International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - Vol 13 Issue 13, July, 2021

Pages: 101-107

Date of Publication: 05-Jul-2021


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Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Acute Toxicity of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Cayratiaauriculata

Author: Lalitha Surulichamy, Anusha Dakshinamoorthi, Yogesh Kumar Murkunde, Viji Devaanand, K. Maheshkumar

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: The Cayratiaauriculata has been used as a folk medicine to treat various pathophysiological conditions. Aim: In the present study, we evaluated the presence of major phytochemicals, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity effect of ethanolic extract of Cayratiaauriculata leaves. Methodology: The phytochemical screening was carried out using chemical methods; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed to identify the individual phytoconstituents present in it; cytotoxicity assay was performed in A549 cells and acute toxicity test was performed in the zebrafish model. Results: The results of the qualitative analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, coumarin, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids and glycosides. C. auriculatawas found to contain a significant amount of total flavonoid and phenol contents in quantitative analysis. Fifteen different phytoconstituents were expressed in GCMS analysis. In the acute toxicity test, the methanolic extract of C.auriculatadid does not cause mortality or any clinical signs of toxicity in zebrafish to the maximum concentration of 100 mg/L.Therefore the LC50 value of extract was found to be ?100 mg/L. Hence it can be considered safe. Conclusion: This paper will help in considering C. auriculate or further pharmacological studies in future.

Keywords: Herbal extract, Cayratia, phytochemicals, Cytotoxicity, Acute toxicity, Zebrafish

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Medicinal plants and their derivatives have a long history of treating human diseases. Day by day, these medicinal plants draw the attention of worldwide researchers because of their lesser side effects and good compatibility with the human body .1The active compounds present in plants containing medicinal properties are considered herbal drugs. These active compounds are phytochemicals and also called secondary metabolites. Some of the common secondary metabolites found in plants include alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and phenolics.2  Isolated bioactive molecules from plant serve as starting materials for drug development. 3 However, these secondary metabolites are found to be in meagre quantity in plant material. Due to this constraint, the extraction, purification and characterization of secondary metabolites become very crucial in the process of the plant-based drug discovery process. 4 Extraction is a preliminary and critical step in the process of discovery and isolation of bioactive material. Phytochemical analysis of raw plant materials is very significant to detect and quantify the phytoconstituents present in it. 5

Cayratiaauriculata(C. auriculata) belongs to the Vitaceae family, class Magnoliopsida and phylum Tracheophyta. It is commonly called Jangliangoor and Amarchotioo. 6 Synonyms ofCayratiaauriculataare Cyphostemmaauriculatum (Roxb.), CissusauriculataRoxb., Vitisauriculata (Rob.), and Cayratiaauriculata (Roxb.) Gamble. It has been reported to be distributed in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Thailand and Sri Lanka. C. auriculata is a climber with spongy stems, 5-foliate leaves, tetramerous flower and cherry-sized red fruits (Figure 1). Cayratiaauriculata has 2n= 24 chromosomes. Cayratia species has a significant role in the preparations of Ayurvedic medicines, homemade remedies, and natural pesticides as it has a good source of Phytochemicals. 6,7C. auriculatahas following significant medical application. It has been used to treat ulcers, cough, cold, intestinal worm, rheumatism, hydrocele, ulcer, diarrhoea and abscess. Its leaf decoction was used as a remedy for uterine disorder and fever. 7 The bark of C. auriculata is used to treat burns, boils, wounds and snakebite. 9-12 Apart from this, the shoot and leaves of C. auriculata were also used as vegetables. 7Despite the widely reported therapeutic applications of C.auriculata, there is no research finding reporting its toxicity profile.  Moreover, there was no literature available on the phytochemical processing of this plant species. To address these lacunae, in the present study ethanolic extract of C.auriculataleaveswas examined for the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical profile, identification of phytoconstituents through GCMS, cytotoxicity effect and acute toxicity effect in the zebrafish model.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Collection and Extraction of Plant Material:

The C. auriculata plant was collected in forest areas of Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. The plant was authenticated by DrPadal, Associate Professor, Department of Botany, Andhra University, and Visakhapatnam- 530003. The leaves were washed thrice thoroughly with distilled water to remove the dirt and debris and then dried under shadow till it gets completely dried. The dried leaves were coarsely ground powdered and extracted using a soxhlet apparatus as follows. Briefly, about 20 g of dry leaf powder of C.auriculatawas extracted with 500 ml of ethanol (Finar Ltd.) solvent. The filtered crude plant extract was concentrated using a rotary evaporator (Buchi, Switzerland). The thick extract was obtained and stored under -20°C for further analysis.  

Qualitative preliminary phytochemical analysis

The preliminary phytochemical qualitative screening was carried out using an ethanolic extract of C.auriculatasuch as follows

  • Test for Saponins:

About 5 ml of extract was shaken vigorously with 5 ml of warm distilled water in a test tube. The formation of stable foam was taken as an indication of the presence of saponins.13

  • Test for Glycoside:

About 2 ml of extract was added to 2 ml of acetic and then cooled well in ice. Then Con. H2SO4 was added carefully. A colour change from violet to blue to green indicates the presence of a steroidal nucleus (which is the aglycone portion of glycoside.13

  • Test for Coumarin:

To 2 ml of extract 2 ml of 10% sodium hydroxide was added. The appearance of yellow colour indicates the presence of coumarin. 15

  • Test for Alkaloids:

To 2 ml of extract, 2 ml of the con. HCL was added. Then few drops of Mayer’s reagent were added. The presence of green colour or white precipitate indicates the presence of alkaloids. 13

  • Test for Flavonoids

To 5 ml of extract, 3 ml of lead ethanoate solution was added. The formation of buff-coloured precipitate was taken as an indication of the presence of flavonoids. 14

  • Test for Tannins:

To 1 ml of extract, 2 ml of 5% ferric chloride was added. The formation of green, blue-black, or blue-green indicates the presence of tannins. 15

  • Test for Phenols:

To 1 ml of extract,2 ml of distilled water followed by a few drops of 10% ferric chloride was added. The formation of blue or green colour indicates the presence of phenols. 15

  • Test for Terpenoids:

About 2 ml of extract was dissolved in 2ml of chloroform and evaporated to dryness. 2ml of concentrated sulphuric acid was then added and heated for about 2min. Development of a greyish colour indicates the presence of terpenoids.16

  • Tests for steroids

About 2 ml of extract was dissolved in 2ml of chloroform and 2ml concentrated sulphuric acid.  A red colour produced in the lower chloroform layer indicates the presence of steroids. 16

  • Tests for anthraquinones:

About 2 ml of extract was shaken with 10 ml of benzene and then filtered. And 5 ml of the 10% ammonia solution was then added to the filtrate and thereafter shaken vigorously. The appearance of a pink, red or violet colour in the lower ammonia layer was taken as the presence of free anthraquinones.13

Phytochemical Quantitative Analysis:

The phytochemical quantitative screening was carried out using ethanolic extract of C.auriculatato to estimate the number of total phenolics and flavonoids by the method of. 17

2.3.1.Totalphenolics content

   The total phenolics content of ethanolic extract of C.auriculatawas estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. About 20 µg of the extract was taken and made up to 1 mL with distilled water. Then 500 µL of diluted Folin’s reagent and 2.5 mL of 20% sodium carbonate solution were added. The mixture was shaken well and incubated in dark for 40 min and read spectrophotometrically at 725 nm. A calibration curve of gallic acid was constructed.  The results were compared with the gallic acid calibration curve and the total phenolic content of the sample was expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (mg GAE/g extract) by using the standard curve.

Total flavonoids content

About 1 mL of extract was diluted with 200 µL of distilled water followed by the addition of 150 µL of 5 % sodium nitrite solution. This mixture was incubated for 5 min and then 150 µL of 10% aluminium chloride solution was added and allowed to stand for 6 min. Then 2 mL of 4% sodium hydroxide solution was added and made up to 5 mL with distilled water. The mixture was shaken well and left it for 15 min at room temperature. The absorbance was read at 510 nm. The total flavonoids content was expressed as rutin equivalent mg RE/g extract using the standard curve.

 GCMS Analysis:

Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis was performed to identify the phytoconstituents present ethanolic extract of C.auriculataleaves. It is an effective chemical analysis and also a common confirmation test.18 A Shimadzu GC-2010 Plus gas chromatograph was used for analysis. The sample was introduced by split injection of ratio 10:1. The oven temperature was programmed to increase as follow, 35°C for 2 minutes, then rise by 20°C per minute to reach 450°C and remain at 450°Cfor 5 minutes. The helium is used as carrier gas at a flow rate of 2 ml/minute. The software GCMS solution ver. 2.6 was used for analyses. Identification of the components present in the extract was determined by comparing the name, molecular weight, and structure of the spectrum of known components stored in the library of National Institute Standard and Technology (NIST) library V which was provided by the instrument software.

Acute toxicity study in zebrafish:

60 adult zebrafish of both male & female with a mean body length and weight of 3±0.5 cm and 0.334±0.05 g respectively were procured from Whizbang Bioresearch, Chennai. The acute toxicity study was performed as per OECD 203. After acclimatization, the fish were randomly divided into six groups of 10 fishes each. The test solution was prepared by dissolving the required quantity of the test item in the aquarium habitat water of known quantity. The fishes in Group I, II, III, IV and V was treated with extract at different concentrations during the test period of 96 hours, that is, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25 mg/L respectively. The fishes in Group VI were normal control. The exposure solutions were maintained at optimum pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration throughout the study as same as in the acclimation procedure. The test fishes were observed and recorded at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours for mortality and morbidity. Observations were done at 0, 3, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours for clinical signs of toxicity. At the end of the test period, fishes were euthanizedinTricaine (MS-222) and subjected to necropsy.

 Histology of zebrafish:

For the histopathology analysis, the fish was fixed in 10% neutral buffered for 48 h. Then the fish were processed in graded concentrations of alcohol, xylene and impregnate in paraffin. Processed tissues were embedded in paraffin block and whole body sagittal sections were prepared at 5- micron thickness mounted on slides and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin stain. The analysis of slides was performed under a light microscope [Optoscope] and photographed with the camera (digital). Slides were scored as per the method described based on the severity of histological changes  19

RESULTS & DISCUSSION:

In the present study, we established the phytochemical and toxicity profile of the ethanolic extract of C. auriculata leaves for the first time. No studies were carried out in this species before. Therefore, the further comparison was made on the same plant genus. As C. auriculata has been used as a crude extract in folk medicine, we have used the crude ethanolic extract of C. auriculate or all our experiments. Moreover, the crude extract will contain a mixture of bioactive compounds. Though the plant-based medications are often considered to be safe and have no side effects, 20 it is essential to derive the safety profile of the particular plant extract to determine the dose level for the examination of the therapeutic index of drugs through subsequent pharmacological studies.Hence we scrutinized the cytotoxic potential and acute toxic potential of C. auriculata in a zebrafish model.

Phytochemical preliminary Qualitative Analysis:

The preliminary phytochemical screening using chemical methodsconducted on the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of various phytochemicals like flavonoids, phenols, coumarin, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids and glycosides. The qualitative analysis for the C.auriculata extract is shown in Table 1. In another study, phytochemical screening of Cayratiapedata(Lam.) Gagnep. var. glabraGamble has been reported to contain carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols and tannins, steroids and sterols, triterpenoids and volatile oil. 21 Cayratiatrifoliawas found to contain kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, hydrocyanic acid and delphinidin. 22 The leaf and stem of Cayratiagracilisshowed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, balsams, resins, terpenes, alkaloids and sterols. 23Ethanol extract of galing stem (C. trifoliaDomin.) shows the presence of alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, and flavonoids. 24 These results show that all Cayratia plants consist of the following common phytochemicals, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, and alkaloids. These phytochemicals have certain pharmacological properties. For example, phenolics compound act as a reducing agent, hydrogen donor, metal chelator25 and has anticancer and cardioprotective activity . 21 Flavonoids act as an antioxidant .23, 24, 25 Tannins have astringent and anti-diarrhoea activity. Saponins are known to have activity against gastro-intestinal infections and cardiovascular diseases . 23

3.2. Phytochemical Quantitative Analysis:

The phytochemicals present in the extracts was quantitatively determined by standard procedure. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in the ethanolic extract of C. auriculata was estimated to be 111.36 mg GAE/g and 26.32 mg RE/g extract. In another study, the stem ethanolic extract of C.trifoliawas estimated to contain total phenol, tannin, alkaloid, flavonoid and saponin contents as 34.97 ± 0.4, 54.52 ± 0.3,  33.74 ± 0.68,  26.07 ± 0.40,  and 39.52 ± 0.50 mg/g respectively.25 The ethanol extract of C. pedatavar. glabrawas found to contain 131.7 ± 3.6 and 52.8 ± 12.9 mg TAE/g extract of Total phenolics and Tannin respectively.21 C. pedateandC.auriculatacontain a large amount of phenolic content.

GCMS Analysis:

GC-MS chromatogram analysis of the ethanolic extract of C. auriculata indicating the presence of fifteen different phytochemical constituents by comparing their retention times, molecular formula and molecular weight (MW) and mass spectra [Figure 2]. GC-MS analysis for biomolecules in plant extract provides deep insight into the medicinal properties of the plant. 18 The various compounds detected by GC-MS analysis in C. auriculatais shown in (Table 2).  In which, the carbonic acid was identified to have an essential role in nitrogen base protonation in blood serum. 26 Further study on predicted biomolecules will help identify the pharmacological activity of each compound.

GC-MS analysis on ethanolic extract of C. trifoliastem exhibited 20phytoconstituents. In which the following compounds are found to present in higher concentration, hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, phytol, tetratriacontane, stigmasterol, nonacosane and octadecane.27

Acute toxicity study of the extract in zebrafish:

Zebrafish has around 70% of homologous genes to that of humans. It has become an efficient model vertebrate in toxicity and pharmacology studies .32-34 Hence, we presumed to evaluate the acute toxic potential of C. auriculatain in the zebrafish model. The test conducted to determine the LC50 value of extract in 96 hrs. of exposure. The results show that there were no morbidity, mortality or clinical signs of toxicity were observed in all the experimental groups throughout the study. 28-31All the test fish were found to be normal when compared to the control. There were no treatment-related gross pathological changes were visualized across different test groups in comparison with the control group. These data show that the LC50 of ethanolic extract of C. auriculatawas found to be greater than 100 mg/L under the tested experimental conditions in the present study. As per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and European Chemicals Bureau (ECB), the pollutants are categorized as harmful to zebrafish if., 10 mg / L < LC 50 < 100 mg / L. 35

Based on this categorization, ethanolic extract of C. auriculatawas considered to be safe. An acute toxicity study of ethyl acetate extract of C. trifolia was performed as per OECD guideline No. 420 in female Wistar rats. The result reveals that C. trifoliawas found to be safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg .36This result is in line with our study that Cayratiaspecies shows no toxicity.

Histopathology of zebrafish:

Histopathological investigations were carried out to find out any changes in the cellular morphology and architecture in test fish when compared with control fish. Acute toxicity studies on different doses of C. auriculata leaf extracts showed no discrete histopathological changes in the gills, kidney, liver, and intestine, heart, and muscle tissue of the test fishes in comparison with control group fishes (Figure 4). There was normal cellular architecture observed in all the experimental groups.

CONCLUSION:

To conclude based on the above results, it was found that the ethanolic extract of C. auriculata holds more phytochemicals and contains various phytoconstituents which was detected through GCMS. Future studies on these phytoconstituents may be useful in identifying their pharmacological efficacy. The extract shows a cytotoxic effect against A549 cells in comparison with control. Acute toxicity test results show that the extract is safe in testing with zebrafish. Thus C.auriculatacanbe further studied for its pharmacological activity in future.

Acknowledgement:

The authors would like to acknowledge the unstinted support by the management of Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, SRIHER (DU), Chennai.

Conflict of interest:

Nil

Source of Funding

Nil

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A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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