International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - 13(12), June, 2021

Pages: 94-98

Date of Publication: 22-Jun-2021


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Machine Learning Implementation and Challenges: A Study of Lifestyle Behaviors Pattern and Hba1c Status

Author: Christie Natashia Archie, Debashish Das, Fatemeh Meskaran

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that has a long-term impact on the individual's well-being and one of the causes of adulthood death. Objective: This research paper represents an attempt to find the correlation between lifestyle behaviour patterns and diabetes by leveraging machine learning in the form to facilitate patients with risk stratification in a population. Results: The major findings that emerged were as follows: an unhealthy lifestyle and dietary pattern lead to Non-communicable Disease (NCD) including diabetes. In the form to identify diabetes, Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) will be used to diagnose diabetes considering its efficiency and convenience to the patient. Furthermore, contrary to what has been assumed of the superiority of machine learning has been provided in many aspects, few challenges should be taken into consideration when it comes to the implementation of Machine Learning in the healthcare field, racial bias, for instance. Conclusion: In the Asia Pacific region, there is a range of cut-off point of HbA1c values due to HbA1c is subject to external factors such as race and ethnicity. Therefore, narrowing down the population scope in healthcare is considered in this paper as the best practice to facilitate better accuracy and assurance

Keywords: Diabetes, Glycated Hemoglobin, HbA1c, Lifestyle Behavior, Machine Learning, Noncommunicable diseases

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

The global efficiency improvement in the human living condition gives an abundance transformation to lifestyle behaviour and food consumption pattern which might lead to various states of illness including cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory disease, hepatic illness, and diabetes.1 According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), one of the causes of adulthood death is diabetes.2

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that has a long-term impact on the individual’s well-being.3 In 2019, IDF has reported that 463 million people are diagnosed with diabetes in 2019, which is 9.3% of the world population and it has been predicted that diabetes might increase to 578 million by 2030.2 Additionally, several studies have been proven that unhealthy lifestyle behaviours during early adolescence can lead to obesity due to unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise, high blood pressure which are the early symptoms of chronic diseases including diabetes1,3.

American Diabetes Association has revealed that unlike Fasting

Plasma Glucose (FPG) and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) diagnostic method, Glycated Hemoglobin or also known as HbA1c is generally used as a measurement for diabetes that provides convenience where the patient does not require to fast, unaffected with daily stress and disease disruption and better preanalytical stability.4 HbA1c test is a standardized accurate measurement with international reference principles where 6.5% of HbA1c is suggested as the cut-off point for diabetes diagnostics.5,6

Additionally, it is true that over the past decade, almost every aspect of modern life is somehow changed by the advancement of the machine to make predictions7. By leveraging Machine learning in healthcare, this research is focusing on identifying the correlation between lifestyle behaviour and dietary pattern and probability of diabetes by using Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) as a diabetes measurement.

THE LIFESTYLE BEHAVIOR PATTERN

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including respiratory disease, chronic cancer, cardiovascular, and diabetes can be prevented by living in healthy lifestyle behaviour patterns.8There are four lifestyle behaviour factors such as lack of dietary ingredients intake, physical inactivity, smoking habit, and alcohol consumption can lead to a range of health issues such as obesity and high blood pressure at the early age, which can give the rise of NCDs possibility in adulthood.9

Based on these premises, minimizing the risk for Noncommunicable diseases especially at an early age increase the opportunity for a better individual’s well-being. A lifestyle and food consumption study on university students has been conducted by El-Kassas and Ziade revealed that overall population dietary consumption behaviour falls below the average of recommended levels and it is estimated that 41.2% among 369 students having low physical activity level due to significant living condition changes in the university environment. Regression analysis by this study showed that food cravings, increased appetite, comfort eating, parental obesity, and stressful eating have a high level of relationship with the probability of NCD disease including diabetes. Over the past decade, westernized food consumption which rich in fat, salt, sugar, and alcohol is becoming the substitute for healthy food that consists of dietary ingredients including fruit, vegetables, and fibre.1

Furthermore, an investigation has been conducted by Al-Nakeeb et al. that there are few main factors of dietary options mostly derived from the individual itself. Dietary knowledge, food preferences and personal state of mind for instance. These become the most factor of how individual dietary practice. His studies believe that lifestyle and nutritional habits planning strategy in early adulthood should be taken into action in the form of lower the risk of a range of chronic illnesses. For instance, Obesity Intervention in Teenagers leveraging several disciplinary Intervention Mapping policies to introduce health awareness program for young adult10 considering that obesity is one of the common symptoms that lead to diabetes.11 This concept can be applied by universities to increase the awareness of a healthy lifestyle and dietary programs for university students.12

DIABETES MEASUREMENT

Numerous health associations around the world have suggested some diabetes diagnosis tests which are: (1) Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), (2) Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), and (3) Glycated Hemoglobin.13,14 FPG is used to measure a patient blood sugar level which requires at least 8 hours of fasting. While OGTT is a glucose medical test that requires blood samples to assess the capability of blood to extract glucose in the body. A test of diabetes is done on a two-hour test with 75-gram oral tolerance glucose (OGTT) to be taken by the patient.15 Lastly, Glycated haemoglobin is also known as Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) which is a body glycosylated protein that represents an average blood glucose level which has 100 to 120 erythrocyte (two or three months) lifespan.16

Diagnosis cut off point for diabetes diagnostic criteria recommended by the American Diabetes Association15 and the World Health Organization6 is listed in Table 1:

HbA1c Level for Diabetes Measurement

Although there are some diabetes measurement has been suggested by international references, HbA1c level can be the best alternative to assess the potentials of diabetes.16 Not only that, it is used for tracking glucose level for long-term treatment for the patient who has been diagnosed with diabetes as well.16 The benefit of using HbA1c for diabetes diagnosis has been highlighted by Sacks and the American Diabetes Association which is the capability of the test to be completed at any time of the day and no fasting is required to be done. Although HbA1c introduces the robust stability result, this measurement has not been worldwide adopted.17 Because HbA1c is subject to well-known factors outside the control of healthcare providers and should be taken into consideration to prevent arbitrary comparisons such as race, ethnicity, age, diabetes length and type, patient adherence, and comorbidity.18

As the result, HbA1c is adopted differently, in the Asia-Pacific region, Region like Malaysia and Singapore which is multi-racial country are advised to concern with racial differences Malaysia use HbA1c with a cut-off of 6.30%, while Singapore uses a cut-off between 6.10%-6.20%. On the other hand, New Zealand uses a cut-off of 6.70%, Thailand does not use HbA1c to diagnose diabetes. Finally, in Japan, a 6.00% cut-off was suggested for the Japanese population to be used for first stage screening with the sensitivity of 0.837 to 0.876 with other glucose-based validation like Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).17

Due to the efficiency and convenience that HbA1c provided as a diabetes measurement, HbA1c will be used as the target variable to predict patient who has potentially diagnose with diabetes. With that being said, appropriate sample data selection in a population has to be narrow down into racial scale which in this paper will be the focus on the Japanese population.

MACHINE LEARNING IMPLEMENTATION IN HEALTHCARE

With adequate data, machine learning leveraging mathematical concepts and statistical models to learn the pattern of the given dataset without explicit rules or instruction to perform prediction or classification tasks.19 The fundamental transformation of conventional biostatistics leads to the implementation of machine learning in clinical analysis.20 Machine learning implementation requires huge amount of clinical data to be carefully labelled and organized. Medical data can be derived from clinical images, log data from medical devices, laboratory reports, or the form of doctor’s notes.21

Guidance on a medical device issued by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also suggested that the AI and Machine Learning instruments are required for clinical analytical, health validation and risk stratification.22 One of the machine learning techniques such as incremental learning has been widely used in healthcare as its capability to be iteratively enhanced the prediction accuracy.23 This process leveraging the data feedback loop to improve the accuracy of the prediction of the system through continuously training as shown in figure 1.

There is a range of incremental learning models which are often used in the healthcare sector to make a prediction which is: (a) Random Tree Forest (b) Multi-Layer Perceptron (MPL) (c) Support Vector Machine (SVM) (d) Neural Network that supports incremental learning.23

Char et al. revealed that leveraging machine learning in complicated clinical practices is a constant issue, since the correct diagnosis and best practice may be problematic in a given case. The study believes that early incorporation in an algorithm of a specific diagnosis or procedure can indicate a legitimacy not supported by data.24 The delivery of machine learning in the medical can vary by age, ethnicity, or race. Some of the problems might not draw a clear boundary of external non-genetic factor, and it is not protected from such concerns that algorithm may reflect human biases in making decisions. Several non-genetic studies in certain populations resulted in an algorithm designed to predict biased prediction25. For instance, attempts to use the Framingham Heart Study dataset for cardiovascular risk prediction in non-white populations have provided limited results, both with overestimation of risk and underestimation of risk.24 Therefore, it is important to narrowing the scope of prediction to prevent any external factor bias during model development.

Human to Machine Decision Making in Healthcare

Unlike Finance and Sales, the placement of the machine spectrum not always indicate superiority since healthcare cases and problem background require a different level of human guidance and involvement. Furthermore, every medical data has various complexity and variety. Contrary to what has been assumed of the superiority of machine learning has been provided in many aspects, few challenges should be taken into consideration when it comes to implementing Machine Learning in the healthcare.

Healthcare algorithm refinement requires continuous training to gain accurate outcome, not only that human involvement which is in the fourth phase of incremental learning as shown in Figure 1 play a huge role to develop a reliable prediction21. Furthermore, the different algorithm used in healthcare has a different level of human involvement and machine to decide as shown in figure 2.7 The algorithm selection of each healthcare case is varying depending on the problem that needs to be addressed. For instance, Atrial Fibrillation stroke prediction uses a regression algorithm.25,26 that requires a high level of human effort to make decision making. While Random forest is used to predict Cardiovascular risk 27 which that require moderate human guidance. Finally, the application of Neural Network requires less human decision making to predict diabetic retinopathy using the image recognition concept.28

RELATED WORKS ON HBA1C STATUS PREDICTION

Recent work by Karpati et al. proposed K-mean clustering to identify the clusters of patients and facilitate the characteristic of each patient cluster for better treatment. The outcome resulted in three clusters of HbA1c level which are: (a) stable, (b) low, (c) high with 99.8 % accuracy.28,29 On the other hand, the work by Parigi et al. proposed an analysis of HbA1c statue to targeting Haemoglobin A1c below 7% for diabetes patients. Random Forest model is used for model development to analyze the diabetes treatment response and patient lifestyle.30 Finally, Nagaraj et al. proposed three supervised learning models which are: (a) Support Vector Machine (b) Random Forest (c) Generalized Linear to develop predictive model in the form to determine Haemoglobin A1c response after insulin treatment and make comparison to determine the best machine learning approach. HbA1c measurement test result is used as the benchmark. The outcome of their work resulted that Linear regression has better performance compared to other models.31

CONCLUSION

Through domain research, previous researchers revealed that there is a correlation between lifestyle and dietary behavior with Noncommunicable Disease (NCD), including diabetes12. Machine learning implementation can be used to predict HbA1c status from an individual’s lifestyle behaviours pattern, it will help to gain an awareness of living a healthy lifestyle. A small change in lifestyle habits, especially smoking habit, involved in physical activities, and consume dietary fibers, could reduce the prevalence of diabetes.

However, the appropriate application of Machine Learning in the healthcare sector has to be carefully planned considering that clinical cases require different levels of human guidance and involvement to make medical decisions. Algorithm selection is also a crucial task, as each healthcare case is varying depending on the problem that needs to be addressed.

As the adoption of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes has not widely used especially in the multi-racial population in the Asia Pacific region due to the various range of cut-off values of HbA1c. Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) can still be an alternative in the form to diagnose diabetes considering its convenience and effectiveness compare to Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

The fact that HbA1c is subject to non-genetic factors outside the control of healthcare providers should be taken into consideration to prevent arbitrary comparisons such as race, ethnicity, age, diabetes length and type, patient adherence, and comorbidity. This consideration helps to prevent prediction that reflects race/ethnicity biases in making clinical decisions. With that being said, appropriate data sample selection in a population has to be narrowed down into a racial scale. To deliver high predictive power and promise to transform patient risk stratification without any biases, the selected population should be a single-racial population country like Japan.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors also wish to express gratitude to the management of Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU) for their support.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors involved in the current study does not declare any competing conflict of interest.

FUNDING AND SPONSORSHIP

No fund or sponsorship in any form was obtained from any organization for carrying out this research work

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A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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