International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - 7(22), November, 2015

Pages: 17-21

Date of Publication: 21-Nov-2015

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Author: Mahnoor Ahmed, Nematullah Khan, Afia Masroor Sara

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Coffee is the leading worldwide beverage besides water and its exchange surpasses US $10 billion worldwide. Controversies
regarding its benefits and risks still exist as reliable evidence is becoming available supporting its health promoting potential;
however, some researchers have shown concerns regarding the association of coffee consumption with cardiovascular complications.
From a physiological perspective, the potential bioactivity originates from caffeine, the di-terpenes; cafestol and kahweol found
in the oil, and the polyphenols, most remarkably chlorogenic acid. We shall sift through the existing information on coffee & its
bioactivity and also their link with and impact on the risk factors which are associated with heart disease such as lipids, blood
pressure, inflammation, endothelial function, metabolic syndrome and potentially protective in vivo antioxidant activity.
Numerous epidemiological studies have scrutinized the relationship between coffee drinking and Coronary Heart Disease as a
healthy habit.
Most prospective studies have not demonstrated a positive affiliation, though case-control studies in general have reported such
an affiliation. This inconsistency could be clarified by an acute adverse effect of coffee, rather than a long-term adverse effect.
We propose that coffee drinking may have an intense negative impact in activating coronary events in all age groups, and also
post cardiovascular patients.

Keywords: Cardiovascular risk, Coronary artery disease, Dietary habits, Myocardial infarction

Full Text:

Coffee, isn’t just water with some beans, it contains a significant amount of vitamins and minerals. It is the second largest traded commodity on earth, is the most widely consumed beverage subordinate to water. Coffee and tea are certainly not included under the healthy food category and if possibly given importance it may be only because of the dietary sources of polyphenols. It is a multiplex of more than 1,000 chemical compounds that include caffeine; the main component, phenols, vitamin B3, magnesium, potassium, fiber, quinolones, etc. It is slightly acidic in nature, and has a stimulating effect on human due to its caffeine content.1 It has now become one of the massive sources of antioxidants in modern living. It not only keeps one insomniac but also makes one smarter. The nature and action of the coffee is highly nourished by the processing and brewing of the coffee beans.2, 4 Coffee epitomize as an ultimate contributor in the total anti-oxidant capacity of the diet. However, regular consumption of coffee presents its own pros and cons. From a different prospect, coffee intake may turn down the risk of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension, along with other possibilities of reducing obesity and depression. It has either beneficial or detrimental effects on cardiovascular system.3 Coffee has all the characteristics to control neurodegenerative disorders to a wide extent. Its consumption has been associated with a lower risk of death in a multitude of prospective epidemiological studies. The present review aims to unfold the increasing talk about how coffee can possibly have an impact on Cardio-vascular diseases. The Effectiveness of Caffeine: Caffeine is by far the most discussed component in coffee. It is accountable for the strong habit-forming character of coffee on a large scale. The active ingredient in coffee; caffeine, is a stimulant and the most commonly consumed psychoactive substance in the world.


Caffeine’s most basic mechanism in the brain is blocking the effects of an inhibitory neuro-transmitter that is adenosine. The act of caffeine actually increases neuronal firing in the brain and the release of other neurotransmitters like dopamine and norepinephrine by blocking the inhibitory response mediated by adenosine. It also incorporates a connection with the elevated blood pressure, arterial stiffness, plasma renin activity, epinephrine and non-epinephrine. Reviews of relatable journals have examined the effects of caffeine on the brain, demonstrating that it can improve mood, reaction time, memory, vigilance and general cognitive function. It raises the metabolic rate and helps to mobilize fatty acids from the fat tissues and can also enhance physical performance.10 Its dominant aftereffect is not only increased alertness and energy, but also other utilities as well as negative aspects to it. Its main drawbacks are addiction and overuse. Discontinuation from caffeine may end up into headaches, bad mood and a loss of focus.28 The Other types: There are about 10% of coffee lovers who would like to enjoy a good cup of coffee without the mild enlivening effect of caffeine. This type of coffee without the caffeine is known as decaffeinated coffee, which is coffee that has gone through a process of decaffeination to remove the caffeine. Most of the people drink decaffeinated coffee to escape weariness and lethargy. But some prefer it over regular coffee by the choice of taste. The greatest challenge in decaffeination is to try to separate only the caffeine from the coffee beans while leaving the other chemicals at their intact concentrations. This is not easy since coffee contains somewhere around 1,000 chemicals that are important to the taste and aroma of this miraculous complex elixir. The Possibilities: The risk factors for Coronary Artery Disease are smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, obesity, social deprivation, physical activity and Dietary habits. The dietary habits also include the intake of beverages like coffee as it contains stimulants that may either enhance or minimize the productive output. The possible conditions prevailing coffee intake are Coronary Artery Disease, Myocardial Infarction, Cardiac Arrhythmias, Congestive Heart Failure, Ischemic Heart Disease, Atrial Fibrillation, Stroke, etc. From the past 2 decades there has been a consistent elevation in coffee consumption throughout the world in both men and women. Young adults are also liable to boost the utilization of coffee in the modern world. The use of certain addiction generating substances should be at the lowest possible level and to an extent not harmful to normal body functioning. Consumption of coffee should be limited; a minimum of 2 to 3 cups of coffee per day comes out as safe. In the past few years, the associations between coffee drinking and its risk to coronary heart disease (CHD) or coronary artery disease (CAD) remain disputable even after diverse studies. Coronary Artery Disease is one of the major causes of death worldwide in both men and women. Physical activity and dietary habits also pitch in as risk factors for Coronary Artery Disease.6 Alteration in nutritional routines can eventually increase or decrease these incidences. It is proclaimed that several characteristics of coffee should be taken into consideration, especially the preparation of coffee particularly boiled coffee as it lifts up serum lipids, homocysteine levels and also cholesterol levels. Benefits: Old research findings have linked coffee consumption with adverse cardiovascular effects plus an unpredictability of myocardial infarction. Recent studies have generally found no connection between coffee and an increased risk of heart disease. In fact, most studies find an association between coffee consumption and decreased overall mortality and possibly cardiovascular mortality, although this may not be true in younger people who drink large amounts of coffee. Many studies have shown that drinking coffee on a daily basis is safe for the heart and may actually reduce risk for heart disease. For most healthy adults, moderate coffee consumption can be part of a healthy diet, and for individuals that experience side effects from coffee, decaffeinated coffee can be the best alternative. Threadbare endothelial function increases the risk of heart attack and heart failure, because coffee helps improve endothelial function, it not only helps to protect from a heart attack to begin with, but can also reduce the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease.27,29 The Health Professional follow up study states that intake of coffee of 4 cups per day – both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee does not increase Coronary Heart Disease risk.6 The prospective study on Finnish men and women articulates that 7 cups/day Coffee drinking is not associated with Coronary Heart Disease risk and death. Scottish Heart Health Study, the cohort study on Coffee consumption published that ≥5 cups/day has a moderate benefit.2

Researchers found among women, drinking at least 2 cups of coffee per day was associated with protection of up to 25% against dying from cardiovascular disease. And in a group of patients, both men and women, who had suffered the most common kind of heart attack, 96% of patients who were given coffee during their stay in the coronary care unit had a favorable increase in their heart rate variability, a measure of protection against premature cardiovascular death.29 Coffee consumption has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, but it has also been linked to increased cholesterol concentrations and heightened blood pressure.13A study of type II diabetics showed that those who consumed 5 or more cups of coffee daily were about 31% less likely to die from all causes and about 30% less likely to die from cardiovascular diseases, compared to those who drank no coffee at all.14 Moderate coffee consumption lessens risk of clogged arteries and heart attacks, the people consuming three to five cups of coffee a day have a lower risk of clogging arteries, and those drinking a moderate amount of coffee daily are subordinate to develop clogged arteries that could lead to heart attacks.20 According to the study conducted by HEART and Live Science, those who drank several cups of coffee a day had lesser menace of calcium buildups in the coronary arteries. Although these deposits are considered early warning signs of heart disease, the results do not mean that if you start drinking coffee you will be protected against this condition.12 On the other hand, research indicated that regular coffee drinkers may have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, which makes people prone to heart disease. Drawbacks: A lot of advanced epidemiological findings have analyzed the possible effects of coffee on Coronary Heart Diseases. Caffeine is the complex link between coffee and Coronary Artery Disease. Although there is strong evidence associating coffee with heart disease, caffeine is a mild stimulant and, as such, can cause a small, temporary rise in blood pressure and heart rate. The Health Professional follow up study voice out that decaffeinated coffee consumption of ≥4cups/day moderately increases Coronary Heart Disease risk.6 Moreover it was also added that decaffeinated coffee was contrarily related to cardiovascular mortality. There was no evidence of decaffeinated coffee providing a protective effect. However, certain researches appear to bear out some risks. High consumption of unfiltered coffee has been associated with mild elevations in cholesterol levels.7 And some studies found that two or more cups of coffee a day can increase the risk of heart disease in people with a specific and fairly common genetic mutation that slows the breakdown of caffeine in the body. So, how quickly the coffee metabolizes may affect health risk.21 Caffeine, especially in higher quantities, can cause elevated blood pressure, nervousness, polyuria and gastric acid.11 Drinking caffeine before bed can affect consciousness by making it harder to fall asleep, decreasing total sleep time and reducing the overall quality of sleep. Although coffee may have fewer risks compared with benefits, addition of cream and sugar to a cup of coffee adds more fat and calories. It’s Competitiveness with other Beverages: With Green Tea: Both coffee and tea have their benefits, though it’s always hard to pinpoint exactly what those are due to the large amount of contradictory studies. Coffee has higher caffeine content than tea; a typical cup of coffee has nearly three times the amount of caffeine than green tea.22 Though not enough has been studied to conclude whether tea does in fact reduce the risk of dying, tea has often been considered a therapeutic or medicinal drink that has both soothing and rejuvenating qualities. Both have other nutrients in them that have been linked with significant health benefits. Studies have indicated that both the beverages may reduce a person’s risk for heart disease, various types of cancer, Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders, and also Type 2 diabetes. Both beverages carry their own set of benefits that may help to maintain good energy and health, but when concerned about too much consumption of the stimulant it might be better to stick to green tea or any beverage containing a less amount of stimulant in it.23 With other Caffeinated sources: In general, coffee has more caffeine than soda and energy drinks. But coffee can provide additional naturally occurring nutrients while most sodas and energy drinks only have added sugars and artificially added vitamins.22 With Decaffeinated coffee: For many people, the pros outweigh the cons when it comes to drinking caffeinated beverages. A person may be able to gain more health benefits by choosing caffeinated products over decaffeinated as long as the consumption is in moderation. Decaffeinated happens to be a better choice for people who drink more than three cups of coffee daily and are prone to anxiety, stress, depression, sleep disturbances, palpitations,etc.25 Despite the decaffeination process, a small proportion of caffeine however remains in the decaffeinated coffee which may be not less than 5%. Conclusion: Coffee is ‘Heart Healthy’! Coffee is more in the favor of healthy living and should not be taken as a risk. After evaluating all the various prospective studies regarding the benefits and the drawbacks of coffee, we can say that coffee is highly beneficial to a person as it not only stimulates the Central Nervous System but also gives a helping hand in cardiovascular functions. It does have a minor effect on cardiac arrests and arrhythmias but that can be over looked. The employment of coffee in our daily life has a vast amount of utility like it increases energy convenience, reduces fatigue and the perception of stress related with physical action. It increases alertness, wakefulness and focus. It helps in better coagulation of blood in the body. It enhances physical performance and cognitive performance. It strengthens short-term memory and increases the ability to solve problems requiring reasoning, and the ability to make correct decisions. It boosts cognitive functioning capabilities and neuromuscular coordination. Taking coffee on a daily basis has no prime side-effect on Cardiovascular or any other vital organs. However there is still a question of whether to consume coffee after an episode of Myocardial Infarction or any other CVD or no; there is no evidence of coffee or caffeine increasing the casualties of CVD’s to a higher extent. Therefore, as coffee shows no possibilities of limitations after an episode, it can be taken by anyone post Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular disease also.15 Drinking of decaffeinated coffee over a caffeinated one is a matter of choice, as some feel it doesn’t make them jittery or keeps them awake. But few believe it’s a much healthier alternative for them than regular, and may actually be beneficial. Decaf may be a better choice for people who drink more than four cups of coffee daily and are prone to anxiety, stress and depression.24 But decaffeinated coffee does have a bit of caffeine present in it. It is better to avoid caffeinated coffee if there are certain medications which have the tendency to interact with the stimulant. Coffee can be taken by everyone but it should be in a moderate amounts. 4-5 cups of coffee a day has been taken as a moderate count. People with DM should look out for sugar intake in coffee as it might add up to their flaw. Drinking more coffee has no major drawbacks but surely it is no much of good as well.

The completion of this undertaking would not have been possible without the participation and assistance of the people who whole-heartedly expressed their advices for the research that proved to be a landmark effort towards its success. We would like to show our gratitude to Dr. Syed Abdul Azeez, the principal of our institution, Deccan School of Pharmacy for his co-operation and the confidence he showed in us. We would also like to thank Sadia Farooqui and Maria Ansari for their support and motivation which encouraged us in accomplishing our goal. Once again we would like to thank you for your kind interest in our work.


1. Effects of Habitual Coffee Consumption on Cardio metabolic Diseases, Cardiovascular Health and All-Cause Mortality – James H. O’Keefe, Salman K. Bhatti, Harsh R. Patil, et al. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Vol. 62, No. 12, September 17, 2013. 2. Caffeinated beverage intake and the risk of heart disease mortality in the elderly: a prospective analysis - James A Greenberg, Christopher C Dunbar, Roseanne Schnoll, Rodamanthos Kokolis, Spyro Kokolis, and John Kassotis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 3. Coffee drinking is dosedependently related to the risk of acute coronary events in middle-aged men - Happonen P, Voutilainen S, Salonen JT. Journal of Nutrition - 2004 4. Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in men and women: a prospective cohort study - Lopez-Garcia E, van Dam RM, Willett WC, et al. Circulation - 2006 5. The effect of coffee on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease in hypertensive individuals: a systematic review and metaanalysis - Arthur Eumann Mesas, Luz M Leon-Mun ‘oz, Fernando Rodriguez-Artalejo, and Esther Lopez-Garcia. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 6. Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart diseases: a metaanalysis of 21 prospective cohort studies - Wu JN, Ho SC, Zhou C, Ling WH, Chen WQ, Wang CL, Chen YM. International Journal of Cardiology – 2009. 7. Cardiovascular effects of caffeine in men and women - Hartley TR, Lovallo WR, Whitsett TL. American Journal of Cardiology - 2004. 8. Possible Health Effects of Caffeinated Coffee Consumption on Alzheimer’s disease and Cardiovascular Disease - Dong-Chul You, Young-Soon Kim, Ae-Wha Ha, Yu-Na Lee, et al. Official Journal of Korean Society of Toxicology. Vol. 27, No. 1, pp.7- 10, January 25, 2011. 9. Consumption of coffee is associated with reduced risk of death attributed to inflammatory and CVD in the Iowa women’s Health study 26 - Anderson, L.F., Jacobs, D.R., Carlsen, M.H. and Blomhoff, R. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006. 10. Coffee Consumption and risk of Coronary heart diseases; a meta-analysis of 21 prospective cohort studies – Jiang-nan Wu, Suzanne C Ho, Chun Zhou, et al. International Journal of Cardiology (2009). Accepted 28 June 2008.

11. Consumption of cocoa, tea and coffee and risk of cardiovascular disease - Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Romina di Giuseppe, Licia Iacoviello, Giovanni de Gaetano. European Journal of Internal Medicine - 2011. 12. Does coffee drinking increase risk of coronary heart disease? Results from a meta-analysis - Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Stone CB. Heart Journal - 1994. 13. A meta-analysis of coffee, myocardial infarction, and coronary death - Greenland S. Epidemiology – 1993. 14. Coffee, Caffeine, and Cardiovascular diseases in Men – Diederick E. Grobber, Eric B. Rimm, Edward Giovannucci, et al. The New England Journal of Medicine. October 11, 1990. 15. Coffee drinking and acute myocardial infarction: report from the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program. Lancet – 1972. 16. Coffee consumption and mortality with ischemic heart disease and other causes: from the Lutheran Brotherhood Study. American Journal of Epidemiology – 1981. 17. Does coffee drinking increase the risk of coronary heart disease? Results from a meta-analysis. Ichiro Kawachi, Graham A Colditz, Catherine B Stone. Br Heart J, 1994. 18. A review of the relationship between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease - Christensen L, Murray T. Journal on Community Health - 1990. 19. Coffee Consumption and the risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Death – Palvi Kleemola, Pekka Jousilhati, Pirjo Pietinen, et al. Division of Nutrition, University of Helsinki, Finland. Arch Intern Med/Vol.160, December 2000. 20. Coffee consumption and coronary artery calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. Journal: Heart. 21. Effects of Habitual Coffee Consumption on Vascular Function. JNCC Vol.63, No.6 February 18, 2014. Department of Cardiology, University of Athens Medical School, Greece. 22. Caffeine in Green Tea vs. Coffee - Jason Machowsky, February 18, 2015. 23. Caffeine - Not just a stimulant. The Nutrition Doctor, Skokie, Illinois, USA. October 26, 2010. 24. Caffeinated vs. Decaf: Which is better? - Erin Coleman. 25. Drinking Coffee is good for your Heart - Justine Alford. March 4, 2015. 26. Drinking Coffee for Heart Health - Melaina Juntti. 2015. 27. A perception on health benefits of coffee - George SE, et al. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2008. 28. Effects of habitual coffee consumption on cardio-metabolic disease, cardiovascular health, and all-cause mortality - O’Keefe JH, et al. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2013. 29. New Findings on Coffee’s Cardiovascular Benefits - Julia Pace. Life Extension Magazine, August 2013. 30. Caffeinated coffee consumption, cardiovascular disease, and heart valve disease in the elderly (from the Framingham Study) - Greenberg JA, Chow G, Ziegelstein RC. American Journal of Cardiology – 2008.


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A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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