International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - Vol 13 Issue 13, July, 2021

Pages: 85-90

Date of Publication: 05-Jul-2021


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Assessment of Caregiver's Needs and Burden among Family Caregivers of the Terminally Ill Cancer Patients - A Cross-Sectional Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Eastern India

Author: Pany S, Patnaik L, Sahu T

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: Care within the home usually relies primarily on a family member or friend. Indeed, without the support of a family caregiver, home palliative care would be impossible. Objectives: To assess caregiver's needs and burden among family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to September 2017 using a predesigned and pretested schedule. Among family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients admitted to the hospital, one family member was considered, who was primarily responsible for providing care to the patient. A total of 110 family caregivers were included in the study. The analysis was done using SPSS v. 20.0. Results: Most of the family caregivers were either children (35%) or spouse (23.6%) of terminally ill patients and the average caring time was 4.3 hours per day. 97% of people did not receive any practical help from anyone outside the family. As high as 69% of people were in need of maximum support from physicians or other trained professionals to provide optimum care to their loved ones. About 40% of the people experienced severe burden in the process of caring for their loved ones and they were at high risk of developing psychosomatic symptoms. Conclusion: The family caregivers lack appropriate training and knowledge for providing optimal care to their loved ones in a state of advanced illness. They should be trained about providing better palliative care services and support.

Keywords: Carers, Care providers, Home palliative care, End of life care, Terminally ill, Caregiver’s need

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

"Palliative Care is the active total care of patients whose disease is not responsive to curative treatment. Control of pain and other symptoms, the psychological, social and spiritual needs of the patient are paramount".1,2 The goal of palliative care is the achievement of optimal symptom control, the best possible quality of life, as well as appropriate rehabilitation for the patients, their family. Each year an estimated 40 million people need palliative care, 78% of whom live in low- and middle-income countries.2

Palliative care affirms that death should be dignified and the existing is to be fulfilled by a joint committee of the medical fraternity and family members, and appropriate government policy.3,4 There is evidence to support the case that most patients would prefer to die at home.5,6There is a growing trend for people with a terminal illness to remain at home, where practicable. Death may occur in the hospital, but much of the detoriatingphase  occurs when the patient is at home. Home palliative care would be impossible for most people without the support of family caregivers. In the United  States, in two Gallup Polls, in 1992 and 1996, around 90 per cent of respondents reported that they would prefer home care if they were critically ill for six months.7Despite the input offered by professional palliative care services, care within the home usually relies primarily on a family member or friend. Indeed, without the support of caregivers, home palliative care would be impossible for many people. A study conducted on 18,222 people in Canada shows 88% of people willing to die at the home rather than hospital setting towards the end of their life.7 The trend to die at home is further increasing as a study in Melbourne reports 94.3% inclination to die at home.8

A family caregiver” is a relative or friend who provides psychosocial and/or physical assistance to a patient who needs palliative care.9 The responsibility of a family carer depends on the physical and psychosocial needs of the patient.9,10,11 Family caregiver’ responsibilities may include personal care (hygiene, feeding); domestic care (cleaning, meal preparation); auxiliary care (shopping, transportation); social care (informal counselling, emotional support, conversing); nursing care (administering medication, changing catheters); and planning care (establishing and coordinating support for the patient). the diagnosis of a life-threatening illness of a family member is their first major confrontation with death for many families.12

The physical, emotional, financial and social impact of providing care for a dying relative may be increased by social burdens such as restrictions on personal time, disturbance of routines and diminished leisure time among family caregivers. Relatives of cancer patients may experience as many psychological problems as per some studies which include anxiety, depression, reduced self-esteem, feelings of isolation, mental fatigue, guilt and grief. Caregiving in the family can have a negative impact on the family’s quality of life. Family members of cancer patients may insight many mental issues according to certain studies which incorporate tension, depression, decreased confidence, sensations of disconnection, mental weakness,  guilt and sorrow. On contrary, providing care in a family affect the family's satisfaction.9 Presently home palliative care include a more intricate consideration which incorporates advanced skill, for example, opioid administration and management of symptoms. The physical and psychosocial needs of the patient and the elements of connection among career and patient are significant components for caregiving.9,10,11 Diagnosis of a life-threatening disease of a relative is their first significant encounter with death.12Almost one-third of 106 Australian family caregivers reported confronting significant anxiety, and 12% experienced significant depression.13 Being a family caregiver may also predispose a person to health problems, such as physical exhaustion, fatigue, insomnia, burn out and weight loss.

Being a family carer may likewise incline an individual to medical issues, like actual weariness, exhaustion, sleep deprivation, burnout and weight reduction. The patient is more comfortable at the home than in the medical clinic. Demise in the home is a more honourable and agreeable experience than death in hospital. Home palliative care is savvier and numerous medical care centers promote home palliative care.  One study has shown that demise among 16% of malignancy patients in South Australia was at home12 and a study in Victoria shown that 21% of individuals die at home.14 It was seen in a study that men are more likely  to die at home. Elements for the inclination of home demise were satisfactory monetary assets, having malignancy or AIDS, having a full-time career, not living alone, having individual requirements that could be overseen at home.13,9

In Odisha, the paucity of palliative care units has severely affected thousands of cancer patients and their family members. Limited studies are available assessing caregiver’s needs and burden among family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients in Odisha.

AIM: To assess caregiver’s needs and burden among family caregivers of the terminally ill cancer patients

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

Study design:

The study was a hospital based Cross-sectional study conducted in Oncology (Medical and Surgical) and Haematology Departments of Institute of Medical Sciences & SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. The study was conducted over two years and three months, starting from July 2015 to September 2017. The study population comprised of family caregiver of terminally ill patient. The sample size was calculated to be 110 depending upon the prevalence of terminally ill patients among all cancer patients which was 80% taken from a multicentric study by David S et al.15 To assess awareness, perception and practice of palliative care among family caregivers one family member was considered, who was primarily responsible for providing care to the patient. In this way, 110 family caregivers were included in the study. Family caregivers not willing to participate in the study were excluded.

Data collection and analysis:

Based on the clinical assessment the physicians, terminally ill cases (with survival less than one year) were identified and their caregivers were interviewed. The attendant/s present with them was asked for participation (as family caregivers) and only one was considered for participation (considering that the patient attendant present was more intimately attached in care providing than the other). In this way, a total of 110 family caregivers were interviewed. Data were collected by predesigned and pretested schedule. The subjects were explained in detail about the study and the expected outcome. They were assured of privacy and confidentiality of data. Informed written consent was obtained. The interview was conducted in the local language after establishing a good rapport with subjects and in a very friendly manner.

The data collected were entered in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. After proper data cleaning data were imported and analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics software version 20 licensed to the institute. Descriptive statistics were expressed as frequencies (percentages), means, standard deviations, standard error of means at 95 confidence intervals.

Study tool: The schedule for family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients consisted of basic information of family caregivers, needs of family caregivers and burden assessment of family caregivers. The questionnaire focused on the primary family caregiver and included three parts. The first Part included questions on the interpersonal relationship between the caregiver and the terminally ill, financial status of the caregiver, additional help received outside the family, etc. The second part of the questionnaire was adapted from “The carer support needs assessment tool” (CSNAT) which is a comprehensive evidence-based tool. It is used as part of a process of assessment and support that is practitioner facilitated but carer-led. The CSNAT approach provides carers with the opportunity to consider, express and prioritize their support needs.16 The developers of this tool are Gail Ewing and Gunn Grande who work as social workers at tat the University of Cambridge and the University of Manchester respectively. The thipart Burden Scale for Family Caregivers (BSFC) is a scientifically developed instrument designed to measure the perceived burden of family caregivers resulting from home care.17

Ethical considerations:

Approval for the study was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee of the Institute of Medical Sciences & SUM Hospital with reference number IMS/IEC/108/2015.

RESULTS

A total of 110 family members were interviewed who were present along with the terminally ill patients during the time of the survey.

The mean age of the participating family caregivers was 35.69 years with a standard deviation of ± 9.198 years. The minimum among all the caregivers was 19 years while the maximum age was 56 years. The average hours spent in caregiving ranged from 1 hour to almost 9 hours a day with a mean time of 4.3 hours. The family caregivers that were interviewed did spend an average of 6.58 months with their terminally ill relative and some had a fresh experience of at least a month and some were consistently caring for about one and half years. Most of the family caregivers were male (65.4%). Completion of higher secondary examination was seen in many participants (40%), followed by graduates and postgraduates (21.8). Either of son or daughter (34.5%) in the family was the prime caregiver in the family among most of the study participants; while others included siblings (8.2%), Parents (9.1%), spouse (23.6%), grandchildren (12.4%) and other first-degree family relatives (12.2%). Almost all (97.2%) family caregivers had received no external help outside of the family, neither in terms of finances nor in terms of care providing. The few (2.8%) those who had received some sort of help were from local charitable organisations or personal donations made to the families. (Table 1)

The CSNAT is an evidence-based tool that facilitates support for family caregivers of adults with life-limiting conditions. Based on CSNAT scoring the family members were divided into three categories; scores <56 indicated that the family caregivers could provide good care to the family which included only 10.9% of the total participants, while the score from 56 to 83 including 20% of the family members and this group could even care better if they were supported a little in terms of caregiving. The third group (scores ≥ 84) comprised of the majority of subjects (69.1%) who want a lot of support in providing care to their terminally ill family member. (Table 2)

The burden experienced by the family caregivers is the most important caregiver related variable in care at the home of a terminally ill person. The extent of subjective burden has both emotional and physical impact on the caregiver. The majority (40%) had a severe burden in caregiving and were at higher risk of developing psychosomatic symptoms. Almost a similar percentage (33.6%) of family caregivers experienced none or milder burden in caring for their dear ones and hence they were at minimal risk of developing psychosomatic symptoms.     (Table 3)

DISCUSSION:

            The mean age of family caregivers was 35.69 ± 9.198 years, minimum among all the caregivers was 19 years while the maximum age was 56 years which highlights that in some families almost a teenager and some almost a geriatric aged group also acted as caregivers to the terminally ill. The average time that was spent for daily caregiving ranged from 1 hour to almost 9 hrs (mean = 4.30 hrs.). As stated in research by Dr.Tse Man Wah & Doris was that if a particular caregiver spends more than 3 hours in caregiving regularly, then he/she is ought to experience a certain form of subjective burden because of caregiving and may be at risk of developing certain negatively impacted psychiatric manifestations.18

About two-third of caregivers were male (65.4%). Children of the terminally ill acted as caregivers in the majority of the cases (34.5%), followed by the spouse (26.7%) and other family members (24.6%). As high as 97.2% of participants claimed to receive no help outside the family and only those few who received help were from local NGO’s and donations made by some noble persons in the society.

            Caregivers need was assessed by using CSNAT (Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool). Family caregivers need to be supported in their central role of caring for patients at the end of life, but brief practical tools to assess their support needs have been missing.16Results obtained from it showed 69.1% of family caregivers are in the maximum need of support in care providing for their near ones. While only 10.9% were only able to successfully provide the utmost care that is needed for the terminally ill patient. Research showed that as high as 80% of people require help (physical, psychological and skill-based) to improve the quality of care that they are currently providing to their loved ones. Thishighoutcome of family carers needing much support in care providing is because there is a lack of training of family caregivers and communication between the medical care providers and family caregivers.19

Caregiving burden is often referred to as the family caregivers’ perceived level of distress, demands, and the pressure associated with caregiving roles, responsibilities, and tasks. In this study, using Burden scale for family caregivers revealed that 40% had a severe burden in caregiving and were at higher risk of developing psychosomatic symptoms, 26.4% had moderate burden of caregiving and were at moderate risk to develop psychosomatic symptoms & 33.6% of family caregivers experienced none or milder burden in caring for their dear ones and hence they were at minimal risk of developing psychosomatic symptoms. A study using the BSFC, shown ‎that 7.6% of the caregivers ‎experienced a “no to low” burden, ‎‎23.5% “mild to moderate”, 41.8% ‎‎“moderate to severe” and 27.1% ‎‎“severe” burden.20 Current medical policy encourages short-term hospital stay and promotes community care for patients with a terminal illness. Family members are the main support system and shoulder the responsibility for patient care in the community.17 The personal impact of the end of life care for terminally ill patients needs to be emphasized.20 In our findings family burden is seen less as it is in our cultures that caring for our relatives is a privilege and love shown to them rather than considering it a burden.

CONCLUSION

Our study indicates that the majority of the family caregivers were either children (35%) or spouse (23.6%) of terminally ill patients and the average caring time was 4.3 hours per day. 97% of people did not receive any practical help from anyone outside the family. As high as 69% of people needed maximum support from physicians or other trained professional to provide optimum care to their loved ones. About 40% of the people experienced severe burden in the process of caring for their loved ones and they were at high risk of developing psychosomatic symptoms.

Caregiving attitude is deep-rooted in our cultures and each member of the family gave their maximum help and love towards their terminally ill patients, but they lacked appropriate training and knowledge in how to provide optimal care to their loved ones in their state of advanced illness. The families must be educated, and some members should be trained about providing better palliative care services and support to their loved ones. Family caregiver’s mental health also should be taken care of by providing counselling and psychosocial support.

LIMITATIONS:

A limitation of this study was that, it was carried out in only one centre. Research by qualitative methods would yield more information and could have brought into limelight what more could be done for family caregivers of the terminally ill cancer patients.

Financial support and sponsorship: Self-funded.

Conflicts of interest: There are no conflicts of interest.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

     We extend our sincere thanks to the study participants for their support and involvement in the study. We acknowledge Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan Deemed to be University for their support while doing the research work.

Conflicts of interest: There are no conflicts of interest.

Funding: Self-funded

Contribution of authors:

  1. Dr Subraham Pany:  Concept and design, Collection and interpretation of data, Drafting the article,  Final approval of the version to be published.

  2. Dr Lipilekha Patnaik: Concept and design, Collection and interpretation of data,  Drafting the article,  Final approval of the version to be published.

  3. Dr TrilochanSahu: Concept and design, Drafting the article, Collection and interpretation of data, Final approval of the version to be published.

References:

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  2. WHO | Palliative Care [Internet]. WHO. World Health Organization; 2016. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs402/en/

  3. Kassa H, Murugan R, Zewdu F, Hailu M, Woldeyohannes D. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice and associated factors towards palliative care among nurses working in selected hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC PalliatCare. 2014;13(1):6.

  4. Gopal KS, Archana PS. Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude about Palliative Care, in General, Population and Health Care Professionals in Tertiary Care Hospital. Int J Sci Stud. 2016;3(10):31-5.

  5. Townsend J, Frank AO, Fermont D, Dyer S, Karran O, Walgrove A et al. Terminal cancer care and patients’ preference for place of death: a prospective study. Bri Med J. 1900;301(6749):415–7.

  6. Campbell NC, Elliott AM, Sharp L, Ritchie LD, Cassidy J, Little J. Rural factors and survival from cancer: analysis of Scottish cancer registrations. Br J Cancer. 2000;82(11):1863–6.

  7. Canadian Medical Association. CMAJ?.1985. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Care at the End of Life; FieldMJ, Cassel CK, editors. Approaching Death: Improving Care at the End of Life. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1997. 2, A Profile of Death and Dyingin America. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK233601/

  8. Ben-Aharon I, Gafter-Gvili A, Paul M, Leibovici L, Stemmer SM. Interventions for Alleviating Cancer-Related Dyspnea: A Systematic Review. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(14):2396–404.

  9. Hudson P. Home-based support for palliative care families: challenges and recommendations. Med J Aust 2003; 179 (6): S35. 

  10. Standards for Providing Quality Palliative Care for all Australians. Palliative Care Australia May 2005. ISBN 0-9752295-4-0.

  11. Higginson IJ, Bs B, Finlay IG, Goodwin DM, Hood K, Edwards AGK, et al. Is There Evidence That Palliative Care Teams Alter End-of-Life Experiences of Patients and Their Caregivers? J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003;25(2) :150-68.

  12. Hunt R, Fazekas B, Luke C, Roder D. Where patients with cancer die in South Australia, 1990-1999: a population-based review. Med J Aust. 2001;175:526-29.

  13. Alexander K, Goldberg J, Korc-Grodzicki B. Palliative Care and Symptom Management in Older Patients with Cancer. Clin Geriatr Med. 2016;32(1):45–62.

  14. Clifford CA, Jolly DJ, Giles GG. Where people die in Victoria. Med J Aust. 1991; 155:446-56.

  15. David S. Poor palliative care in India.Lancet Oncol. 2008;9(6):515.

  16. Ewing G, Brundle C, Payne S, Grande G; National Association for Hospice at Home. The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) for Use in Palliative and End-of-life Care at Home: A Validation Study. J Pain Symptom Man.2013;46(3):395-405.

  17. 17.New: Burden Scale for Family Caregivers in 20 European languages. Available at: www.virtualhospice.ca › Assets › BSFC_english_o.

  18. Vulnerability of family caregivers. Palliative Medicine Grand Round, HKSPM Newsletter 2007;1(2).

  19. Ewing G, Austin L, Diffin J, Grande G. Developing a person-centred approach to carer assessment and support. Br J Community Nurs. 2015;20(12):580-4. 

  20. Park CH, Shin DW, Choi JY, Kang J, Baek YJ, Mo HN et al. Determinants of the burden and positivity of family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients in Korea. Psychooncology. 2012;21(3):282–90.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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