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IJCRR - Vol 13 Issue 13, July, 2021

Pages: 134-137

Date of Publication: 05-Jul-2021


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Shear Bond Strength of Self Etch and Total-Etch Adhesive System to Caries Affected Dentinal Surface after Chemomechanical Caries Removal: An In Vitro Study

Author: Mohit Kumar, Shubhra Malik Juneja

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: Dental caries brings about the destruction of teeth.1 The conventional method for caries removal which utilizes high-speed handpiece is quick but there may be undesirable removal of the tooth.2 The main aim should be to conserve tooth structure. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength of self etch and total-etch adhesive system to caries affected dentinal surface after chemomechanical caries removal. Materials and Method: Forty extracted non-restored human maxillary and mandibular molars having carious lesion on occlusal surfaces were selected. They have divided into two main groups i.e. group I: Caries removal by conventional method and group II: Caries removal by chemomechanical method (using Carie Care) which was further subdivided into two subgroups of 10 teeth each according to the type of adhesive used: Subgroup IA: Restored using the total-etch technique, Subgroup IB: Restored using self etch technique, Subgroup IIA: Restored using the total-etch technique, Subgroup IIB: Restored using self etch technique. A standardised cylindrical mould was used to prepare composite cylinders on the occlusal surface of each specimen. Shear bond strength testing was conducted in a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. The values thus obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Result: Chemomechanical group showed slightly higher shear bond strength values than the conventional group in both totals etch and self etch subgroups, the difference between them was not statistically significant. Also, total-etch adhesive showed better bond strength than self etch adhesives. Conclusion: No significant difference was found between bond strength of chemomechanical and conventional caries removal.

Keywords: Shear bond strength, Chemomechanical caries removal, Self etch adhesive, Total-etch adhesive, Carie Care, Papain

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Dental caries brings about the destruction of teeth.1 The conventional method for caries removal which utilizes a high-speed handpiece is quick but there may be undesirable removal of the tooth.2 The main aim should be to conserve tooth structure. A substitute to the conventional method is the chemomechanical caries removal method which utilizes chemical agents that soften carious dentin and aid in its excavation.3 Among the various methods of chemomechanical caries removal, some systems had some disadvantages such as short shelf life, the demand of specific instruments, and were expensive so papacarie, papain enzyme-based product was introduced in Brazil.4 A chemomechanical system similar to it has been created in India i.e.Carie- Care. Latex of leaves and fruits of Carica Papaya tree is used to get papain.5,6 The carious tissues are devoid of antiprotease alpha-1-anti-trypsin, which impedes protein digestion in healthy collagen-based tissues.7 Also there is chlorination of incompletely degraded collagen by the action of chloramines. This disrupts the collagen structure and destroys hydrogen bonds which facilitate tissue removal.5 Following caries removal, morphological alterations in the dentinal surface by the chemical agent used for caries removal may play a role in its binding with resins.8,9 This study was done to assess the shear bond strength of self-etch and total-etch adhesive system to caries affected dentinal surface after chemomechanical caries removal.

MATERIALS AND METHOD

Forty extracted non-restored human maxillary and mandibular molars having carious lesion on occlusal surfaces extending midway between dentin enamel junction and pulp seen in radiograph were selected. Each tooth was embedded in self-cure resin just below cementoenamel junction in standardized moulds. The enamel and dentin from each tooth were removed by abrading the occlusal surface with 600 grit silicon carbide papers until a flat surface was developed near the excavated carious lesion. Samples were divided into two main groups of 20 teeth each according to the type of caries removal method.

Group I: Caries removal by the conventional method

Group II: Caries removal by chemomechanical method (using Carie Care)

It consists of papaya extract (papain) 100 mg, clove oil 2 mg, coloured gel (blue), chloramines, sodium chloride, and sodium methylparaben.

Each group was further subdivided into two subgroups of 10 teeth each according to the type of adhesive used.

Subgroup IA: Restored using the total-etch technique

Subgroup IB: Restored using self etch technique

Subgroup IIA: Restored using the total-etch technique

Subgroup IIB: Restored using self etch technique

Group I was treated with the conventional method, caries was removed using diamond points in a slow-speed handpiece.

In group II chemomechanical caries excavation was done using Carie Care gel. The carie-Care gel was applied to the carious surface and left undisturbed for 1 min. When the gel turned cloudy, it was removed with a spoon excavator and then the fresh gel was applied.

This was repeated till the gel turned clear; caries removal was complete when the dentin was hard on probing.

Groups IA and Group IIA: Dentin surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid 15 s, rinsed with distilled water, and the excess was removed with absorbent paper.

Total etch adhesive was applied to all prepared areas of specimens with applicator tip and light-cured together with the adhesive for 20 seconds.

Standardised cylindrical mould was placed on the occlusal surface of each specimen and composite resin was placed in two increments to have a final build-up of 3mm in diameter and 4 mm in height. Each increment was light-cured for 20 seconds using quartz halogen activation light.

The teeth with composite build-ups were stored in water in the incubator at 37°C for 7 days.

Group IB and Group II B: Cavity surfaces were treated with self etch adhesive according to manufacturer’s instructions followed by restoration as done in group I.

The teeth with composite build-ups were stored in water in the incubator at 37°C for 7 days before testing.

For shear bond strength testing, the loading was conducted in a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. The force was applied at the interface between dentin and adhesive. The force necessary for separating the sample was divided by the cross-sectional bonding area to obtain SBS in MPa.

The SBS values were calculated for each specimen using the formula:

The values thus obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using an unpaired or independent t-test to compare the mean shear bond strength between the groups.

Table 1: Intergroup comparison revealed that the chemomechanical group showed slightly higher shear bond strength values than the conventional group in both totals etch and self-etch subgroups, the difference between them was not statistically significant.

RESULT

Table 1: Intergroup comparison revealed that the chemomechanical group showed slightly higher shear bond strength values than the conventional group in both totals etch and self-etch subgroups, the difference between them was not statistically significant.

DISCUSSION:

Chemomechanical caries removal has been developed as a substitute to the conventional method of removing caries and it works on the principle to chemically modify the carious tooth to soften it; which eases its removal. In Chemo mechanical method, chlorination of slightly deteriorated collagen in carious dentine occurs that disrupts hydrogen bonding which aids in caries removal.10,11

Enamel predominantly contains inorganic material thus bonding to enamel is easy as compared to dentin.12 Dentine bonding system provides a retentive phase between the hydrophobic resin restoration and relatively hydrophilic dentine along with enamel. Previous studies have compared the effect of various adhesives on the bond strength of dentin but few studies have evaluated the effect of the chemomechanical method on caries affected dentine. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the shear bond strength of adhesive systems (total-etch and self-etch) to caries-affected dentine that is treated with the chemomechanical and conventional method.

In the present study, Group I was treated by the conventional method, in which caries was removed using diamond points. In group II chemomechanical caries excavation was done using Carie Care gel. Group I and II were further divided into I A, IB and II A, II B depending upon the type of adhesive used for bonding. In Groups IA and Group IIA total-etch adhesive (Single bond 2), was applied while in Group IB and Group II B cavity surfaces was treated with self etch adhesive (single bond universal) followed by restoration and shear bond strength was calculated which helps to evaluate the adhesion of dental adhesives 13

Intergroup comparison revealed that the chemomechanical group showed slightly more shear bond strength values than the conventional group in both totals etch and self etch subgroups, the difference was not statistically significant. This might be since papain based chemomechanical caries removal removes the smear layer because of the proteolytic property thus patent dentinal tubules are left behind.14,15 This enhances bonding by helping in the infiltration of adhesive resin into intertubular dentine and patent dentinal tubules.6 A rough dentine surface having micro-irregularities is generated with the chemomechanical method which improves the adhesion of restorative materials.16,17

Adebayo et al.18 also reported that when the adhesive resin is used with a scrubbing action resin penetration into dentin was improved. This may be the reason for the non-significant difference between the chemomechanical and conventional caries excavated groups in the present study.

Bernasconi et al. 19 showed that Papacarie results in superficial destruction of collagen fibrils and hybrid layer formation at the dentin resin interface may be the reason for better bond strength.

Schutzbank et al. 20 showed that surface irregularities improved micromechanical interlocking after using the chemomechanical method. However, Zawaideh et al.21 showed that chemomechanical method did not affect the bond strength. Similar results were shown by Cehreli et al.22 and Chittum et al.23 where there was no difference in the mode of caries removal to bond strength.

The intragroup comparison showed that the highest shear bond strength value was seen in the total-etch group as compared to self etch in both conventional and chemomechanical method. In total-etch adhesives, when phosphoric acid is applied before the adhesive results in smear layer removal and demineralizes the dentin which causes exposure of collagen fibrils. This collagen might yield reactive groups that would be able to chemically interact with bonding primers. 24- 27

In the total-etch system, complete removal of the chemomechanical agent after acid-etching and water rinsing is expected believed to take place. But in the self-etching system, the absence of the rinsing step results in remnants of the gel on the dentin surface and might interfere with the bonding mechanism.28

Our study demonstrates that the caries removal method did not lead to significant differences in the shear bond strength. Total etch adhesive system led to higher bond strength as compared to self etch adhesive system. Further investigations simulating the clinical conditions should be carried out to validate the findings of the present study.

CONCLUSION

Within the limitations of this study, the chemomechanical group showed slightly higher shear bond strength values than the conventional group in both total-etch and self etch subgroups, the difference between them was not statistically significant. Also, total-etch adhesive showed better bond strength than self etch adhesives.

Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors/editors/publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

Source of Funding: Nil

Conflict of Interest: Nil

Author’s Contribution: Dr Mohit Kumar (Study design, Preparation of manuscript)

Dr Shubhra Malik (Sample preparation and Conduct of Study)

References:

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2. Khattab NMA, Omar OM. Papain-based gel for chemo-mechanical caries removal: influence on microleakage and micro shear bond strength of esthetic restorative materials. J Am Sci. 2012;8(3):391-9

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4. Viral PM, Nagarathna C, Shakuntala BS. Chemomechanical caries removal in primary molars: Evaluation of marginal leakage and shear bond strength in bonded restorations-An in vitro study. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2013;37(3):269-74.

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23. Chittem J, Sajjan GS, Varma KM. Comparative evaluation of micro shear bond strength of caries affected dentinal surface treated with conventional method and chemomechanical method. J Conserv Dent. 2015;18(5):369-73.

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Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


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A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
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A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
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A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
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A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
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A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
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A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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