International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - 2nd Wave of COVID-19: Role of Social Awareness, Health and Technology Sector, June, 2021

Pages: 77-80

Date of Publication: 11-Jun-2021


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Data Analysis and Visualization of the Coronavirus Pandemic [Covid-19] in Major Countries Using Python

Author: Kulshreshtha V., Garg NK, Maherchandani JK

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: Human being is facing with an invisible enemy; the novel COVID-19 coronavirus. It was at the start found in the Wuhan province of China. Now it is spreading around the globe. Objective: The paper aims to explain total cases, new cases, total deaths, and new deaths caused by coronavirus pandemic [Covid-19] of three major countries viz. USA, Brazil, and India during this pandemic. Methods: This paper explains the data analysis and visualization of the coronavirus pandemic. The data is analyzed and visualized by using Python programming language. Case Study: Three case studies with the original dataset are shown in this paper, which is useful for the researcher to analyze the COVID-19 pandemic further. Conclusion: This data analysis result proves the lower Standard Deviation in India and the USA, which shows that data is aggregated close to mean value, which shows that data is reliable and uses further research

Keywords: Covid-19, Data analysis, Data visualization, Pandemic, Standard Deviation, Python

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Human being faced various pandemics during the past wherever several were very disastrous. During this time, we are facing a very challenging and tough time and struggling with an invisible enemy globally.1The first case of coronavirus emerged in Wuhan city, China, in December 2019 with the clinical characteristic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome.2 The number of COVID-19 cases has increased exponentially across China and has become a global pandemic.3 There were 79,515,525 confirmed cases and 1,757,947 death globally as of 28 December 2020.4Covid-19 becomes a global threat for public health.5  Clinical features, findings, management and preventions for Covid-19 were discussed and analyzed.6 This paper presents data analysis and visualization of the USA, Brazil and India. Further sections will explain the used methodology, case studies and discussion. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The Covid-19 data has been analyzed and visualized using the Python programming language of the major affected countries from the pandemic coronavirus, including the United States of America, Brazil, and India. Python plays a very important role in the data analysis and data visualization of the above-mentioned countries.7,8

The data sets of twelve months have been taken i.e. from January 2020 to December 2020. The dataset contains the whole world's data for those countries that are affected till today around 79.5 million people are confirmed cases. This data keeps on increasing. The dataset has been taken from 01.01.2020 to 28.12.2020. The four major aspects have been considered for their data analysis and visualization. These are as follows:

  1. Total cases: This field tells us about the total cases reported monthly of the countries as mentioned earlier in the above time frame

  2. New cases: This data set tells us about the total new case reported monthly of the countries as mentioned earlier in the given time frame

  3. Total deaths: It tells us about the total deaths recorded in the given time frame

  4. New deaths: It tells us about the new deaths reported of the given countries in the given time frame.

CASE STUDY

The United States of America is a highly affected country in the world. Presently the maximum numbers of active cases are in the USA. Table 1 shows data analysis of the USA. The total active cases till 28.12.2020 were 18.03 million; it is very threatening data. The total number of new cases reported in the USA until the date was 9570514, which is the highest data of new cases reported globally. The total number of deaths recorded in the USA till 28.12.2020 was 319364, which is disturbing data. This data shows that the USA is in an alarming stage. The total number of new death reported in the USA till 28.12.2020 was 187097, and it is kept on increasing.4-6 Table 1 shows no deaths recorded in January and February, but there was a burst in March, which reached 60966 in April. In May, the figure was 103781, and new death data was decreased, which were 45955. In June, it was again increased with 80185 and decreased to71885 in July. It was again increased and reached up to 187097 in December.7

Brazil is the second-largest country affected by a coronavirus. Till 28.12.2020, the total active cases were 7263619, which put the country at high risk. Table 2 shows the data of Brazil month wise. Table 3 shows the data of India. In India, the situation was under control in the first three months, January, February, and March, but there was a burst in April until July. Total new cases recorded were 33468 and 1267648, respectively. The death rate has also increased in these months. The figures of new deaths recorded were 1042 and 20970, respectively. It keeps on increasing up to December.8

Standard Deviation is a measure of how spreads out the numbers are. In other words, it is a mathematical tool that helps us to access how far the values are spread above and below the mean (Table 3, Figures 1 and2). A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean, which means that data is more reliable; a high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a large range of values, which means data is less reliable. Population Standard Deviation is calculated using Equation 1.

                                                                                         

Where σ is standard Deviation, Xi is the individual values, N is total cases, and μ is the mean of all the values8.

As it is clear from the above Figures 1, 2, and Table 1, there were very few active cases in the USA in January and February month. But in March 2020, there was an outbreak in the active cases in the USA, and Table 2 shows that active cases were reached at 164620, which was very disturbing. In March 2020, 164560 new cases were reported; this is the highest figure of this month. From February to December, there was an exponential growth in the total active cases. This trend kept on increasing in April 2020 and the cases reached 1039909, and the total number of new cases reported was 875349. In May 2020, these cases reached 1770384 and total new cases 895035, which was lesser than the previous month. In December, this figure reached 18035209. Total death till 23.12.2020 reported was 319364, which was a very threatening figure. 

In Brazil, Table 2 shows that there was a burst of cases in December, and the data reached 7263619, and new cases recorded were3894120, which is the highest in all the months. Similarly, in December, the total number of death was 187291, and the total number of new death recorded was 94748. It is an alarming stage for Brazil.

Table 3 shows that in India, the situation was under control in the first three months: January, February, and March, but a declination happened in November and December. Total new cases recorded were 5167793 and 4907323, respectively. The death rate has also decreased in these months. The figures of new deaths recorded were 137621 and 146111, respectively. Table 4 and Table 5 show the mean and standard deviation values of the USA, Brazil, and India. It is clear that the USA has the highest Deviation for total cases, and India has the minimum value.

CONCLUSION

This paper presents the data analysis and visualization of the coronavirus pandemic [COVID-19] of the USA, Brazil, and India using Python. In the case of new cases, the standard Deviation is very less in the USA and India, which shows that data is clustered close to the mean, which means that data is more reliable. Data analysis shows that the USA and Brazil are in a critical position. These countries need to follow the guidelines issued by WHO and other global organizations, which includes wearing a mask, social distancing, especially in public places. Data shows that India is in a better position due to continuous lockdowns and follows the guidelines issued by the Government of India. India has become successful in controlling the spread of coronavirus until December 2020 because of many factors. These factors mainly include following social distancing, wearing masks, washing hands, and doing proper sanitization. It is shown in the medical reports that this virus is only be suppressed when we break the chain of its spread. This data is beneficial for further research for Covid-19.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The authors are extremely thankful to the reviewers for their valuable suggestion for the improvement of the paper.

Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Financial support: We don't have any financial assistance from anywhere.

Ethical Issue: The data used in this study is taken fromwww.ourworldindata.org

 and freely available for research use thus there is no need for ethical clearance.

References:

  1. Said N. Coronavirus covid-19: available free literature provided by various companies, journals and organizations around the world. J Org Chem Res. 2020,5: 7-13.

  2. Lai CC, Wang CY, Wang YH, Hsueh PR. Global coronavirus disease 2019: What has daily cumulative index taught us. Int J Anti Asgn. 2020;55(6): 238.

  3. Wang L, Wang Y, Ye D, Liu Q. Review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) based on current evidence. Int J Anti Agen 2020,55(6):324-327.

  4. https://covid19.who.int/?gclid=Cj0KCQjw_ez2BRCyARIsAJfgksiJkE56RN9BAqkKycd3q--lzP_4Tq7DJjZTf02A2ZPRWZsvfCl0tcaAh-OEALw_wcB. Accessed on 28.12.2020

  5. Li H, Liu SM, Yu XH, Tang SL,Tang CK. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): current status and future perspectives. Int J Anti Agen. 2020; 15(5): 231-236.

  6. Gennaro DF, Pizzol D, Marotta C, Antunes M, Racalbuto V, Veronese N, Smith L.  Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) Current Status and Future Perspectives: A Narrative Review. Int J Envt Res. 2020;17(8):471.

  7. Villar M, Ballinas Y, Gutierrez C, Abgulo Y. Análisis de la Confiabilidad del Test Fantástico para medir Estilos de Vida saludables en trabajadores evaluados por el programa “Reforma de Vida” del Seguro Social de Salud (Essalud). Rev Peru Med Integr. 2016;1(2):17–26.

  8. Bhasin SK, Sharma R, Saini NK. Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Adolescent Students Belonging to Affluent Families: A School-based Study. Ind J Pediatr. 2010;77:161–165.

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
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List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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