatient procedure useful in knowing the cytological status of thyroid neoplasia. According to American Thyroid Association and National Comprehensive Cancer Network, FNAC should be used as an initial test, because of its superior diagnostic reliability and cost-effectiveness, before both thyroid radioisotope study and ultrasonography.5 Similarly, the most sensitive imaging modality, high-resolution ultrasonography, is available for thyroid gland examination and associated abnormalities. USG in cases of thyroid disease, apart from being useful in interventional diagnostic procedures, is non-invasive, easily available, less expensive and without any ionizing radiation.6

The thyroid functions, i.e. whether the thyroid gland is underactive, overactive or normal cannot be assessed by the USG alone for which simultaneous thyroid function tests and subsequent radioactive isotope study may be required. Hyperthyroidism may be adequately controlled by drugs, but surgical management and histopathological examination of the resected tissue is preferred as it provides an insight as to whether total thyroidectomy would be needed additionally. Subtotal or total thyroidectomy is performed depending on the portion involved. Radioactive iodine therapy is reserved for the elderly who are part of poor operative risk.7 There are many studies conducted about the correlation between FNAC and histopathology of nodular goitre. This study about the correlation between clinical presentation, FNAC and histopathology in cases of nodular goitre was conducted at the rural tertiary care teaching hospital.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

 This is a prospective observational clinical study in cases of multinodular goitre, at the department of otorhinolaryngology of the tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 100 cases of nodular goitre, irrespective of normal or abnormal thyroid status and having age above 20 years was included in the study. All cases presenting with diffuse enlargement or solitary nodule of the thyroid gland or pregnancy were excluded from the study. The diagnosis of multinodular goitre was based on findings of palpation during clinical examination in all cases. Further, all cases were subjected to T3, T4 and TSH tests, FNAC and ultrasonography of the neck apart from routine CBC(complete blood count), BT(Bleeding time), CT(Clotting time), Urine, blood grouping, x-ray chest and neck etc. Cases with hyperthyroidism were treated and brought to a euthyroid state before surgery. The resected specimen in all cases was further studied by histopathological examination.

STATISTICS METHODS:

A Chi-square test was used to find the significance of age, pain, dysphagia, dyspnoea, hyper/hypo / euthyroid status, hoarseness of voice etc. in the diagnosis of thyroid swelling. All data analysis had been done by using SPSS version 20.0.

RESULTS:

In this study total of 100 diagnosed cases of multinodular goitre without any initial evidence of malignancy were enrolled and subjected to clinical evaluation. The results of relevant investigations, Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology FNAC, the histopathological examinations of surgical specimens were compiled, analyzed. In table 1 Age distribution of multinodular goitre is presented. In table 2 Incidence of presenting complaints in multinodular goitre is presented. In table 3 Fine needle aspiration cytology in multinodular goitre is presented. In table 4 HPE reports in multinodular goitre presented. In table 5 Statistical comparison is presented. The females outnumbered males with M: F ratio of 6:94. The commonest age group was 30 to 40 years and the least common was above 60 years was with 6 females and 4 males. The mean age was 42.26 years ± 12.79. Amongst all cases the commonest associated symptom noted was a pain in neck swelling (48%). Followed by the symptoms due to pressure on food, air passage and recurrent laryngeal nerve noted were dysphagia (42%), dyspnoea (22%) and hoarseness of voice (22%) with an average of 28.6± 11.54. Out of these 42 cases having dysphagia, 20 had only dysphagia, 10 had hoarseness of voice and 12 had dyspnoea as associated symptoms. In 74 cases having colloid goitre the symptoms of dysphagia, dyspnoea, hoarseness of voice and hyperthyroidism were seen with p values 0.05, 0.03, 0.002 and 0.03 respectively. The number of cases of colloid goitre having dysphagia was 48 (35.13%), dyspnoea 15 (20.02%), hoarseness 12 (16.21%) and hyperthyroidism 14 (10.81%). Colloid nodular goitre was the most common finding on FNAC in 64 cases followed by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis 22, adenomatous goitre 8. FNAC was inconclusive in 2 of the cases. In 4 cases follicular neoplasm was found on FNAC who underwent total thyroidectomy to rule out malignancy. On histopathology of surgical specimen colloid, nodular goitre was the commonest finding in 74 of the cases, followed by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis 18, follicular and papillary carcinoma 2 and follicular adenoma 4. The histopathology revealed papillary carcinoma in one case which was inconclusive on FNAC and requiring a total thyroidectomy with nodal clearance at a second surgery.

DISCUSSION:

In this study of 100 cases, the majority were females with an M: F ratio of 6:94. In a similar study, Antonio Rios – Zumbudio et al in 2004 found it to be 11:89. The majority of the cases (33%) were from the age group 30 – 40 years and the least were having age above 60 years. All cases presented with neck swelling. 50% of the cases were having associated symptoms of pain. The mean percentage of the number of cases having symptoms due to pressure by neck swelling like dysphagia (42%), dyspnoea (22%) and hoarseness of voice (22%) was 27.3±9.428. Similarly in the study Rios Zumbudio et al., the average of pressure symptoms is 28.5%. Hyperthyroidism on presentation was found in 14% of cases of multinodular goitres in this study. And in a study of 301 cases of multinodular goitre by Rios- Zumbudio et al it was 22%. This difference maybe because it was presented at an early age in cases of this study as compared to one carried out amongst the western population. In this study out of 100 cases 52% were involving right lobe followed by 44% left lobe and 4% bilateral which correlates with the study by Chakravarthy et al (2017) wherein out of 290 cases 55.1% were involving the right lobe, 40.7 % were left and 4.1% bilateral. One case having multinodular of one lobe with largest measuring 0.7 cm underwent right lobectomy and at 3 months of follow up the opposite lobe was normal. Seven cases involved to left lobe and 4 that involved the right underwent subtotal thyroidectomy. Two cases underwent subtotal thyroidectomy as the initial FNAC was inconclusive. Based on the HPE of the surgical specimen that revealed papillary carcinoma and follicular adenoma, total thyroidectomy was performed in these 2 cases. Therefore, in all 11% underwent subtotal thyroidectomy, 1% right lobectomy and 88% underwent total thyroidectomy. The goitre was confined to the thyroid gland in 90% of cases. Out of the remaining 10%, 8% had a malignant transformation and restricted mobility of thyroid swelling and/ or 2% associated cervical lymphadenopathy which is comparable to 7.9% and 4.1% respectively in the above-mentioned study by Chakravarthy et al.The FNAC finding of the 100 cases revealed nodular colloid goitre in 64% followed by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis 22%, adenomatous goitre 8%, follicular neoplasm 4%and inconclusive in 2%. Cases with follicular neoplasm underwent total thyroidectomy to rule out malignancy. The histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed colloid nodular goitre in 37% of the cases and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in 18%. 1 case of follicular neoplasm on FNAC that was operated on turned out to be follicular carcinoma (Hurthle cell variant) on HPE of the specimen. Out 2 cases with inconclusive on FNAC 1 turned out as papillary carcinoma and another follicular adenoma on histopathological examination of the specimen. In all, there were 4 cases of follicular adenoma, 2 cases of follicular carcinoma and 2 cases of papillary carcinoma. Incidence of malignancy in multinodular goitre accounts for 4% which is comparable to the studies by Gondolfi et al. (2004) who had a result of 6.7% in a retrospective study of 81cases, but 1.21% in a study conducted by Nandedkar et al. in 2018. This is probably due to the larger sample size of the study (606) over a long duration (10 years). This study also included all cases of thyroid swellings such as solitary nodular goitre or thyroglossal cyst whereas the present study is focused only on clinically diagnosed cases of multinodular goitre.

CONCLUSION:

Females were the commonest sufferers of multinodular goitre with an M: F ratio of 6:94. The commonest age group was 30 to 40 years amongst all cases of multinodular goitre. Pressure symptoms were significantly associated with colloid goitre. Hoarseness of voice was a significant pressure symptom in 22% of cases of multinodular goitre. FNAC finding of multinodular goitre was significantly useful in making the initial diagnosis. FNAC conclusion of follicular neoplasm could not differentiate further between follicular adenoma and carcinoma therefore histopathological examination to rule out malignancy becomes mandatory. Other symptoms like dysphagia, dyspnoea, tremors, insomnia, palpitation and change in appetite or intolerance to change in temperature were seen in cases suffering from a multinodular goitre but their number was not statistically significant. The presence of cervical lymphadenopathy, as in 2 cases of this study of multinodular goitre, needs to be considered as malignant secondaries arising from the thyroid unless proved otherwise. Similarly, reduced mobility of the gland with irregular margins as in 8 cases of the study to be kept in mind as the possibility of malignancy, however, which was not statistically significant. Even though FNAC is reliable in determining the treatment plan, histopathological evaluation of surgical specimens must be undertaken for confirmation in all cases.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: There is no conflict of Interest 

SOURCE OF FUNDING: No Source of Funding

AUTHORS CONTRIBUTION: This is a collaborative work among all authors. Abhay D. Havle and Kaenat Ahmed performed the statistical analysis, wrote the protocol, and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. Kaenat Ahmed along with Munnuru Khaleel Basha managed the literature searches. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

References:

1. Pang HN, Chen CM. The incidence of cancer in nodular goitres. Ann Acad Med. 2007;36:241-3.

2. Belfiore A, La Rosa GL, Padova G, Sava L, Ippolito O, Vigneri R. The frequency of cold thyroid nodules and thyroid malignancies in patients from an iodine-deficient area. Cancer. 1987;60:3096-102.

3. Mazzaferri EL, de Los Santos ET, Rofagha-Keyhani S. Solitary thyroid nodule: Diagnosis and management. Med Clin North Am. 1988;72:1177-211.

4. ul Haq RN, Khan BA, Chaudhry IA. Prevalence of malignancy in a goiter-A review of 718 thyroidectomies. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2009; 21:134-6.

5. Tan H, Li Z, Li N, Qian J, Fan F, Zhong H, Feng J, Xu H, Li Z. Thyroid imaging reporting and data system combined with Bethesda classification in qualitative thyroid nodule diagnosis. Med. 2019;98:50(e18320).

6. Chaudhary V, Bano S. Imaging of the thyroid: Recent advances. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;16:371–6. [PMCID: PMC3354842] [PubMed: 22629501]

7. Al-Qurayshi Z, Randolph GW, Srivastav S, Kandil E. Outcomes in endocrine cancer surgery are affected by racial, economic, and healthcare system demographics. Laryng. 2016;126:775-81.

 8. Zambudio AR, Rodríguez J, Riquelme J, Soria T, Canteras M, Parrilla P.  Prospective study of postoperative complications after total thyroidectomy for multinodular goitres by surgeons with experience in endocrine surgery.  Ann Surg. 2004;240:18-25.

9. Ríos A, Rodríguez JM, Canteras M, Galindo PJ, Tebar FJ, Parrilla P. Surgical management of multinodular goiter with compression symptoms. Arch Surg. 2005;140:49-53.

10. Chakravarthy NS, Chandramohan A, Prabhu AJ, Gowri M, Mannam P, Shyamkumar NK, et al. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology along with clinical and radiological features in predicting thyroid malignancy in nodules ≥1 cm. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2018;22:597-60

11. Gandolfi PP, Frisina A, Raffa M, Renda F, Rocchetti O, Ruggeri C, et al. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma in multinodular goitre: Retrospective analysis. Acta Biomed. 2004;75:114-7.

12. Nandedkar SS, Dixit M, Malkani K, Varma AV, Gambhir S. Evaluation of thyroid lesions by fine-needle aspiration cytology according to Bethesda system and its histopathological correlation. Int J App Basic Med Res. 2018;8:76-82.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



ABOUT US

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2022 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions