International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - 7(22), November, 2015

Pages: 42-51

Date of Publication: 21-Nov-2015

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Author: Raphael M. Wambua, Benedict M. Mutua, James M. Raude

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Objective: To estimate the hydrological drought frequency for upper Tana River basin in Kenya using absolute Stream flow Drought Index (SDI) and modified Gumbel technique. The frequency of drought event of a defined severity for a defined return period is fundamental in planning, designing and operation of water storage systems in the basin. Materials and Methods: Based on a 41-year (1970-2010) stream flow data, hydrological droughts of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000-year return periods are evaluated based on the stream flows, Stream flow Drought Index (SDI) and a simplified mathematical model for hydrological drought estimation which is formulated using Gumbel's technique. Results: The absolute SDI increases while the magnitude of the stream flow decreases with return period. The minimum and maximum drought events were exhibited in gauge stations 4AC03 and 4CC03 with absolute SDI ranging from 0.667 to 1.265 and 1.213 to 2.42, and corresponding stream flows of 4.341 to 2.719 and 18.246 to 1.021m3/s for a 2 and 1000-year return period respectively. Conclusion: A simplified mathematical model for estimating hydrological drought event that uses mean flows of the annual minimum and average of the first three minimum stream flows as input variables is formulated for different return periods for the river basin.

Keywords: Upper tana River basin, SDI, Hydrological drought, Return period, Gumbel technique, Drought frequency, Mathematical model

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Hydrological drought is a natural hazard associated with water deficiency in a hydrological system. Drought may be manifested in below average water availability such as stream flow in rivers, quantity of water in reservoirs, lakes and ground water (Tsakiris, 2009; Mishra and Singh, 2010; Sheffield and Wood 2011). Hydrological drought decreases the availability of water resources (Liu et al., 2012) in river basins, adversely impacting on economic aspects (Carrol et al., 2009; Van Vliet et al., 2012) social dimensions such as increased human conflicts and mortality rates (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2010) and ecological systems (Lake 2011, Lewis et al., 2011). There is need to understand the drought events in order to develop drought mitigation mechanisms in river basins (Wambua et al., 2014). Hydrological drought impacts on large areas and large human population and may be triggered by climate change and /or variability (Mondal and Mujumdar, 2015). Like other drought events, hydrological drought is considered to be a ‘creeping hazard’ because it develops slowly, it is not easily noticed, covers extensive areas and it lasts for long a period of time with adverse impact on ecological systems and socio-economic development (Liu et al., 2015; Van-loon, 2015). In addition to hydrological droughts, other types of droughts Include meteorological agricultural/ soil moisture droughts and socio-economic drought. However, according to Van-loon and Laaha (2015), hydrological drought has the most significant effects almost across different sectors as shown in Table.
The key parameters of droughts are the longest duration and highest severity for a defined return period. Such parameters aid in designing water storage systems capable of withstanding effects of droughts (Kyambia and Mutua, 2014). Since occurrence of drought contributes to adverse socio-economic impacts, they need to be quantified so as to improvise coping and/or mitigation mechanise. Thus hydrological drought estimation using stream flow data for a defined range of return period in a river basin is crucial. The commonly used return periods are 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 years. A 50-year hydrological drought is defined as the drought magnitude which is equalled or exceeded, on average, once per 50 years. The original version of Gumbel approach in the prediction requires computation of coefficient of variation (Cv) and determination of expected mean (yn ) and standard deviation (σn ) as given in the Gumbel’s table. However, in this paper, a mathematical model is formulated for hydrological drought estimation using annual minimum average stream flow and the mean of three lowest stream flows from the recorded data as the main input variables of a modified mathematical model. From an engineering point of view, design of water storage structures requires critical information of longest duration, largest severity for a specific return period. Extreme drought may be treated as a stochastic variable that is challenging to estimate. For practical engineering work, extrapolation and interpolation of drought frequency is crucial for reliable designs. Gumbel (1958) put forth a method for estimating flood frequency. Such a technique may be modified and applied in drought frequency estimation. The Gumbel extreme value distribution for instance has been applied in drought studies in Greece (Dalezios et al., 2000) river basin and Dudhkumar River (Asad et al., 2013).


Hydrological drought process The occurrence of hydrological droughts is considered to exhibit stochastic characteristics and thus complex in nature. Hydrological droughts are influenced by hydrological processes of the hydrologic cycle (Peters et al., 2006; Vidal et al., 2010) such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, soilwater storage, runoff flow on land and streams, and groundwater recharge or discharge. The fundamental cause of hydrological drought is climatic change and/ or variability. For instance, an abnormally prolonged precipitation deficit leads to low input into hydrological system. Droughts may be triggered by anomalies in temperature in large scale atmospheric and or oceanic patterns and low sea temperature. For any river basin, the rate of depletion of soil-moisture is a function of antecedent moisture condition, evaporation from bare soil surface, evapo-transpiration from vegetated areas, deep percolation of water into the groundwater and runoff into stream networks. For a dry season, runoff and drainage are significantly low while potential evapo-transpiration may be high as a result of increased solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and wind velocity. During an extreme drought event, soil-moisture may be depleted to wilting point below which plants significantly undergo wilting due to response to the moisture decline in the soil media. This condition leads to reduction in actual evapo-transpiration and locally generated precipitation. The depletion of soil-moisture leads to decrease in recharge of the groundwater storage. Soil-moisture is significantly influenced by the quantity of precipitation, recharge, discharge and aquifer storage and transmisivity characteristics. The relationship between precipitation, soil moisture, runoff, recharge, discharge, ground water and discharge is well explained using the hydrologic water balance Equation 1.


The above relation presents an old concept of hydrology and has been well researched in numerous catchments in the world. However, the application of the hydrologic water balance relationship in drought studies is a relatively new concept (Van loon, 2015). Any climate change and /or variability directly affect precipitation and evapo-transpiration, and indirectly influencing the runoff, soil-moisture storage, and groundwater components of the water balance model. Meteorological droughts propagates into other types of droughts through processes of runoff, stream flow, recharge and discharge which are mainly influenced by river basin characteristics and climatic change or variability. However, the frequency of occurrence of drought is not well researched and thus not understood for numerous river basins in the world.


The objective of this research was to estimate hydrological drought frequency using absolute Stream flow Drought Index (SDI) and modified Gumbel’s technique for upper Tana River basin, Kenya.


Description of upper Tana River basin The Tana River basin from which upper Tana River basin is delineated is the largest river basin in Kenya (Jacobs et al., 2004; WRMA, 2010). It lies between latitudes 000 05’ and 010 30’ south and longitudes 360 20’ and 370 60’ east. The upper Tana River basin has an area of 17,420 km2 (Figure 1). The basin plays a critical role in regulating the hydrology of the entire basin (IFAD, 2012), and in the process, it controls the hydro-electric power generation within the Seven-Folk dams downstream of the Tana River. The basin is very critical in Kenya as it drives the socio-economic development through water supply and agricultural production. The elevation of the upper Tana River basin ranges from approximately 730 m to 4,700 m above mean sea level (a.m.s.l.). These elevations are adjacent to Kindaruma hydro-power dam and Mount Kenya respectively. The dominant soil types in the basin are Andosols, Nitosols, Ferrasols and Vertisols at higher, middle and lower elevations respectively (Jacobs et al., 2004).


Precipitation and temperature vary spatially across the entire river basin. The annual precipitation at Mount Kenya and the Aberdares ranges is 1800 mm (Otieno and Maingi, 2000). In the mid elevation of 1200 to 1800 m a.m.s.l., the annual rainfall ranges from 1000 to 1800 mm, while the lower elevations at 1000 m, and receive annual rainfall of 700 mm. The basin is characterized by seasonal rainfall fluctuations as influenced by orographic forces (Saenyi, 2002). Subsequently, this leads to seasonal variation of stream flows in Tana River. Generally the basin experiences bimodal rainfall pattern which is triggered by inter-tropical convergence zone (Wilschut, 2010). The two main rain seasons as shown in Figure 2, are distributed in the months of March to June, and September to December where the monthly average precipitation is considerably high compared to the other months.


Data acquisition
Stream flow data used in the present study was obtained from the Ministry of Water and Irrigation, and Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA) for eight stations for a period of 41 years (1970-2010). Data from eight stations with consistent data that had less than 20% missing data was selected for the study. The Double mass curve was used to check for the data consistence.

Gumbel’s extreme value (EV1) method
Gumbel’s method was originally developed for flood estimation. However, it has previously been adopted in drought studies (Dalezios et al., 2000). The form of Gumbel technique used for the present study for estimating extreme drought event is expressed as:


The frequency factor and the coefficient of variation are determined from the relation:


In an attempt to simplify Equation (5), Powell (Asad et al., 2013) developed an equation to estimate K using the relation:

Although the above function improved the method of estimating the frequency factor K, which can now be computed based on return period T and not number of years of record, the method for calculating Cv still remains as suggested by Gumbel.

Stream flow drought index
A drought index is an integration of either one or more of hydro-meteorological variables such as precipitation, stream flow, soil moisture, temperature, ground water, water reservoir volume or level (Sun et al., 2011). In this study, Stream flow drought index (SDI) that uses stream flow data is applied. The SDI for each gauged station was determined using the following relation:

SDIi =stream flow drought index for i th hydrological month

Qi =stream flow for the i th hydrological month

K=length of period of data record/reference period

σk =the standard deviation of the cumulative stream flow volumes for kth reference period

The original function was developed by Gumbel (Gumbel, 1958) for extreme flood estimation that used data that exhibit positive values. In this research, the stream flow drought index with negative values as shown in Table 2 represent the period of drought episodes. These negative values are converted to their corresponding absolute values and fitted to Equation (2). Then the SDI for 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000-year return periods were computed using Equation (7). The resulting SDI data was arranged into ascending order alongside the corresponding stream flow. The stream flow corresponding to the computed SDIm of rank m for specific return period was selected. Those stream flow values without corresponding SDI were interpolated using the relations:



Qm= the stream flow of rank m and specific return period (m3 /s)

Q1 =higher rank stream flow (m3 /s)

Qo =lower rank stream flow (m3 /s)

SDI1 =the higher stream flow drought index

SDIo = the lower rank stream flow drought index

SDIm= interpolated value of stream flow drought index


For instance for a 2-year return period, whose computed SDIm is 0.6665, Qm value was interpolated using Equation (8) based on the data in Table 3. The results of the fitted curves show that the absolute SDI increases with the return period in all gauged stations (4AB05, 4BC02, 4AC03 and 4AD01) as given in Figure 3. For instance, hydrological droughts represented by magnitude of absolute SDI of 0.667and 1.265 are equaled or exceeded once on average every 2 and 1000 years respectively. The same applies to the other hydrological droughts of defined absolute SDI. For water resources managers, data on stream flow is important for ease of water resources planning and management. Thus in this research, the absolute SDIs are tied to their respective stream flow magnitudes


Figure 3: The relationship between the Qm, SDI and return period for (a) 4AB05 (Amboni), b) 4BC02 (Tana Sagana) c) 4AC03 (Sagana) and (d) 4AD01 (Gura) gauge stations Generally the results show that, the minimum and maximum drought episodes were exhibited in gauge stations 4AB05 (Amboni) and 4CC03 (Yatta furrow) with absolute SDI ranging from 0.667 to1.265 and 1.213 to 2.42 for 2 and 1000-year return period respectively.


Using Table 2 and results from Figure 3, the critical points are identified. The critical point is the level of hydrological drought beyond which the water facilities is significantly affected by drought. For instance the critical point for 4AB05 (Amboni) gauge station, as shown by dotted line, coincides with return period of 28 years with absolute SDI of 0.92 and stream flow of 3.6 m3 /s (Figure 3a), while that of 4BC02 (Tana sagana) is 20 years with absolute SDI of 1.2 and stream flow of 45 m3 /s (Figure 3b). In this case, if a water resource system is to be designed for example at the gauging stations 4AB05 and 4BC02, the systems should be designed for return periods of less or equal to 28 and 20 years respectively. Form Figure 4, the results show that the ratio of QT /Q represented by Y increases with Cv for different return periods. This confirms that the Gumbel method is also applicable in drought frequency estimation just like in flood frequency analysis (Al-Mashindani et al., 1978).

Development of the modified mathematical model
Gumbel method has been modified before for flood studies. However, scanty research as far as its application in drought studies is concerned. In this research the principles used by Al-Mashindani (1978) in flood assessment was used in hydrological drought estimation for upper Tana River basin. The value of QT for drought studies in Gumbel’s technique is written as:


Considering a stream flow drought index (SDIm) with a rank m that corresponds to a particular stream flow Qm, then by applying Equation (9) this results to:


When Equations (9) and (10) are reorganized and then dividing Equation (9) by (10) the relation becomes:


Simplifying Equation (11) leads to:


From Gumbel’s method the estimated values of yn as given in Table 5 are 0.5236 and 0.5745 for the data record of 20 and 1000 years respectively. Thus the parameter yn can be assumed to be a constant that arbitrarily lies between 0.5236 and 0.5747 and estimated using the relation:


The computed value of 0.55 corresponds to hydrological drought event of a particular severity with a return period of 50 years (Table 5).


Based on Gumbel’s method the return period T and yT, are determined using the following functions:


For a particular stream flow drought index corresponding to stream flow Qm with a rank m, the value of ym is determined from:


This relation reduces to:


Substituting Equation (15) into Equation (10) results to:


From the principles of Schulz (1973), it can be shown that:


Neglecting the quantities inside the brackets on the right side of Equation (20), it reduces to:


Also neglecting the quantities in the brackets for Equation (17) yields:


Therefore, Equation (19) can be reduced further into the following relation:


Table 4 show stream flow values corresponding to absolute stream flow drought index that were computed for different return periods using Equations (22) and (23) based on data acquired for the upper Tana River basin. By redefining Equation (23) in X and Y as shown in Equations (24) and (25), and plotting the corresponding data for the upper Tana River basin gives Figure 5.


The results from Figure 5 show that all the gauged stations exhibit strong linear correlation.


The plot shows that there is a strong correlation between the expressions on the left and right side of Equation (23), with correlation coefficients at gauge stations of IDs 4BC02 (Tana Sagana) and 4AC03 (Sagana) of 0.826 and 0.793 respectively. This means that the stream flow QT of any return period can be determined from mean flows of the annual minimum and the average of the first three minimum mean stream flows for the upper Tana river basin as per Equation (23). This is found to be consistence with the similar plot developed for flood estimation by Al-Mashindani et al. (1978).


i) From the study SDI, stream flows have been explored and their corresponding return periods estimated. It is concluded that the computed absolute SDI vary across the gauge stations and increase while the corresponding stream flow decline with increase in return period

ii) A simplified mathematical model for estimating hydrological drought event that uses the mean of the annual minimum and average of the first three minimum stream flows as input variables is developed for different return periods in the upper Tana River basin.

iii) Critical points upon which design of water storage systems can be based are identified for different gauge stations. These indicate the level of hydrological drought beyond which the water facilities is significantly affected by the drought.


The authors of this article acknowledge the Egerton University, Division of Research and Extension for availing funds to support in publication of articles from the on-going research on drought assessment and forecasting for the upper Tana River basin. The authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors, editors and publishers of journals and books from where the literature of this article has been referred. In addition, the authors are very grateful to the members of IJCRR editorial board and the reviewers who assisted in improving the quality of this article.


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Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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