International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - 13(16), August, 2021

Pages: 190-197

Date of Publication: 30-Aug-2021

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Effectiveness of Child-Centred Distraction in the Management of a Child's Dental Anxiety During Invasive Dental Procedures

Author: Sahithi V, Elicherla SR, Saikiran KV, Challa RR, Nuvvula S

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background and Aim: Distraction is the technique of diverting the patient's attention from an unpleasant procedure. It is of two type's active and passive distraction. The present study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of child-centred distraction (CCD) in alleviating dental anxiety of children using three techniques during invasive dental procedures. Materials and Methods: Sixty children (40 boys and 20 girls), aged 7 to 11 years, were randomly allocated into three groups: Group1- Mobile video games (VG), Group 2- Virtual reality (VR), and Group 3- Mobile cartoons (MC) respectively, during the treatment sessions. The anxiety of the children was assessed using physiologic measures (heart rate) at three different time points, i.e., before, during, and after the procedure, whereas RMS pictorial scale was employed as a subjective measure before and after the procedure. Kruskal Wallis- ANOVA and Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test was used to analyze the RMS Scores, and repeated measures of ANOVA was used to test the mean difference of pulse rates. Results: On intergroup comparison, there was no statistical difference among the three groups before commencing the treatment (P-value > 0.001). But, a statistical difference in all the groups (P-value ≤ 0.001) was evident after instituting the distraction techniques. Amongst all the three groups, a significant reduction in anxiety scores was elicited by the children in group 1. Conclusion: This study has attempted to enhance the salience of distraction techniques in tumbling a child's dental anxiety. Involving the child in decision making while using distraction techniques has a foremost impetus in most children, instilling a new positive attitude towards the dental procedures.

Keywords: Behaviour guidance, Dental anxiety, Distraction

Full Text:

Dental anxiety is a widespread emotional phenomenon anteceding a dental appointment. Anxiety can involve behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and physiological components, and their countenance might differ.1,2,3 [A1] Many terminologies have been used over a while to explain dental anxiety, dental fear, and dental phobia. Dental anxiety and fear are often used indistinctly in the scientific literature, but they both represent contrasting progressive degrees of the same psychological condition. Dental fear is generally associated with known stimuli such as injections or drills, whereas dental anxiety is due to an unknown threat that is not immediately present.4 Dental anxiety is the fifth-most common cause of anxiety and the prevalence of dental fear and anxiety among children ranges from 6% to 42% in different populations.5-10 Various factors and aspects are involved in the development and acquisition of dental anxiety in children. A child's first dental visit is a climacteric moment for the decline or addition of dental anxiety,11 whereas atypical dental anxiety can sometimes relate to a series of uncooperative or troublesome behaviors, given that it can limit children's access to quality oral health care.12 When clinicians treat children with dental anxiety, the former are subjected inevitably to increased stress with more time-consuming procedures, increased costs, and other difficulties encountered during their dental practice.13 Therefore, appropriate management of a child's anxiety during a dental appointment may enhance access to dental care and also subsidize a high quality of dental care, which in turn contributes to the psychological well-being of both the child patient and pediatric dentist.14

The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) outlined a series of nonpharmacological techniques to deal with a child's behavior in the dental setting.15 Among those, the present trend advocates a simple, safe, cost-effective, and non-aversive approach i.e., distraction.16-19 These distraction techniques seem to can have a positive impact on young individuals' dental fear and anxiety. Robson reported the first documentation of the distraction technique in 1925. The distraction techniques aim to forestall the child's attention from what may be perceived as unpleasant stimuli and shift their focus to exciting and fascinating distractors.20-23 McCaul and Mallot's theory testified that a person's perception of pain decreases when he/ she is distracted from an unpleasant stimulus.24 Distraction techniques can be of two forms i.e., active and passive. Active methods comprise activities that entail the direct participation of the child. They often distract an additional source of sensation i.e., kinesthetic sensation e.g., playing mobile video games and toys.25-28 In contrast, passive techniques rely on practices employing music and video, deprived of involving the child directly, in which children were distracted only using their senses, i.e., vision and hearing, respectively.29,30,31 [A2] Two such widely employed forms of passive distraction in pediatric dentistry are Audio (various categories of music) and Audio-visual distraction (cartoons on TV and two-dimensional video glasses).

A systematic review and meta-analysis by Valverde et al., addressed that VR is a useful distraction technique to reduce anxiety and pain perception in children undergoing dental procedures, thus enlightening the child's behavior towards dental care.32 Ashokan S et al., reported that active distraction plays an important role compared to passive distraction in relieving pain more effectively in children.33 Likewise, Patel et al., observed that video games gained a higher acceptance than parental presence during treatment sessions.25 The accomplishment of the passive distraction technique has been affirmed in medical setups; however scanty literature is accessible to gauge the potency of these techniques in terms of the pediatric population.34 Investigations of visual and auditory distractions in the dental clinic have not reliably found reductions in pain, anxiety, or disruptive behavior.35,36 One possible explanation for these conflicting outcomes is that many of the most communal distracting stimuli (e.g., TV, music) may lack adequate salience to compete for attention as the active distractors alone did not adequately enhance the salience of distraction. One of the best ways to ameliorate the salience of distractors is the addition of a choice component to achieve a receptive child's behavior.37 Hence, the present study was contrived to evaluate the effectiveness of child-centered (choice-based) distraction using three techniques i.e., mobile video games (VG), virtual reality (VR), and mobile cartoons (MC) in the management of a child's dental anxiety during invasive dental procedures.


Source of data and participants:

The present self-explanatory trial was conducted in the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Narayana Dental College and hospital, Nellore over three months (August to October of 2019). There were no gender, race, or ethnic restrictions used in the study. Signed informed consent was obtained from the parents or guardians who agreed to participate in the study after providing information regarding the procedures involved. A total of 345 children, who visited the department, were initially examined, of which 60 children who met the following selection criteria were enlisted.

• Healthy children aged 6-12 years

• Children requiring invasive dental procedures

• Children without any previous dental experience.

• Children whose behavior rated as positive (+) or negative (-) based on Wright's modification of   the Frankl behavior rating scale.38

• Children who were willing to participate in the study.

Exclusion Criteria:

• Children with any disabilities and underlying systemic diseases.

• Children or parents who refused to participate in the study.

• Children whose behavior rated as definitely positive (++) or definitely negative (--) according to Wright's modification of the Frankl behavior rating scale.

• In addition, to evaluate the independent effects of the distraction, children who required nitrous oxide or general anesthesia were also excluded.


A total of 60 children (40 boys and 20 girls) aged 6-12 years requiring invasive dental procedures were included in the study. Children were allocated based on their choices into three groups: Group-1 mobile video games (VG), Group-2 virtual reality (VR), Group-3 mobile cartoons (MC). In all the groups, children were treated by a single trained dentist within a single appointment using either of the distraction techniques during the execution of invasive dental procedures.


In the VG group (group 1), we initially collected information regarding the most commonly played games by the children in our local region, and those games have installed on the mobile from the IOS store. The games used in this study were friendly, not showing any aggressive, pain, or distress-related content. Before starting the treatment, children were asked to choose their favorite video game, which aids in preventing boredom and keeping attentional by engaging them. Most girls preferred the BarbieTM Magical Fashion game by Budge Studios TM, and boys preferred Temple Run game by Imangi Studios, LLC. Later the children were asked to play the video game of their choice during the treatment sessions.

In the VR group (group 2), children were given a few minutes to get accustomed to the eyeglasses. These 3D VR eyeglasses (ALDIVO R Virtual Reality Glasses 3D VR Box headsets for 3.5- 6 "mobile phones, model no: a236, India) helps in blocking the visual field of the child entirely and had in-built headphones to deliver the sound effectively to avoid hearing any voices and helps in distraction. The children were asked to choose their favorite videos on the phone, where most of the children preferred Doraemon cartoon videos. Later, 3D VR glasses were mounted to the mobile phone (Apple iPhone 7 Plus, California) capable of playing MP4 audiovisual files. Once the VR device was secured on the child's eyes, cartoon videos are played.

In the MC group (group 3), children were provided with a mobile phone and headset for better audio as a means of distraction, where they opted to view their favorite cartoon videos in the regional language.

Materials for measuring a child's anxiety:

RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS): The RMS-PS is anxiety measuring scale consists of original photographs of both boy and a girl child. RMS-PS consist of five faces from very happy to very unhappy. The children were asked to choose a face that closely resembles how they feel like at that moment. This was recorded by giving a value one to the very happy face and five to very unhappy face.39 Pre and Post-operative anxiety were measured using an RMS pictorial scale. Anxiety levels before, during, and after the treatment procedure was assessed by recording the heart rate (physiologic measurement) using a Portable Non-Invasive Fingertip pulse oximeter device (EZ- LIFE Professional PD- 10*7*5 cm. ASIN B084TQQTVN).40 A single dentist who was blinded to the allocation procedure recorded both the heart rate and the RMS scores for all the children.

Outcomes measures:

1. The primary outcome measure considered was the Pulse (heart) rate, which is a physiological parameter

2. The secondary outcome measured was pre and post-operative anxiety using the RMS pictorial scale.

Statistical methods:

All statistical analyses were performed using standard software (SPSS 20.0 for Windows, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Kruskal Wallis- ANOVA and Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test was used to analyze the Intergroup and Intragroup comparison of pre-op and post-op RMS Scores.

Intergroup comparison of anxiety before, during, and after was analyzed using One-Way ANOVA. Whereas, for Pair-wise comparison of Anxiety in Group I, II, III LSD Bonferroni Test was used. Intragroup comparison of anxiety was assessed using Repeated Measures of ANOVA, and for Pair-wise comparison of Anxiety Tukey's Post Hoc Analysis was used.

P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


The recruitment, randomization, allocation, and completion of children in different groups were represented in the flow diagram.

Intervention Effectiveness:

Intergroup Pre-operative anxiety measured for children in all the groups on a subjective scale, i.e., RMS pictorial scale, showed no significant differences among them. However, a significant difference was elicited for post-operative anxiety among all the three groups, children in the first group exhibited fewer anxiety scores than the counterpart. (Table 1)

Intragroup comparison of pre and post-operative anxiety scores showed a significant difference for the children in group I and group III. It was not significant for the children in group II (P-value ≤ 0.004). (Table 2)

The children's intergroup comparison of pre and post anxiety scores didn't illustrate any statistically significant difference among them. In contrast, a significant difference was exhibited for the anxiety scores during the procedure. (Table 3)

For the Intragroup comparison of anxiety scores, a significant difference was elicited for all the children in three groups. But upon keen evaluation of the Mean +- SD values, there was more decrease in the mean +-SD. Values compared to other groups. (Table 4)


Anxiety and fear due to dental treatment, affect 15% - 20% of the population, being recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO).41, 42 It poses a significant problem for children who are affected by it, resulting in avoidance of even the most primary dental treatments, such as simple dental check-ups or cleanings.43 Thus, its management is essential to enhance the child's oral health quality of life.44 The dentists and the parents accepted variety of behavior guidance techniques adopted by American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, among that distraction is one of the contemporary technique which is capable reducing anxiety by engaging the child most effectively during their first dental visit.45 Ideal distracters would require an optimal amount of attention involving multiple sensory modalities (kinesthetic, visual, and auditory), active emotional involvement, and participation of the child to compete with the signals from the noxious stimuli.46,47 The most common distracting stimuli (e.g., TV, music, mobile) may lack adequate salience to compete for attention. In other words, common distracters may not be loud enough, close enough, or interesting enough to hold a child's attention in distracting him/her from the dental environment. Thus, one way to improve the effectiveness of Distraction may be to increase the salience of the distractors.37 Mainly the value of the distracting stimulus is linked closely to its quality, which usually is determined by the preference of the participant.48 Thus, one means of enhancing the effectiveness of a distracter may be to stick on the preference of the children by providing choices pertaining to the available distracters.49 This necessitates the need for research that improve insights to existing distraction techniques. Hence, present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of child centered distraction (choice based) techniques in the management of a child's dental anxiety and fear based on their preferences. None of the children in the present study had previous exposure to dental treatment, and high levels of anxiety was observed before commencing the procedure it was consistent with the study reported by Alvin et al., Mason et al.50,51 Primarily, anxiety and fear of unknown situations predispose children to consider dental circumstances to be challenging.

In the present study, irrespective of the distraction methods used, there was an overall reduction in the reported Raghavendra Madhuri Sujatha (RMS) scores, which indicates a decline in the anxiety levels of children after the dental procedures. Two forms of distraction i.e., active and passive which include playing video games on a mobile phone, and Audio-visual distraction with/without VR glasses respectively were used in this study. Although it has hypothesized that active strategies are more effective than passive, other studies suggest that passive distraction was useful or even better since the active forms are too demanding for children.52, 53

Likewise, in this study, playing a Mobile phone video game, which acts as an active distraction technique, reduces a child's anxiety better than passively watching the cartoon with or without VR glasses. This reduction in anxiety scores can be explained as stated by Koepp et al.,54 that endogenous dopamine is released and bound to receptors in the human striatum during a goal-directed motor task like VG playing. Dopaminergic neurotransmission might be involved in learning reinforcement of behavior, attention, and sensorimotor integration. Likewise, a randomized cross-over trial by Shah et al.,55 concluded that pre-procedural gaming resulted in a statistically significant difference in hemodynamic parameters of 60 children between 5 and 10 years old. Coinciding with this, we witnessed a substantial reduction in mean pulse rates in children who had their treatments while playing mobile video games.

As per the findings of the present study, anxiety scores in children have also been reduced using audiovisual distraction (AVD), which might be due to the partial visual obstruction of the operating environment.56 There were few adverse effects of AVD in literature stating their concerns towards pain experience during dental visits of children.57,58 The anxiety scores of mobile gaming has shown high significance when compared to AVD which was reflected not only in the Heart rate scores (physiological) but also in the RMS scores. These results were consistent with Attar et al.,59 who suggested that passive distraction, such as watching a film, is not as effective as an active distraction (e.g., playing a video game) in reducing patient anxiety. In this study, we found that there seems no significant difference in anxiety found between both boys and girls. This is because of the reason that we ensured the availability of games that girls would find interesting. These findings are similar to Nuvvula et al.,60 but Khotani et al.,61 reported that girls showed a more significant reduction in anxiety when compared with the boys. Virtual reality immersion was shown to be somewhat more effective than audiovisual distraction because it augments detachment from viewing and hearing what is happening in the environment.62,63 In this study, mobile phone video games were mostly preferred instead of virtual reality eyewear as most of the children in the study population had not exposed to a sophisticated device. VR glasses are not well known among kids of all age ranges and socioeconomic groups. Even though there was a reduction of postoperative anxiety in a child using VR, procedural anxiety was increased in the VR group as these had blocked the vision of the child, making him/ her anxiety about not knowing what was going around them during the dental procedures. Nausea, headache, and interference to communicate with the children were some of the other problems encountered.

Sullivan et al.,64 discovered that although VR had no significant effect on children's behavior or anxiety during dental treatment, VR did considerably lower their pulse rates. Since, the children in the present study had the opportunity of choosing their preferred cartoon and games, one can believe that this can compensate for the lack of salience in distractors. Nevertheless, asking the child to choose the distraction can provide him/her in having a sense of control during dental treatment, which in turn assists in reducing the chance of uncooperative behavior. This coincides with a study by Filcheck et al.,65 where the authors concluded that choice-based distraction is a relatively practical method to implement, a valuable alternative technique to the health care professionals and parents in reducing the distress of children who visit the dentist. Most children were satisfied and comfortable with the distractors provided and used in this study, which are safe, clinically feasible, and easy to operate without any prior training for the clinicians.

But certain limitations were noted in this study, primarily regarding with the usage of same sized VR glasses for children with small face/head size, because of their unavailability of different sizes and a small sample size.


From the above observations, the following findings were drawn:

1. Primarily, distraction techniques of choice-based could be an effective method in reducing a child's dental anxiety. Allowing the child to choose the distraction technique by him/herself instills a positive attitude in a child's mind that he/she actively participates in the dental procedure, thus reducing dental anxiety.

2. Secondly, Mobile video gaming, which is an active, cost-effective and readily available technique, also well known among children in all socioeconomic groups, could be a better alternative to all other distraction techniques used in the dental operatory.

Conflict of interest: NIL

Source of funding: NIL

Author contribution:

  1. Varada Sahithi (Conceptualization; Writing – original draft)

  2. Sainath Reddy Elicherla (Data curation; Writing – original draft)

  3. Kanamarlapudi Venkata Saikiran (Data curation; Writing – review & editing)

  4. Ramasubba reddy Challa (Formal analysis; Supervision)

  5. Sivakumar Nuvvula (Writing – review & editing)


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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

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This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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